Job design and job analysis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Job design and job analysis


Identify the major methods of job analysis. Discuss the future use and updating of job analysis information. Cite techniques useful in writing job descriptions. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Job design and job analysis

CHAPTER 5 Job design and job analysis
Chapter outcomes
  • Discuss issues impacting on the design of jobs.
  • Understand how the design of a job affects
    employee motivation and performance.
  • Show various methods of designing motivating
  • Understand how motivating jobs can be created by
    building work teams.
  • Become aware of radically new organisational
    programmes such as TQM.

Chapter outcomes (continued)
  • Understand the basic elements of a job analysis
  • Describe the end products of job analysis.
  • Identify the major methods of job analysis.
  • Discuss the future use and updating of job
    analysis information.
  • Cite techniques useful in writing job
  • Recognise the major elements of job descriptions
    and job specifications.

Dividing work into jobs
  • Work effort directed towards producing and
    accomplishing results
  • Job grouping of tasks, duties
    responsibilities that constitute the total work
  • As organisations change, these tasks, duties
    responsibilities may also change over time
  • When all jobs are added together they should
    the amount of work that is to be completed

Dividing work into jobs (continued)
  • Workflow analysis studies the way work moves
    through the organisation
  • Starts with examination of desired actual
    outputs (goods services) into quantity
  • Activities (tasks jobs) that lead to the
    outputs are evaluated to see if they can achieve
    the desired outputs
  • Inputs (people, material, information, data,
    equipment etc) must be assessed to determine if
    these inputs make the outputs activities more

Dividing work into jobs (continued)
  • Re-engineering generates the needed changes in
    the business processes
  • Purpose of business process re-engineering ?
    improve such activities as product development,
    customer service service delivery
  • Require the use of work teams, training employees
    to do more than one job and reorganising
    operations, workflow and offices to simplify and
    speed up the work

Designing jobs
  • Major HR concerns
  • Employee productivity
  • Job satisfaction
  • Job design (JD) determines how work is
    performed greatly affects how an employee feels
    about a job, how much authority an employee has
    over the work, how much decision-making the
    employee performs on the job and how many tasks
    the employee should complete
  • JD determines working relationship with employees
    relationship among employees

Designing jobs (continued)
  • JD determines
  • The nature of social relationships that exist on
    a job
  • Relationships between the employee and the work

(No Transcript)
A framework for job design
Job content Task variety, autonomy, complexity,
difficulty, identity Job functions Responsibility,
authority, information flow, work methods,
co-ordination requirements Relationships Dealing
with others, friendship opportunities, teamwork
Task Accomplishment Productivity Effectiveness
Efficiency Worker reaction Satisfaction
Absenteeism Turnover
Major approaches to job design
  • Specialisation-intensive jobs
  • Job simplification (job specialisation)
  • Motivation intensive jobs
  • Job rotation
  • Job enlargement
  • Job enrichment
  • Work teams
  • Sociotechnical approach
  • Self-managed work teams

New organisational approaches
  • Total quality management (TQM)
  • Focuses on the quality of all the processes that
    lead to the final product or service
  • To be successful it requires support of top
    management the belief that quality is a key
    part of every employees job
  • Customer focus in the process of designing and
    improving quality
  • Proper implementation requires a clear vision
    support of top management and a focus on results
    NOT the process

The office environment
  • Work environment (space, workstations, light etc)
    affects employee morale, productivity and
    quality, absenteeism turnover
  • Creativity can happen anywhere
  • Retain the services of an architect or design

  • The use of robots to perform routine tasks
  • Industrial robots
  • Anthropomorphic (approximate the appearance and
    functions of humans)
  • Nonanthropomorphic (machine-like and have limited
  • First-generation robots performed simple jobs
    and had limited capabilities
  • Second-generation robots built with senses,
    vision or touch, making them more adaptable
  • New robots perform most of the drilling,
    shaping bending tasks previously performed by

  • Taking into account the human factor in designing
    the employees workstation
  • Relationship between the employees and their
    workstations machines used, lighting, noise,
    chairs etc, these can affect productivity
  • IBM Employee handbook identifies the following
  • Posture
  • Back
  • Hand
  • Environment

Productivity measures
  • Quantity or volume produced
  • Accurate measure of productivity is vital to
    organisational improvement effort
  • Gain competitive advantage
  • Strategies to improve productivity quality
  • Depends on employee seeing a link between what
    they produce what the company is attempting to
  • What will work for one company may not for another

Productivity measures (continued)
  • Organisations must be careful not to measure the
    wrong things or overlook those that are critical
    to success
  • Merely implementing quality techniques, including
    employee empowerment and benchmarking will not
    produce benefits
  • Productivity is the relationship between what is
    put into a piece of work (input) and what is
    yielded (output)

Three major components of productivity
Effectiveness Doing the right things
The production process
Labour, materials and capital
Goods and services
Resource market
Market needs
Utilisation efficiency Doing things right
Three major components of productivity
  • Utilisation the extent to which we use
  • Efficiency rate of conversion while resources
    are being used
  • Effectiveness measured in terms of doing the
    right things

Other JD issues
  • Work schedules
  • Flexitime
  • Compressed workweeks
  • Alternative physical work locations
  • Telecommuting

The nature of job analysis (JA)
  • Job analysis systematically way to gather and
    analyse information about the content, context
    and the human requirements of jobs
  • Investigates
  • Levels of decision-making
  • Skills employees need to do a job adequately
  • Autonomy of the job
  • Mental effort required to perform the job
  • Machines operated, reports completed special
    financial/other responsibilities
  • Working conditions (levels of temperature, light

The importance of JA
  • New realities
  • Organisational restructuring due to downsizing
  • The need to motivate and reward people
  • The impact of technology on jobs throughout the
  • Labour legislation pertaining to employment
    equity and general discriminatory practices
  • The implementation of teams

Components of a job
  • To understand a specific job and to be able to
    make comparisons among or between jobs, it is
    important that anyone analysing a job should know
    that it can be broken down into several
    components and arranged into a hierarchy of work

Hierarchy of work activities
Job family
Programme implementation
  • Committee review
  • Information collection
  • General methods
  • Site observations
  • Work sampling
  • Interviews
  • Diaries
  • Questionnaires
  • Specific methods
  • PAQ
  • FJA
  • CMQ
  • WPS

Programme implementation
  • Information review
  • Product completion
  • Job description (JD)
  • Uses of a JD
  • Recruitment
  • Interviewing
  • Orientation
  • Training
  • Job evaluation
  • Wage/salary surveys
  • Performance appraisal
  • Outplacement

Programme implementation
  • Product completion (continued)
  • Job description (JD) (continued)
  • Elements of a JD
  • Job identification
  • Job summary
  • Job duties responsibilities
  • Job specification (JS)
  • Skills
  • Knowledge
  • Abilities
  • Future use updating

JA problems
  • Employee fear
  • Need to update information regularly
  • Job is held by only one or two employees

  • Understanding how people are motivated, that is,
    their needs and goals, is critical to modern job
  • The task employees perform on the job and the
    variety, difficulty level and autonomy of the job
    greatly affect job satisfaction and productivity.
  • Employees, individually or in work teams, are
    being asked to take on greater responsibility for
    the design and control of their jobs. Simple,
    repetitious tasks are eliminated whenever
    possible, generally resulting in jobs that are
    more motivating and challenging. At the same
    time, some degree of job specialisation is
    necessary so that new employees can learn their
    jobs quickly and make fewer errors.
  • Programmes such as job enrichment, self-managed
    work groups, TQM and re-engineering have resulted
    in redesigned jobs that were previously highly
    specialised and boring. There is also a trend
    toward multiskilling, whereby team members learn
    multiple tasks. Organisations are adopting work
    teams and giving them more freedom and

  • Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the
    fastest-growing productivity improvement
    programmes in the world. It is based on the
    principle of commitment to continuous improvement
    and meeting customers' needs. It is largely a
    bottom-up change effort.
  • Re-engineering is more radical. It involves more
    than tweaking old procedures it is the redesign
    of business processes to achieve major gains in
    cost, service or time. The process begins with
    the simple but powerful question If we could
    start from scratch, how would we do this? It is
    different from TQM because it comes from the top
  • Technology plays an important role in modern job
    design. Robotics, ergonomics and the office
    environment can improve employee creativity,
    productivity and quality.

  • In addition to job design, organisations may
    choose to implement programmes that increase
    workplace flexibility. These programmes tend to
    adopt a scheduling mix between employees' needs
    and the organisation's staffing requirements in
    ways that are consistent with the company's
    culture. Compressed work weeks, flexitime
    programmes and telecommuting are the most common
    approaches. Employees who desire greater control
    over work hours, who would like easier commuting
    or want a different lifestyle will be attracted
    to organisations that offer these types of
  • A sound JA programme produces many benefits for
    an organisation. Information critical to
    employment and compensation is collected on a
    systematic basis. JDs, JSs and JEs can easily be
    produced from the JA data. Thus, critical HR
    practices such as hiring, wage determination and
    administrative record-keeping are assisted by job
  • Information collection should always begin by
    conducting a background search. Internal sources
    can include previous job analyses, interviews
    with job incumbents and job supervisors, site
    observations by the analyst, questionnaires and

  • There is a variety of job analysis methods, with
    each having certain advantages, depending on the
    purpose, cost and time. The most popular method
    is the PAQ. A more complex method that demands
    computer analysis and that can handle thousands
    of jobs and people is the FJA.
  • Job analysis is necessary to comply with the
    primary employment provisions. The process helps
    to determine essential functions and whether an
    individual can carry out the essential functions
    with or without reasonable accommodation.
  • Job descriptions generally should contain a
    complete identification of the job and its
    location within the organisation. The section on
    duties and responsibilities should group all
    tasks into major functional categories, and each
    entry should begin with verbs. Job specifications
    should include all SKAs needed to perform the
    job, as well as other minimum qualifications.
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