Sucker Rod Pump Basics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Sucker Rod Pump Basics

Description:

Sucker Rod Pump Basics Presentation Contents: Sucker Rod Pumps The Five Basic Components of a Pump Operation of a Sucker Rod Pump Types of Sucker Rod Pumps Material ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:3452
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 77
Provided by: TomBillKu
Category:
Tags: basics | pump | pumps | rod | sucker

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Sucker Rod Pump Basics


1
Sucker Rod Pump Basics
2
Presentation Contents
  • Sucker Rod Pumps
  • The Five Basic Components of a Pump
  • Operation of a Sucker Rod Pump
  • Types of Sucker Rod Pumps
  • Material Selection of Pump Components
  • Observations at the Bleeder Valve
  • Handling a Sucker Rod Pump

3
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod Pump
  • Barrel Tube
  • Plunger
  • Traveling Valve
  • Standing Valve
  • Seating Assembly

4
BasicComponents of the Sucker Rod Pump
PLUNGER
TRAVELING VALVE
BARREL TUBE
STANDING VALVE
HOLD DOWN
5
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod Pump
  • Barrel Tubes

Thin Wall RW RS Barrel
Heavy Wall RH Barrel
Tubing Pump TH Barrel
Tubing Pump TP Barrel
6
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpPlungers
Box End Spraymetal Grooved Plunger
Pin End Spraymetal Plunger
Box End Spraymetal Plunger
Monel Pin Spraymetal Plunger
Pressure Actuated Plunger
7
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpRings for Soft-Packed Plungers
           

 

Composition Ring
Split Composition Ring
Pressure Actuated Ring
Flexite Ring
Valve Cup
8
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpTraveling Valves



Closed-Type Cage for Box-End Plunger
Closed-Type Cage for Pin-End Plunger
Closed-Type Cage for Pin-End Plunger Insert Style
Open-Type Cage for Travel Barrel Pump
9
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpStanding Valves


Closed-Type Cage
Open Cage Traveling Barrel Type
Open Cage Tubing Pump
Closed Cage Tubing Pump
Closed-Type Cage Insert Style
10
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpValves for Traveling Standing

Ball Seat Rib Type
Ball Seat Flat Type
11
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpSeating Assemblies


Mechanical Bottom Lock API Type
3 Cup API Top Hold Down
3 Cup Type O Bottom Hold Down
Mechanical Top Lock API Type
3 Cup API Bottom Hold Down
12
The Five Basic Componentsof a Sucker Rod
PumpSeat / Unseat Requirements
13
The Basic Operation of a Sucker Rod Pump
  • A sucker rod pump is no more than a cylinder,
    or tube, consisting of two sections or chambers.
    One section is stationary or secured to the
    tubing. The other section travels with the
    sucker rod string. There are usually two valves
    working with these sections taking turns opening
    and closing. The valves transfer fluid from the
    bottom chamber to the top chamber and ultimately
    into the tubing and up to the wellhead.

14
ArrowsShowFluidTravelon theUpstroke
SUCKER ROD
TUBING
TRAVELING UNIT
STANDING UNIT
15
ArrowsShowFluid Travelon theDownstroke
SUCKER ROD
TUBING
TRAVELING UNIT
STANDING UNIT
16
Pressures in the Wellbore
17
API Bottomhole Pump Designation
18
Types of Sucker Rod PumpsInsert Type Pumps
  • Installed on the end of a sucker rod string as a
    complete unit.
  • Can be ran deeper than Tubing Pump.
  • Special service applications are available for
    most types.
  • Less service cost than a tubing pump.

19
Types of Sucker Rod PumpsTypes of Insert Type
Pumps
  • Bottom Hold Down
  • RWTC
  • RWBC
  • RHBC
  • Top Hold Down
  • RWAC
  • RHAC

20
RWTC API Insert Pump
  • Barrel Travels with Rod String.
  • Bottom Holddown.
  • Thin Wall Barrel.

21
RWTC API Insert Pump
  • Advantages of RWTC Pumps
  • Recommended for sandy wells.
  • Recommended for intermittent pumping wells.
  • Disadvantages of RWTC Pumps
  • Not recommended for gassy wells.
  • Not recommended for wells with low fluid levels.
  • Not recommended for deep wells.

22
RWAC API Insert Pump
  • Plunger Travels with Rod String.
  • Top Holddown.
  • Thin Wall Barrel.
  • Barrel Extends Below Seating Nipple.

23
RWAC API Insert Pump
  • Advantages of RWAC Pumps
  • Recommended for sandy wells.
  • Recommended for low fluid level, gassy, or foamy
    wells.
  • Recommended for wells requiring long pumps.
  • Disadvantages of RWAC Pumps
  • Not recommended for deep wells.
  • Valve rod is the weak link.
  • Not recommended for intermittent pumping.
  • Tubing erosion opposite top guide.

24
RWBC API Insert Pump
  • Plunger Travels with Rod String.
  • Bottom Holddown.
  • Thin Wall Barrel.

25
RWBC API Insert Pump
  • Advantages of RWBC Pumps
  • Recommended for deep wells.
  • Recommended for low fluid levels.
  • Disadvantages of RWBC Pumps
  • Not recommended for sandy wells.
  • Valve rod is the weak link.
  • Not recommended for intermittent pumping.
  • Tubing erosion opposite top guide.
  • Barrel subject to corrosive attack.

26
RHBC API Insert Pump
  • Plunger Travels with Rod String.
  • Bottom Holddown.
  • Heavywall Barrel.

27
RHBC API Insert Pump
  • Advantages of RHBC Pumps
  • Recommended for deep wells.
  • Recommended for low fluid levels.
  • Recommended for stroke through design to combat
    scale and/or gyp.
  • Disadvantages of RWBC Pumps
  • Not recommended for sandy wells.
  • Valve rod is the weak link.
  • Not recommended for intermittent pumping in sandy
    wells.
  • Tubing erosion opposite top guide.
  • Barrel subject to corrosive attack.

28
RHAC API Insert Pump
  • Plunger Travels with Rod String.
  • Top Holddown.
  • Heavy Wall Barrel
  • Barrel Extends Below Seating Nipple.

29
RHAC API Insert Pump
  • Advantages of RHAC Pumps
  • Recommended for sandy wells.
  • Recommended for low fluid levels, gassy, or foamy
    wells.
  • Recommended for stroke through design to combat
    scale and/or gyp.
  • Recommended for wells requiring long pumps.
  • Disadvantages of RWBC Pumps
  • Not recommended for deep wells.
  • Valve rod is the weak link.
  • Not recommended for intermittent pumping.
  • Tubing erosion opposite top guide.

30
Hollow Tube
  • Plunger Travels with Rod String.
  • Bottom Hold Down.
  • Available in Thin Heavy Wall.
  • Available in Bottom Top Hold Down.
  • Valve Rod is Replaced with Pull Tube.
  • Valve can be added on top of tube.

31
Hollow Tube
  • Advantages of Hollow Tube Pumps
  • Recommended for deep wells.
  • Pump discharge is spread across pump stroke
    (helps reduce tubing erosion).
  • Two Stage effect with valve on top of tube.
  • Pull Tube is more rigid than typical valve rod.
  • Disadvantages of Hollow Tube Pumps
  • Not recommended for sandy wells.
  • Barrel subject to corrosive attack.

32
Sand Pump
  • Can be built as Stationary or Travel Barrel type
    pump.
  • Bottom Hold Down.
  • Heavy Wall Barrel construction.
  • Valve Rod is Replaced with Plunger.
  • Check Valve on top of pump.

33
Sand Pump
  • Advantages of San Pumps
  • Recommended for wells producing sand.
  • Recommended for low fluid levels.
  • Plunger replaces pull rod.
  • Fluid discharged length of pump stroke.
  • Disadvantages of San Pumps
  • Stationary barrel design can sand in with
    extensive run times.
  • Not recommended for pumping gassy wells.
  • Barrel subject to corrosive attack unless
    upgraded material is used.

34
Volumax
  • Multiple volume type pump.
  • Obtains higher production than tubing pumps.
  • Increases loads on sucker rod strings

35
Volumax
  • Advantages of Volumax Pumps
  • Produces large volumes of fluid.
  • Produces same volume as tubing pump with reduced
    cycle rate.
  • Insert type pump, can be pulled with rod string.
  • Disadvantages of Volumax Pumps
  • Initial cost of pump is higher than regular pump
  • Not recommended for pumping sandy wells.
  • High unseating force on pump requires special
    hold down.

36
Three Tube
  • Outer and Inner Barrel Tubes travel with rod
    string.
  • Standing Barrel (Middle Barrel Tube) is
    stationary.
  • No plunger incorporated in pump.
  • Check valve on top of pump.
  • Requires faster Strokes per Minute than
    conventional pumps due to

37
Three Tube
  • Disadvantages of Triax Pumps
  • Not recommended for gassy applications.
  • Not recommended for low fluid level wells.
  • Has depth limitations.
  • Advantages of Triax Pumps
  • Recommended for sandy wells.
  • Traveling barrel usually keeps sand off hold down
    assembly.
  • Top valve acts as check valve to keep sand out of
    pump.
  • Insert type pump, can be pulled with rod string.

38
Circle-A-Pump
  • Non API pump design.
  • Designed for maximum flow
  • Designed for minimum turbulence.
  • Designed for maximum efficiency.
  • Can be built up to and including 3.50 bore size.

39
Circle-A-Pump
  • Advantages of Circle-A-Pumps
  • Recommended for sandy wells.
  • Recommended for low fluid level, gassy, or foamy
    wells.
  • Recommended for wells requiring long pumps.
  • Recommended for deep well applications.
  • Disadvantages of Circle-A-Pumps
  • Valve rod is the weak link in the rod string.
  • Initial cost is higher than conventional pump.
  • Material selection is limited.

40
Tension Pump
  • Keeps the rod string in tension on the
    downstroke.
  • Raises the minimum load of the sucker rod string.
  • Can be configured as either a rod pump or a
    tubing pump.
  • Increase in bottomhole stroke.
  • Good application for both steel and fiberglass
    sucker rod strings.

41
Tension Pump
  • Advantages of Tension Pumps
  • Increase in Minimum Sucker Rod Loads.
  • Increase in Maximum Allowable Sucker Rod Stress.
  • Reduction/Elimination of Compressive Loads.
  • Increase in Net Plunger Travel.
  • Decrease in Polish Rod Horsepower.
  • Disadvantages of Tension Pumps
  • May not be good in gassy applications.
  • Reduced Pump Efficiency.
  • Unsure a POC will determine a pumped off
    condition.
  • Lack of existing software to monitor loading.
  • Higher pump cost than standard pump.

42
The Gas Bailer Pump
43
Types of Sucker Rod PumpsTubing Pumps
  • Typically produces more fluid than a rod pump.
  • More costly to service than a rod pump.
  • Application is in shallow to medium
  • depth wells due to loading on rod string and
    pumping unit.
  • Not a good choice in gassy wells.

44
THBC API Tubing Pump
  • Plunger Travels with Rod String.
  • Barrel Ran on Bottom of Tubing String.
  • Plunger Ran on Bottom of Rod String.
  • Bottom Holddown.
  • Heavy Wall Barrel.

45
Accessories Available for Subsurface Pumps
Top Seal Assembly
Tubing Drain
Top Check Valve
Bottom Discharge Valve
46
Selecting a Subsurface PumpWhat Information is
Required?
  • Casing Tubing Size
  • Equipment Available (Unit, Rods, etc.)
  • Depth
  • Fluid
  • Production Required
  • Viscosity
  • Abrasion
  • Corrosion

47
How do These Conditions Affect the Selection
Process?
  • Tubing / Casing Size
  • Pump Bore Size.
  • Equipment Available
  • Pumping Unit Rod Design Dictate Pump Size (Bore
    Length).
  • Depth
  • Type of Barrel That Can be Run.
  • Holddown Position.
  • Fluid
  • Size Pump Required to Reach Production Target.
  • Pump Fit Required.
  • Material Selection.
  • Hold Down Position.
  • Type of Accessories Available.

48
Determining Pump Length
Example 3,000 Well, Steel Sucker Rods, 120
Surface Stroke
49
RW Barrel Selection
Steel Barrel Yield Strength 60,000 PSI
Brass Barrel Yield Strength 60,000 PSI
50
RH TH Barrel Selection
Steel Barrel Yield Strength 60,000 PSI
Brass Barrel Yield Strength 60,000 PSI
51
Barrel Tube Selection
52
Plunger Selection
53
Plunger Fit Length Selection
The following recommendations are based upon
years of experience in manufacturing and
installation of subsurface
pumps. They are to be used as a guide in design
of subsurface pumps.
Individual well conditions
such as API gravity, Sand content, etc. must be
considered in final plunger fit.

Maximum Plunger Fit
Size
Fit
Plunger Length
Size
Fit
Plunger Length
1.06" 1.25"
-0.001"
2 ft.
2.25 2.50"
-0.004"
2 ft.
1.50"
-0.002"
2 ft.
2.75" 3.75"
-0.005"
2 ft.
1.75" 2.00"
-0.003"
2 ft.
4.75" 5.75"
-0.007"
2 ft.
Reduce fit (increase clearance) by -0.001" for
each additional foot of length up to 4 ft.
Example
2.25" x 3 ft. -0.004" plus -0.01" -0.005" fit
or
2.25" x 4 ft. -0.004" plus -0.002" -0.006 fit
Maximum Plunger Length
Well Producing Depth
2,000'
3,000'
4,000'
5,000'
6,000'
7,000'
8,000'
Size
1.06"
2'
2'
3'
3'
4'
4'
5'
1.25"
2'
2'
3'
3'
4'
4'
5'
1.50"
2'
2'
3'
3'
4'
4'
5'
1.75"
2'
2'
3'
3'
4'
4'
4'
2.00"
2'
2'
3'
3'
3'
4'
4'
2.25"
2'
2'
2'
3'
3'
4'
4'
2.50"
2'
2'
2'
3'
3'
3'
-----
2.75"
2'
2'
2'
3'
3'
-----
-----
3.75"
2'
2'
2'
2'
-----
-----
-----
4.75"
2'
2'
2'
-----
-----
-----
-----
5.75"
2'
-----
-----
-----
-----
-----
-----
54
Ball Seat Selection
55
Fitting Selection
17-4 DOUBLE HEAT TREATED SS
3000 SERIES STAINLESS
1045 CARBON STEEL
NAVAL BRASS 70-30
8620 ALLOY STEEL
R MONEL 405
None
A
A
A
A
A
A
None Abrasion
X
A
A
A
A
A
Severe H2S
X
C
C
X
B
A
Severe H2S Abrasion
X
C
C
X
B
A
Mild H2S
B
B
B
C
B
A
Mild H2S Abrasion
X
B
B
C
B
A
Severe CO2
X
X
A
A
C
A
Severe CO2 Abrasion
X
X
A
A
C
A
Mild CO2
C
C
A
A
A
A
Mild CO2 Abrasion
C
C
A
A
A
A
Severe H2S CO2
X
X
B
X
C
A
Severe H2S CO2 Abrasion
X
X
B
X
C
A
Mild H2S CO2
C
C
B
C
A
A
Mild H2S CO2 Abrasion
C
C
B
C
A
A
Severe Brine
X
B
B
X
B
A
Mild Brine Abrasion
C
B
B
B
A
A
Oxygen
X
C
A
A
C
A
"A" Material suitable under most conditions.
"B" Corrosion or erosion expected, but material
may be suitable under some conditions.
"C" Corrosion or erosion usually too severe for
successful use.
"X" Material not suitable for use.
56
Spacing a Pump at the Wellsite
57
How Important is Spacing ?
58
Efficiencies of Sucker Rod Pumps
  • Theoretical Production
  • Pump Constant x SPM x Surface Stroke Length
  • Actual Production
  • Pump Constant x SPM x Net Plunger Stroke
  • Factors Causing Efficiency Losses
  • Rod Design Stretch Overtravel
  • Tubing Anchored or Unanchored
  • Fluid Slippage Viscosity, Pump Clearances, Pump
    Wear
  • Gas Interference GOR GLR

59
Pump Production FormulaNet Plunger Travel x SPM
x Pump Constant
60
(No Transcript)
61
Observations at the Bleeder for Sucker Rod Pumps
62
Observations at the BleederSuction on the
UpstrokeTraveling Valve Assembly Leaking
  • Traveling Valve is not holding.
  • Ball Seat Leak
  • Ball bad
  • Seat Bad
  • Cage Bad
  • If the traveling assembly is leaking, there
    will be a suction on the upstroke. This is
    caused by fluid above the plunger rushing
    downward to fill the area in the pump chamber
    that is vacated by the plunger as it moves upward.

63
Observations at the BleederSuction on the
UpstrokeRod Part (Tubing Partially Full of
Fluid)
  • On the upstroke, the polish rod will move up
    and out of the tubing which can create a suction.

64
Observations at the BleederBlow on the Upstroke
Suction on the DownstrokeStanding Valve
Leaking
  • If the standing valve is leaking the rod pump
    will not displace fluid. It will take fluid into
    the pump chamber on the upstroke, then release it
    back into the well bore on the downstroke. The
    fluid above the traveling valve will ride up and
    down with each stroke of the unit.
  • Standing Valve is not holding.
  • Ball Seat Leak
  • Ball bad
  • Seat Bad
  • Cage Bad

65
Observations at the BleederBlow on the Upstroke
Suction on the DownstrokeGas Interference or
Gas Lock
  • When gas interferes, the fluid and gas in the
    pump chamber can not be compressed to open the
    traveling valve on the downstroke. At the same
    time the gas/fluid mixture maintains enough
    pressure to keep the standing valve closed which
    prevents more fluid from entering the pump. The
    fluid above the traveling valve will ride up and
    down with each stroke of the unit.

66
Observations at the BleederBlow on the Upstroke
Suction on the DownstrokeWell is Pumped Off
  • Pumped off is very similar to Gas Locked at
    the bleeder. Fluid above the traveling valve
    rides up and down with the unit. It is possible
    to encounter a fluid pound situation. The pump
    will appear to be tagging even if it is properly
    spaced. This can occur when the lower chamber of
    the pump is only partially filled with fluid.
    The traveling valve is held closed with the
    hydrostatic load, and on the downstroke it will
    slam into the fluid above the standing valve.

Incomplete Fillage in the Pump Chamber
67
Observations at the BleederSuction on the
Upstroke and DownstrokeTubing Leaking
Tubing Leak
  • If the pump is operating properly, on the
    upstroke the plunger will lift a column of fluid
    toward the surface. With a tubing leak, the
    fluid will dump into the annulus creating a
    suction at the bleeder.

68
Observations at the BleederBlow on the Upstroke
and DownstrokeFlowing Well
  • This is a characteristic of a well that flows
    the tubing dry from pressure from the formation.
    When the formation pressure is great enough to
    overcome the hydrostatic load on the traveling
    valve, it will keep both the traveling and
    standing valves in the open position.

Formation Pressure
69
Observations at the BleederSuction on the
Upstroke and Blow on the DownstrokeRods Parted
(Tubing is Full Of Fluid)
  • The suction is created when the polish rod
    moves up and out of the tubing. The blow occurs
    as the polish rod moves down and into the fluid
    held in the tubing.

70
Summary ofObservations at the Bleeder
  • Suction on the Upstroke
  • Traveling Valve is Leaking.
  • Rods Parted (Tubing partially full of Fluid).
  • Blow on the Upstroke Suction on the Downstroke
  • Standing Valve is Leaking.
  • Gas Interference or Gas Lock.
  • Well is Pumped Off.
  • Suction on the Upstroke Downstroke
  • Tubing is Leaking.
  • Blow on the Upstroke and Downstroke
  • Well is trying to Flow.
  • Suction on the Upstroke Blow on the Downstroke
  • Sucker rods are parted (Tubing is Full of Fluid).

71
Care Handling of Subsurface Pumps
72
Care Handling of Subsurface Pumps
  • Subsurface pumps are built with precision
    components. The barrel and plunger are measured
    in thousandths of an inch. The OD and ID of the
    pump can have plating or coatings that can be
    damaged with improper handling practices. A
    pumps efficiency and run life can be effected by
    the way a pump is handled. Is everyone that
    handles your pump aware what a subsurface pump
    can cost?

73
Care Handling of Subsurface Pumps
  • Pump Storage at the Pump Shop
  • The pump should have waterproof wrapping on both
    ends and an identification tag secured .
  • Pumps should be stored in a single layer on
    horizontal racks.
  • Supports should be spaced no more than six feet
    apart.

74
Care Handling of Subsurface Pumps
  • Transportation by the Pump Shop
  • Pumps with a barrel tube of 24 or shorter may be
    transported on the side of a vehicle.
  • Pumps with a barrel tube longer than 24 will be
    transported on a trailer.
  • There will be a minimum of three supports on the
    vehicle, and each will be used to secure the
    pump.

75
Care Handling of Subsurface Pumps
  • Storage of the Pump on Location
  • Pumps should have the waterproof wrapping on both
    ends and stored on some type of horizontal
    support.
  • The supports should be similar in spacing to
    pumps stored in the pump shop.
  • Remember to never stack other equipment such as
    sinker bars, polish rod and liner, and sucker
    rods on top of the pump.

76
Care Handling of Subsurface Pumps
  • Running the Pump
  • If the pump barrel is 20 or longer, it is
    suggested that a pick up clamp be used by the
    crew.
  • Do not drag the bottom of the pump when it is
    being lifted by the elevators.
  • Longer pumps should be supported by the sand line
    being attached in the middle of the pump.
  • Gas anchors should be made up while the pump is
    in the vertical position using a clamp on the gas
    anchor for safety.
  • Adjustable wrenches are preferred over pipe
    wrenches in making up the top and bottom
    connections of the pump.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com