OIL AND FAT TECHNOLOGY LECTURES I Classification of OilBearing Materials - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 27
About This Presentation

OIL AND FAT TECHNOLOGY LECTURES I Classification of OilBearing Materials


Butter, lard, tallow, whale oil and fish oil. In TURKEY ... commercial usage, especially frying. ... Palm oil is rich in carotenoids and its deep red color. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:894
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 28
Provided by: AYTA


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: OIL AND FAT TECHNOLOGY LECTURES I Classification of OilBearing Materials

(Classification of Oil-Bearing Materials)
  • Yrd.Doç.Dr.Fahri YEMISÇIOGLU

  • http//www.bysd.org.tr/
  • http//www.zae.gov.tr/
  • http//www.eurofedlipid.org/
  • http//www.aocs.org/
  • http//www.internationaloliveoil.org/
  • http//www.kkgm.gov.tr
  • http//www.tagem.gov.tr
  • http//www.rapanelli.it
  • http//www.alfalaval.com
  • http//www.lurgi.com
  • http//www.desmetgroup.com
  • http//www.polatmakina.com.tr
  • http//www.engelhard.com
  • http//www.sud-chemie.com

  • Bernardini, E. (1973). Oil and Fat Technology.
    II.Revised edition. Publishing House Technology
    s.r.l., Rome, 763 s.
  • Brennar, J.G., Butters, J.R., Cowell, N.D.,
    Lilly, A.E.X. (1976). Food Engineering
    Operations. 2nd edition. Applied Science
    Publishers Ltd. 700 s.
  • Hoffmann, G. (1989) . The chemistry and
    Technology of Edible Oils and Fats and Their Fat
    Products. Academic Press, USA, 384 s.
  • Keskin, H. (1981). Besin Kimyasi. Fatih Yayinevi
    Matbaasi, Istanbul, 656 s.
  • Patterson, H.B.W. (1983). Hydrogenation of Fats
    and Oils. Applied Science Publishers, Ireland,
    310 s.
  • Patterson, H.B.W. (1989). Handling and Storage of
    Oilseeds, oils, fats and meal. Elsevier Applied
    Science, London, New York, 394 s.
  • Swern, D. (1982). Baileys Industrial Oil and Fat
    Products. Vol.1,2,3. John Wiley Sons, Canada,
    841 s., 603 s., 353 s.
  • Wan, P.J. (1991). Introduction to Fats and Oils
    technology. American Oil Chemists Society,
    Champaign, USA.

Raw materials
  • Oil bearing materials used as raw
  • materials in fats and oils manufacturing
  • may be of either plant (seed or fruit) or animal
    (land or marine animal) origin.

  • Plants used to produce edible products
  • Soybean, cottonseed, sunflower seed, safflower
    seed, corn germ, peanut, olive, rice bran,
    rapeseed,canola, coconut, palm fruit, and carob.
  • Plant sources for ind. oilsFlax (linseed),
    castor bean, tung nut, and jojoba seed.
  • Animal sources and animal fat products
  • Cattle, sheep, pigs, fish
  • Butter, lard, tallow, whale oil and fish oil.

  • Main raw materials used for oil manufacturing
    process are
  • cottonseed
  • sunflower seed
  • rapeseed (canola)
  • olive

  • Healthy, natural sunflower oil is produced from
    oil type sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is light
    in taste and appearance and supplies more Vitamin
    E than any other vegetable oil. It is a
    combination of monounsaturated and
    polyunsaturated fats with low saturated fat
  • There are three types of sunflower oil available
    mid-oleic,, linoleic and high oleic sunflower
    oil. All are developed with standard breeding
    techniques. They differ in oleic levels and each
    one offers unique properties.

  • Mid-oleic sunflower oil
  • It is lower in saturated fat (less than 10)
    than linoleic sunflower oil and has higher oleic
    levels (55-75) with the remainder being linoleic

  • Linoleic sunflower oil
  • Linoleic sunflower oil is the original sunflower
    oil and until recently has been the most common
    type of sunflower oil.
  • It is a polyunsaturated oil with low saturated
    fat levels. This type of sunflower oil is
    predominantly (65) polyunsaturated. The type of
    polyunsaturated oil it contains is linoleic acid
    (an omega-6 acid) and is one of two essential
    fatty acids. Our bodies need this essential
    nutrient but cant make it. It must be supplied
    by food sources.
  • The balance of this sunflower oil is
    monounsaturated fats (oleic) at 21 and a low
    saturated fat level of 11.
  • Linoleic sunflower oil is available as a liquid
    salad oil and is used in margarine and shortening
    applications. Because of the high levels of
    polyunsaturated fats in linoleic sunflower oil,
    the oil is susceptible to oxidation during
    commercial usage, especially frying. Like other
    highly polyunsaturated oils, such as soybean and
    canola, it can be hydrogenated to a more stable

  • High oleic sunflower oil
  • High oleic sunflower oil is very high in oleic
    (monounsaturated) acid. High oleic sunflower oil
    is usually defined as having a minimum 80 percent
    oleic acid.
  • The oil provides excellent stability without
    hydrogenation. High oleic sunflower oil offers a
    trans free oil solution for customers. The oil
    has many uses including bakery applications,
    spray coating oils for cereal, crackers and dried
    fruit it is used in non-dairy creamers, many
    types of frying and other uses.


Like the name suggests, cottonseed oil is
extracted from cottonseed. Cottonseed is mainly
an unsaturated oil, as 70 of this oil is
unsaturated (18 monounsaturated (oleic acid),
and 52 polyunsaturated (from linoleic acid).
Cottonseed oil is often preferred over many
other oils that would have to be hydrogenated
(like soybean oil).
  • The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine
    max) is a species of legume native to East Asia.
  • The oil and protein content together account for
    about 60 of dry soybeans by weight protein at
    40 and oil at 20. The remainder consists of 35
    carbohydrate and about 5 ash. Soybean cultivars
    comprise approximately 8 seed coat or hull, 90
    cotyledons and 2 hypocotyl axis or germ.

  • Types of Sunflower Oil and Their Fatty Acid
  • C 181 C 182 C
  • Linoleic 20 69 11
  • High-oleic 82 9 9
  • Mid-oleic 65 26 9

  • Soybean composition
  • Protein 40
  • Oil (dry basis) 20
  • Cellulose and hemicellulose 17
  • Sugars 7
  • Crude fiber 5
  • Ash (dry basis) 6

  • Traditionally, rapeseed is used for birdseed or
    industrial purposes.
  • Industrial varieties of rapeseed contain about 55
    percent erucic acid and are used to make
    lubricants and diesel fuel substitutes and to
    manufacturer plastics.These varieties have high
    levels of toxic glycosinolates along with high
    erucic-acid levels, which renders the processed
    meal unsuitable for human or livestock
  • New varieties of rapeseed, developed in Canada
    and Europe, are low in erucic acid and
    glycosinolates. These varieties are the so-called
    double low types and sometimes are marketed as
    Canola. The extracted oil is used as an edible
    vegetable oil. Domestic markets are expected to
    increase because previousrestrictions are being

  • Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn
    (maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its
    high smoke point makes it a valuable frying oil.
    It is also a key ingredient in some margarines.
  • One bushel of corn contains 3 of oil. Corn
    agronomists have developed high-oil varieties,
    however, these varieties tend to show lower field
    yields, so they are not universally accepted by
    growers. Refined corn oil is 99 triglyceride,
    with proportions of approximately 59
    polyunsaturated fatty acid, 24 monounsaturated
    fatty acid, and 13 saturated fatty acid.
  • Corn oil is also one source of biodiesel. Other
    industrial uses for corn oil include soap, paint,
    rustproofing for metal surfaces, inks, textiles,
    and insecticides. It is sometimes used as a
    carrier for drug molecules in pharmaceutical

  • Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated
    fat. Moreover, they contain significant amounts
    of thiamine and vitamin B6, as well as smaller
    amounts of other B vitamins.
  • Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly
    flavoured and used as a cooking oil.

  • In the fatty acid composition of hazelnut oil,
    there is around 71-91 of oleic acid.
  • Hazelnut oil also contains linoleic acid at a
    rate of around 2-21.
  • Hazelnut oil is rich in calcium and vitamin E.

  • The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small
    tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal
    areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from
    Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and
    northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian
    Sea. Its fruit, the olive, is of major
    agricultural importance in the Mediterranean
    region as the source of olive oil.

(No Transcript)
  • Palm fruit
    Palm kernel

Palm pulp
  • Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil
    obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree.
  • The palm fruit is the source of both palm oil
    (extracted from palm fruit) and palm kernel oil
    (extracted from the fruit seeds). Palm oil itself
    is reddish because it contains a high amount of
    beta-carotene. It is used as cooking oil, to make
    margarine and is a component of many processed
    foods. Boiling it for a few minutes destroys the
    carotenoids and the oil becomes colourless. Palm
    oil is one of the few vegetable oils relatively
    high in saturated fats (such as coconut oil) and
    thus semi-solid at room temperature.
  • It is also an important component of many soaps,
    washing powders and personal care products, and
    has controversially found a new use as a
    feedstock for biofuel.

  • Fatty acids composition
  • Palm oil Palm
    kernel oil
  • C8
  • C10
  • C12
  • C14 1
  • C16 50
  • C18 3
  • C181 40
  • C182 6

  • Palm oil is rich in carotenoids and its deep red
    color. The major component of its glycerides is
    the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid.

Oleic acid content of vegetable oil
  • Whole seed
  • Oil Extraction
  • Oil Meal

  • (Crude protein 48 )
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com