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Kingdom Protista

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Kingdom Protista Chapter 20 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kingdom Protista


1
Kingdom Protista
  • Chapter 20

2
General Characteristics of Protists
  • ALL Eukaryotes that cannot be classified as a
    plant, animal, or fungus.
  • They have a nucleus and membrane bound
    organelles
  • some are autotrophic, some are heterotrophic
  • some are multicellular, most are unicellular.

3
They are classified by the way they OBTAIN
NUTRITION.
4
Three kinds of protists
  • Animal-like (consume food)
  • Plant-like (make their own food)
  • Fungus-like (decomposer)

5
Animal-like Protists
  • Called Protozoans- meaning first animals
  • Examples
  • Zooflagellates
  • Sarcodines
  • Ciliates
  • Sporozoans

6
Protozoans
  • these are Animal-like protists that consume
    their food (heterotrophs)
  • Unicellular
  • characterized by modes of locomotion (how they
    move)
  • Cilia
  • Flagella
  • Pseudopod

7
Zooflagellates
Trichomonas
  • Characteristics move by flagella (one or two)
  • Reproduction mostly asexual by mitosis, some
    sexual reproduction- produce gametes that fuse
  • Role/Function
  • Mostly free swimming
  • Some are parasites
  • Trypanosoma causes African Sleeping Sickness,
    Giardia causes diarrhea
  • Termites have a zooflagellate living inside them
    that helps them digest wood

8
Zooflagellates
  • nucleus

flagella
9
Sarcodines
  • Characteristics move by pseudopods- extensions
    of cytoplasm
  • Reproduction asexually by mitosis
  • Role/Function
  • free-swimming in aquatic environments
  • Amebic dysentery (diarrhea)

Pseudopod
Nucleus
Ameba proteus
10
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11
Ciliates
  • Characteristics
  • use cilia for movement and feeding
  • Have a macronucleus (active nucleus) and
    micronucleus (reserve copy)
  • Reproduction asexually by mitosis, can exchange
    material through conjugation (Figure 20-6 in
    book)
  • Role/Function free-living

Paramecium
12
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13
Ciliates
Cilia
  • Macronucleus

Micronucleus
14
Sporozoans
  • Characteristics Do not move on their own
  • Reproduction complex reproduction with two
    phases- a sexual phase and asexual phase inside
    two different organisms!
  • Role/Function
  • Parasitic
  • Malaria is caused by the sporozoan Plasmodium

15
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16
Sporozoans
Nucleus
17
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18
Plant-like (Algae)
  • Unicellular
  • Euglenophyta
  • Chrysophyta
  • Bacilliarophyta (Diatoms)
  • Pyrrophyta (Dinoflagellates)
  • Multicellular
  • Rhodophyta
  • Phaeophyta
  • Chlorophyta

19
Unicellular Algae
  • (describe their ecology/uses)
  • autotrophic, capture sunlight with chlorophyll
    and other accessory pigments to make food
  • base of many aquatic food chains
  • Example phytoplankton- floating photosynthetic
    organisms

20
Euglenophyta
  • Characteristics two flagella, no cell wall
  • Reproduction asexually by mitosis
  • Role/Function
  • free-swimming
  • can absorb material for food- recycling sewage
  • can lead to algal blooms choking waters of
    nutrients

21
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22
Euglenophyta
Chloroplast
Flagellum
Nucleus
23
Chrysophyta
  • Characteristics
  • cell walls sometimes of pectin
  • Gold-colored chloroplasts
  • Reproduction asexually and sexually
  • Role/Function free-floating
  • Known as golden algae

24
Diatoms
  • Characteristics secrete thin cell walls of
    silica (main component of glass)
  • Reproduction asexually and sexually
  • Role/Function
  • Free-floating, or
  • live in soil

25
Pyrrophyta-Dinoflagellates
  • Characteristics have two flagella and thick cell
    wall
  • Reproduction asexually by mitosis
  • Role/Function responsible for red tides (algal
    bloom of dinoflagellates that secrete toxins that
    can cause illness paralysis, and death in
    fishand humans)

26
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27
Dinoflagellates
Nucleus
Flagella
28
Multicellular Algae
  • (describe their ecology/uses)-
  • Autotrophic
  • Multicellular
  • some have specialized tissue
  • seaweeds and kelp
  • used in foods such as sushi, ice cream, salad
    dressing, candy, etc.

29
Red Algae (Rhodophyta)
  • Characteristics contain pigments- Chlorophyll a
    and Phycobilins (red)
  • Reproduction sexually
  • Role/Function
  • Deeper sea, great at harvesting light
  • Help form coral reefs
  • Some used in foods and to make agar

30
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31
Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
  • Characteristics contain pigments Chlorophyll a
    and c and Fucoxanthin (brown)
  • Reproduction sexually by mitosis and meiosis
  • Role/Function
  • Form large habitats in aquatic ecosystems
  • Used some in food

32
Green algae (Chlorophyta)
Volvox- colonial
  • Characteristics
  • unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
  • chlorophyll a and b
  • Reproduction sexually by mitosis and meiosis
    like true plants
  • Role/Function some form symbiotic relationships
    with other organisms

Ulva- multicellular
Spirogyra- multicellular
33
Alternation of Generations
34
Alternation of Generations
35
Kaikoura, New Zealand
36
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37
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38
Fungus-like
  • Slime Molds
  • Water Molds

39
Fungus-like
  • (describe their ecology/uses)
  • heterotrophic using external digestion to break
    down dead and decaying organic matter

40
Slime Molds
  • Characteristics
  • cellular or acellular (masses with several
    nuclei)
  • Unicellular but can gather and act multicellular
  • Reproduction sexually
  • Role/Function Forest floor or composting-
    recycle organic matter

41
Water Mold
  • Characteristics
  • also called oomycetes (O-O-my-sets)
  • Produce filaments called hyphae
  • Reproduction sexually and asexually
  • Role/Function
  • dead decaying matter in aquatic environments
  • some are plant parasites
  • attack tomatoes and potatoes
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