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Civil Rights Movement


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Title: Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement prior to 1954
  • To 1940
  • A. Philip Randolph forced a federal ban against
    discrimination in defense work.
  • President Truman desegregated the armed forces.
  • Brooklyn Dodgers put an African AmericanJackie
    Robinsonon its roster.
  • Pre-1900
  • Opposition to slavery in colonial days
  • Abolition movement and Civil War
  • Legalized racism after Reconstruction
  • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson allowed the segregation
    of African Americans and whites.
  • To 1930
  • Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Founding of the NAACP in 1909
  • African Americans suffered worse than others
    during the Great Depression.
  • Roosevelt unwilling to push too hard for greater
    African American rights.

Seeking Change in the Courts
The NAACP attacked racism through the courts. In
the 1930s Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood
Marshall began a campaign to attack the concept
of separate but equal.
The NAACP began to chip away at the 1896 Supreme
Court ruling in Plessy v. Fergusonthe legal
basis for segregation.

Key Issues in the Supreme Courts ruling on Brown
v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
  • Thurgood Marshall began to focus on desegregating
    the nations elementary and high schools in the
  • He found a case in Linda Brown of Topeka, Kansas.
  • The Supreme Court combined several school
    segregation cases from around the country into a
    single case Brown v. Board of Education of
    Topeka, Kansas.
  • The Supreme Court was aware of this cases great

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Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court heard arguments over a two-year
period. The Court also considered research about
segregations effects on African American
In 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren issued the
Supreme Courts decision.
All nine justices agreed that separate schools
for African Americans and whites violated the
Constitutions guarantee of equal protection of
the law.
The Little Rock Crisis
  • Integration
  • The Supreme Courts ruling did not offer guidance
    about how or when desegregation should occur.
  • Some states integrated quickly. Other states
    faced strong opposition.
  • Virginia passed laws that closed schools who
    planned to integrate.
  • In Little Rock, Arkansas, the governor violated a
    federal court order to integrate Little Rocks
    Central High School.
  • When Federal troops are sent to make states
    follow federal laws, this struggle for power is
    called federalism.
  • The Little Rock Nine
  • On September 4, 1957, angry whites harassed nine
    black students as they arrived at Little Rocks
    Central High School.
  • The Arkansas National Guard turned the Little
    Rock Nine away and prevented them from entering
    the school for three weeks.
  • Finally, Eisenhower sent the 101st airborne to
    escort the Little Rock Nine into the school.
  • The events in Little Rock revealed how strong
    racism was in some parts of the country.

Little Rock, Arkansas 1957
Emmett Till Murder
  • From Chicago, Illinois, visiting his relatives in
    the Mississippi Delta. Emmett was 14 years old.
  • Spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the married
    proprietor of a small grocery store
  • Days later Bryant's husband Roy and his
    half-brother J. W. Milam arrived at Till's
    great-uncle's house where they took Emmett
  • Taken to a barn he was beat, they gouged out one
    of his eyes, then shooting him through the head.
  • His body was put in the Tallahatchie River,
    weighting with a cotton gin fan tied around his
    neck with barbed wire.
  • Bryant and Milam were acquitted of Till's
    kidnapping and murder
  • Months later they admit to the crimes protected
    by Double Jeopardy

Emmett Till 14 years old
Montgomery, Alabama
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • In 1955 a local NAACP member named Rosa Parks
    refused to give her seat to white riders.
  • The resulting Montgomery bus boycott led to a
    Supreme Court ruling that segregation on buses
    was unconstitutional.

The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • African Americans formed the Southern Christian
    Leadership Conference, or SCLC, to protest
    activities taking place all across the South.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. was the elected leader of
    this groupwhich was committed to mass,
    nonviolent action.

Gandhi inspired King
  • Violence never solves problems. It only creates
    new and more complicated ones. If we succumb to
    the temptation of using violence in our struggle
    for justice, unborn generations will be the
    recipients of a long and desolate night of
    bitterness, and our chief legacy to the future
    will be an endless reign of meaningless chaos.
  • --Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., "Facing the
    Challenge of a New Age"

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • When Rosa Parks was arrested, the NAACP called
    for a one-day boycott of the city bus system.
  • Community leaders formed the Montgomery
    Improvement Association and selected Martin
    Luther King Jr. as its leader.
  • African Americans continued to boycott the bus
    system for a yearwhich hurt the bus system and
    other white businesses.
  • After the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on
    buses was unconstitutional, integration of the
    buses moved forward.

Non-Violent Protests during the Civil Rights
  • Civil rights workers used several direct,
    nonviolent methods to confront discrimination and
    racism in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
  • Boycotts, Sit-ins, and Freedom Rides
  • Many of these non-violent tactics were based on
    those of Mohandas Gandhia leader in Indias
    struggle for independence from Great Britain.
  • American civil rights leaders such as James
    Farmer of CORE, Martin Luther King Jr. of SCLC,
    and others shared Gandhis views.
  • James Lawson, an African American minister,
    conducted workshops on nonviolent methods in
    Nashville and on college campuses.

The Strategy of Nonviolence
  • The Sit-in Movement
  • Four college students in Greensboro, North
    Carolina, stayed in their seats at a Woolworths
    lunch counter after being refused service because
    of their race.
  • Over the next few days, protesters filled 63 of
    the 66 seats at the lunch counter.
  • The students were dedicated and well-behaved and
    ended each sit-in with a prayer.
  • Over time, protesters in about 50 southern cities
    began to use the sit-in tactic.
  • Sit in tatics
  • Dress in you Sunday best.
  • Be respectful to employees and police.
  • Do not resist arrest!
  • Do not fight back!
  • Remember, journalists are everywhere!
  • The Freedom Rides
  • In 1960 the Supreme Court ordered that bus
    station facilities for interstate travelers must
    be open to all passengers. But this ruling was
    not enforced.
  • CORE sent a group of Freedom Riders on a bus trip
    through the South to draw attention to this
  • Mobs angry at the Freedom Riders attempts to use
    white-only facilities firebombed a bus in
    Anniston, Alabama and attacked riders with
    baseball bats and metal pipes in Birmingham.

Freedom Riders Attacked
Integration of Higher Education in the South
  • By 1960 the NAACP began to attack segregation in
    colleges and universities.
  • In 1961 a court order required the University of
    Georgia to admit two African American students.
  • Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes suffered but
    both graduated in 1963.
  • In 1962 James Meredith tried to enroll at the
    University of Mississippi.
  • He arrived on campus with 500 federal marshals
    and was met by 2,500 violent protesters.
  • President Kennedy went on national television to
    announce that he was sending in troops.
  • The troops ended the protest but hundreds had
    been injured and two killed.
  • A small force of marshals remained to protect
    Meredith until he graduated in 1963.
  • In 1963 the governor of Alabama physically
    blocked Vivian Malone and James Hood from
    enrolling at the University of Alabama.

Results of Sit-ins and Freedom Rides
  • Succeeded at getting businesses to change their
  • Marked a shift in the civil rights
    movementshowed young African Americans growing
    impatience with the slow pace of change
  • Leaders formed the SNCC.

Freedom Rides
  • After the savage beatings in Birmingham, bus
    companies refused to sell the Freedom Riders
    tickets and CORE disbanded the Freedom Ride.
  • SNCC continued the Freedom Rides.
  • Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent federal
    marshals to Montgomery to protect the riders.
  • The Interstate Commerce Commission finally forced
    the integration of bus and train stations.

Federal Intervention
The Albany Movement
  • The Movement
  • SNCC began a sit-in in Albanys bus station.
  • Over 500 demonstrators were arrested.
  • The federal government was informed but took no
  • Local leaders asked Martin Luther King Jr. to
    lead more demonstrations and to gain more
    coverage for the protests.
  • He agreed and was also arrested.
  • The Results
  • The police chief had studied Kings tactics and
    made arrangements to counter-act the nonviolent
  • When the press arrived, King was released.
  • City officials would only deal with local leaders
    until King left.
  • Once King left, officials would not negotiate at
  • The nine-month movement failed.

AL Governor George Wallace
  • In the name of the greatest people that have
    ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust
    and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny,
    and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow,
    segregation forever.
  • From inaugural speech.
  • Attempted to stop de-segregation of schools.
  • Allowed violence against those who stood for
    change. His weapon Sheriff Bull Conner.
  • Why was Birmingham chosen after Albany?

The Birmingham Campaign
  • The Campaign
  • Martin Luther King raised money to fight
    Birminghams segregation laws.
  • Volunteers began with sit-ins and marches and
    were quickly arrested.
  • King hoped this would motivate more people to
    join the protests.
  • White clergy attacked Kings actions in a
    newspaper ad.
  • King wrote his Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
  • Fewer African Americans were willing to join and
    risk their jobs.
  • The Results
  • A SCLC leader convinced King to use children for
    his protests.
  • More than 900 children between ages six and
    eighteen were arrested.
  • Police Chief Eugene Bull Connor used police and
    fire fighters to break up a group of about 2,500
    student protesters.
  • The violence of Connors methods was all over the
    television news.
  • Federal negotiators got the city officials to
    agree to many of Kings demands.

Letter From a Birmingham Jail
  • In the letter King justifies civil disobedience
    in the town of Birmingham.
  • I cannot sit idly in Atlanta and not be
    concerned about what happens in Birmingham.
    Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice
  • There can be no gain saying the fact that racial
    injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is
    probably the most thoroughly segregated city in
    the United States. Its ugly record of brutality
    is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly
    unjust treatment in the courts.
  • Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed
    forever. The yearning for freedom eventually
    manifests itself.
  • We know through painful experience that freedom
    is never voluntarily given by the oppressor, it
    must be demanded by the oppressed.
  • Wait has almost always meant 'never.

Violence in Alabama
16th St. Baptist Church Bombingham AL
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama
    had been a rallying point for civil rights
  • Ku Klux Klan group, planted a box of dynamite
    with a time delay under the steps of the church,
  • Sunday, September 15, 1963. The explosion at the
    African-American church, which killed four girls
  • Four KKK members are eventually found guilty of
    the crimes. First trial in 1971.

March on Washington March 1963
  • President Kennedy was pushing for a civil rights
  • To show support, 500,000 African Americans went
    to Washington D.C.
  • The event was highlighted by King's "I Have a
    Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
    August 28, 1963

I Have A Dream Speach
  • I have a dream that one day this nation will
    rise up and live out the true meaning of its
    creed - 'We hold these truths to be
    self-evident, that all men are created equal.
  • I have a dream that one day even the state of
    Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of
    injustice, sweltering with the heat of
    oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of
    freedom and justice.
  • I have a dream that my four little children will
    one day live in a nation where they will not be
    judged by the color of their skin but by the
    content of their character.
  • black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles,
    Protestants and Catholics - will be able to join
    hands and sing in the words of the old Negro
    spiritual "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God
    Almighty, we are free at last!"

Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • The events in Alabama convinced President Kennedy
    to act on civil rights issues.
  • Kennedy announced that he would ask for
    legislation to finally end segregation in public

President Kennedy
  • Medgar Evers, the head of the NAACP in
    Mississippi, was shot dead in his front yard.
  • Ku Klux Klan member Byron De La Beckwith was
    tried for the crime but all-white juries failed
    to convict.

Medgar Evers
  • On August 28, 1963, the largest civil rights
    demonstration ever held in the United States took
    place in Washington.
  • More than 200,000 people marched and listened to
    Martin Luther King Jr.s I Have a Dream speech.

March on Washington
Passing the Civil Rights Act
  • President Johnson supported passage of a strong
    civil rights bill.
  • Some southerners in Congress fought hard to kill
    his bill.
  • Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into
    law on July 2, 1964.
  • The law banned discrimination in employment and
    in public accommodations.

Gaining Voting Rights for African Americans in
the South
  • Voting rights for African Americans were achieved
    at great human cost and sacrifice.
  • President Kennedy was worried about the violent
    reactions to the nonviolent methods of the civil
    rights movement.
  • Attorney General Robert Kennedy urged SNCC
    leaders to focus on voter registration rather
    than on protests.
  • He promised that the federal government would
    protect civil rights workers if they focused on
    voter registration.
  • The Twenty-fourth Amendment outlawed the practice
    of taxing citizens to vote.
  • Hundreds of people volunteered to spend their
    summers registering African Americans to vote.

Gaining Voting Rights
  • Registering Voters
  • SNCC, CORE, and other groups founded the Voter
    Education Project (VEP) to register southern
    African Americans to vote.
  • Opposition to African American suffrage was
  • Mississippi was particularly hardVEP workers
    lived in daily fear for their safety.
  • VEP was a successby 1964 they had registered
    more than a half million more African American
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment
  • Congress passed the Twenty-fourth Amendment in
    August 1962.
  • The amendment banned states from taxing citizens
    to votefor example, poll taxes.
  • It applied only to elections for president or

Gaining Voting Rights
  • Freedom Summer
  • Hundreds of college students volunteered to spend
    the summer registering African Americans to vote.
  • The project was called Freedom Summer.
  • Most of the trainers were from poor, southern
    African American families.
  • Most of the volunteers were white, northern, and
    upper middle class.
  • Volunteers registered voters or taught at summer
  • Crisis in Mississippi
  • Andrew Goodman, a Freedom Summer volunteer, went
    missing on June 21, 1964.
  • Goodman and two CORE workers had gone to inspect
    a church that had recently been bombed.
  • President Johnson ordered a massive hunt for the
    three men. Their bodies were discovered near
    Philadelphia, Mississippi.
  • 21 suspects were tried in federal court for
    violating civil rights laws.

The Missing Three
The Results of Project Freedom Summer
Organizers considered Mississippis Freedom
Summer project a success.
The Freedom Schools taught 3,000 students. More
than 17,000 African Americans in Mississippi
applied to vote.
State elections officials accepted only about
1,600 of the 17,000 applications. This helped
show that a federal law was needed to secure
voting rights for African Americans.
How did African American political organizing
become a national issue?
Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights
leaders wanted to help President Johnson defeat
Republican Barry Goldwater in the 1962
election. These leaders agreed to suspend their
protests until after election day.
SNCC leaders refused, saying they wanted to
protest segregation within the Democratic Party.
SNCC helped form the Mississippi Freedom
Democratic Party. They elected sixty-eight
delegates to the Democratic National Convention
and asked to be seated instead of the all-white
delegation sent by the states Democratic Party.
Political Organizing
Fannie Lou Hamer told the conventions
credentials committee why the MFDP group should
represent Mississippi.
President Johnson offered a compromisetwo
members of the MFDP delegation would be seated
and the rest would be non-seated guests of the
convention. The NAACP and SCLC supported the
compromise. SNCC and the MFDP rejected the
The MFDPs challenge failed in the end. It also
helped widen a split that was developing in the
civil rights movement.
The Voting Rights Act
  • Selma Campaign
  • King organized marches in Selma, Alabama, to gain
    voting rights for African Americans.
  • King and many other marchers were jailed.
  • Police attacked a march in Marion.
  • King announced a four-day march from Selma to
  • Selma March
  • 600 African Americans began the 54-mile march.
  • City and state police blocked their way out of
  • TV cameras captured the police using clubs,
    chains, and electric cattle prods on the marchers.
  • Voting Rights Act
  • President Johnson asked for and received a tough
    voting rights law.
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed in Congress
    with large majorities.
  • Proved to be one of the most important pieces of
    civil rights legislation ever passed.

Selma March
The Civil Rights Movement Expands to the North
  • The civil rights movement had done much to bring
    an end to de jure segregationor segregation by
  • However, changes in law had not altered attitudes
    and many were questioning nonviolent protest as
    an effective method of change.
  • In most of America there was still de facto
    segregationsegregation that exists through
    custom and practice rather than by law.
  • African Americans outside the South also faced
    discriminationin housing, by banks, in

Expanding the Movement
  • Conditions outside the South
  • Most African Americans outside the South lived in
  • African Americans were kept in all-black parts of
    town because they were unwelcome in white
  • Discrimination in banking made home ownership and
    home and neighborhood improvements difficult.
  • Job discrimination led to high unemployment and
  • Urban Unrest
  • Frustration over the urban conditions exploded
    into violence.
  • Watts (Los Angeles) in 1965
  • Detroit in 1967
  • President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission
    to study the causes of urban rioting.
  • Placed the blame on poverty and discrimination

The Movement Moves North
The riots convinced King that the civil rights
movement needed to move north. He focused on
Chicago in 1966.
The eight month Chicago campaign was one of
Kings biggest failures. Chicagos African
Americans did not share his civil rights
focustheir concerns were economic.
King discovered that some northern whites who had
supported him and criticized racism in the South
had no interest in seeing it exposed in the North.
Fractures in the civil rights movement
  • Conflict among the diverse groups of the civil
    rights movement developed in the 1960s.
  • Many SNCC and CORE members were beginning to
    question nonviolence.
  • In 1966 SNCC abandoned the philosophy of
  • Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black
    Panther Party and called for violent revolution
    as a means of African American liberation.
  • Malcolm X and the Black Muslims were critical of
    King and nonviolence.

Fractures in the Movement
  • Black Power
  • Stokely Carmichael became the head of SNCC.
  • SNCC abandoned the philosophy of nonviolence.
  • Black Power became the new rallying cry.
  • Wanted African Americans to depend on themselves
    to solve problems.
  • Black Panthers
  • The Black Panther Party was formed in Oakland,
    California, in 1966.
  • Called for violent revolution as a means of
    African American liberation.
  • Members carried guns and monitored African
    American neighborhoods to guard against police
  • Black Muslims
  • Nation of Islam was a large and influential group
    who believed in Black Power.
  • Message of black nationalism, self-discipline,
    and self-reliance.
  • Malcolm X offered message of hope, defiance, and
    black pride.

Malcolm X
  • In 1964, during a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm
    discovered that orthodox Muslims preach equality
    among races.
  • Malcolms new knowledge and growing distrust with
    the NOI, caused him to desert his argument that
    all Whites are the devil.
  • In 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated by a Black
    Muslim at a New York City rally.
  • Born in Omaha Nebraska
  • Father was killed by White Supremacist
  • Key leader in the Nation of Islam
  • Malcolm X made constant accusations of racism and
    demanded violent actions of self defense
  • Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect
    everyone but if someone puts his hand on you,
    send him to the cemetery.

Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X
The Death of Martin Luther King Jr.
King became aware that economic issues must be
part of the civil rights movement.
King went to Memphis, Tennessee to help striking
sanitation workers. He led a march to city
hall. James Earl Ray shot and killed King as he
stood on the balcony of his motel.
Within hours, rioting erupted in more than 120
cities. Within three weeks, 46 people were dead,
some 2,600 were injured, and more than 21,000
were arrested.
The Civil Rights Movement after Martin Luther
King Jr.
King realized that most African Americans were
prevented from achieving equality because they
were poor.
Ralph Abernathy, the new leader of the SCLC, led
thousands of protesters to the nations capital
as part of the Poor Peoples Campaign.
The campaign turned out to be a disaster. Bad
weather and terrible media relations marred the
campaign. The campaign also failed to express
clearly the protesters needs and demands.
The Black Power Movement
  • The civil rights movement took place at the
    height of the Cold War.
  • FBI director J. Edgar Hoover created a secret
    program to keep an eye on groups that caused
    unrest in American society.
  • Hoover considered King and the Black Power
    movement a threat to American society.
  • The FBI infiltrated civil rights movement groups
    and worked to disrupt them.
  • Spread false rumors that the Black Panthers
    intended to kill SNCC members
  • Forged harmful posters, leaflets, and
    correspondence from targeted groups

The Decline of Black Power
  • SNCC
  • SNCC collapsed with the help of the FBI.
  • H. Rap Brown, the leader who replaced Stokely
    Carmichael as the head of SNCC, was encouraged to
    take radical and shocking positions.
  • Brown was encouraged to take these positions by
    his staffmany of whom worked for the FBI.
  • Membership declined rapidly.
  • The Black Panthers
  • Believed violent revolution was the only way to
    receive freedom.
  • Urged African Americans to arm themselves
  • Hoover was particularly concerned about the Black
  • Police raided Black Panther headquarters in many
  • Armed conflict resulted, even when Black Panther
    members were unarmed.
  • By the early 1970s, armed violence had led to the
    killing or arrest of many Black Panther members.

Civil Rights Changes in the 1970s
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968banned discrimination in
    the sale or rental of housing (also called the
    Fair Housing Act)
  • Busing and political changeto speed the
    integration of city schools, courts began
    ordering that some students be bused from their
    neighborhood schools to schools in other areas
  • Busing met fierce opposition in the North.
  • Busing was a major cause of the migration of
    whites from cities to suburbs.
  • This development increased the political power of
    African Americans in the cities.
  • Affirmative actionprograms that gave preference
    to minorities and women in hiring and admissions
    to make up for past discrimination against these

The New Black Power
  • Black Power took on a new form and meaning in the
  • African Americans became the majority in many
    counties in the South.
  • African Americans were elected to public office.
  • African Americans who played roles in the civil
    rights movement provided other services to the
  • Thurgood Marshal became Supreme Courts first
    African American justice.
  • John Lewis represented the people of Alabama in
  • Andrew Young became Georgias first African
    American member of Congress since Reconstruction,
    U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, and mayor
    of Atlanta.
  • Jesse Jackson founded a civil rights organization
    called Operation PUSH and campaigned for the
    Democratic presidential nomination in the 1980s.

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Social Issues and Changes of the 60s
Flower Power
  • Flower Power referred to an ideology centered
    around peace and nonviolence.
  • Kent State Shooting
  • Why did it happen and what impact did it have?

J. Edgar Hoover
  • How did he stay in control for so long?
  • Harassed political dissenters and activists.
  • Had secret files on political leaders.
  • What is wiretapping and how did Hoover use it to?
  • First Director of the Federal Bureau of
    Investigation (FBI)
  • 1924-1972 Controlled the FBI

Rachel Carsons Silent Spring
  • Carson was a former U.S. Fish and Wildlife
  • Investigated DDT
  • DDT proved just as effective as an agricultural
  • Also could poison an areas plant life, water
    supply, and wildlife.
  • Her book Silent Spring exposed the environmental
    impact DDT had.
  • Led to the Government regulation of
  • Led to modern environmental movement.

Cesar Chavez
  • Labor activists had tried to organize Hispanic
    farm workers.
  • United Farm Workers (UFW)
  • Organized a boycott of California grapes that
    continued for five years.
  • 1970, the grape growers finally agreed to a
  • Helped to earn Hispanics a more prominent place
    in organized labor.

  • Jack Ruby kills Oswald before trial takes place.
  • Warren Commission findings
  • Who killed JFK?
  • Former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy was talking
    with a journalist. She described the years of her
    husband's presidency as an American Camelot, a
    period of hope and optimism in U. S. history, and
    asked that his memory be preserved.
  • Impact of 1960 Election. TV impact?
  • Youngest President
  • 1st Catholic President
  • Assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas,
    Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald.

Robert Bobby Kennedy RFK
  • Served as Attorney General for his brother.
  • Stepped down from position to run for Senator for
  • Won the bid for the Democratic National Primary
    for President.
  • Shot and killed following a victory speech.
  • What impact did the killing of JFK, RFK, and MLK
    have on society?

Youth International Party
  • Highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and
    anarchist youth movement.
  • Known for street theater and politically-themed
  • According to ABC News, "The group was known for
    street theater pranks and was once referred to as
    the Groucho Marxists'."
  • Called the Yippies, was a radically
    youth-oriented and countercultural revolutionary
    offshoot of the free speech and anti-war

Carl Oglesby
  • Let Us Shape the Future, delivered at an
    antiwar rally in Washington 1965, considered a
    landmark of American political rhetoric. In it,
    he condemned the corporate liberalism.
  • we make no real effort at all to crack through
    the much more vicious right-wing tyrannies that
    our businessmen traffic with and our nation
    profits from every day.
  • Proposed S.D.S. collaborate with the
    conservative group Young Americans for Freedom on
    antiwar demonstrations very unpopular.
  • Later voted out of leadership. S.D.S would turn
    into the Weather Underground.
  • Leader of Students for a Democratic Society
  • Opposed the Vietnam War

Ralph Nader
  • In 1965 with the publication of Unsafe at Any
    Speed, a critique of the safety record of
    American automobile manufacturers in general.
  • Book was ranked 38 of 100 most influential pieces
    of journalism in the 20th century.
  • 6 time Presidential Candidate
  • Has run on the Green Party ticket.
  • American political activist
  • Focused on consumer protection, humanitarianism,
    environmentalism, and democratic government.

Social Issues and Changes of the 70s
Henry Kissinger
  • Opening of China
  • 1972 Summit
  • Ends 23 years of diplomatic isolation and
    mutual hostility.
  • Diplomacy led to economic and cultural
    exchanges between the two sides
  • Paris Peace Accords of 1973
  • National Security Advisor and later Secretary of
    State Henry Kissinger negotiates the treaty for
    the US to end the Vietnam War.
  • Wins Nobel Peace Prize

  • How do they control prices?
  • How much power does OPEC have? Ex. Oil Embargo
  • Intergovernmental organization of 12
    oil-producing countries
  • Goal to pursue ways and means of ensuring the
    stabilization of prices in international oil
  • OPEC became effective in determining production
    and prices.

  • Initiated Détente
  • Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
  • Wars on cancer and drugs
  • Wage and price controls
  • Desegregation of Southern schools
  • Established the Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Watergate Scandal
  • Nixon Resigns
  • Ford pardons Nixon
  • VP for Eisenhower for 8 years.
  • Elected President in 1968.

1970s Stagflation
  • Stagflation can result when the productive
    capacity of an economy is reduced by an
    unfavorable supply shock. An ex. is increase in
    the price of oil for an oil importing country.
    Such an unfavorable supply shock tends to raise
    prices at the same time that it slows the economy
    by making production more costly and less
  • Impact of wage and price controls. Nixon.
  • 1973 Oil Crisis
  • Energy Shortage
  • Resulted in actual or relative scarcity of
    raw materials. The price controls resulted in
    shortages at the point of purchase.

Carters Energy Conservation Policy
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • Iran hostage crisis
  • Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident
  • 1979 Energy Crisis
  • In television speech moral equivalent of war.
  • Solar water heating panels.
  • Turn down heat or use less AC.
  • Impact of policies?

  • National Organization of Women
  • Founded in 1966.
  • Supported the ERA in 1972.
  • Started a ratification campaigns in the 50
  • The organization remains active in lobbying
    legislatures and media outlets on feminist
  • Equal Rights Amendments
  • Started in 1923 by Alice Paul
  • Felt the 19th amendment hadnt gone far enough to
    help women.
  • "Equality of rights under the law shall not be
    denied or abridged by the United States or by any
    State on account of sex
  • Introduced to congress for the first time in
  • In 1977 35 of 38 necessary states had ratified
    the amendment.
  • By 1982 failed to ratified by enough states and
    was never adopted.

Social Issues and Changes of the 80s
Carter Loses Reelection Bid
  • Ted Kennedys Dem. ambition to become President.
  • Also had opposition from Center John Anderson and
    Right Ronald Reagan.
  • Had to deal with Stagflation economy.
  • Unemployment Rate 7.2
  • Re-instating registration for the draft.
  • Defeated by Ronald Reagan.

The Reagan Years
  • "Reaganomics"
  • Reduce tax rates
  • Control money supply to reduce inflation
  • Deregulation of the Economy
  • Reducing government spending
  • Inflation drops from 12.4 to 4.4.
  • Unemployment from 7.5 to 5.4
  • federal budget deficits and the national debt
  • Invasion of Grenada
  • 1986 bombing of Libya
  • Iran-Contra affair
  • Evil Empire comes to an end
  • 40 real increase in defense spending

Warren Court vs Rehnquist Court
  • Liberal Chief Justice
  • Law as an instrument for obtaining equity and
  • Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil
    liberties, judicial power, and the federal power
    in dramatic ways.
  • Ended racial segregation in the United States.
  • Officially ended sanctioned voluntary prayer in
    public school.
  • High point in judicial power
  • Conservative Chief Justice
  • Limit the power of the federal government .
  • Increase the power of the state government.
  • Thus relied on the 10th amendment. Federalism by
    providing that powers not granted to the federal
    government nor prohibited to the States by the
    Constitution are reserved to the States or the
  • If it wasnt in the constitution he wanted to
    stay away from it.

Social Issues and Changes of the 90s
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