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Your Digestive and Urinary Systems Chapter 18 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Your%20Digestive%20and%20Urinary%20Systems

Your Digestive and Urinary Systems
  • Chapter 18

Digestive Function
  • Digestion A mechanical and chemical breakdown of
    foods for use by the bodys cells.
  • Absorption The passage of digested food from the
    digestive tract into the circulatory system.
  • Elimination The expulsion of undigested food or
    body wastes.

The Digestive Structure
  • Ingestion The taking of food into the body.
  • Mastication The process of chewing.
  • Digestion begins in the mouth with the salivary
    glands. These glands contain enzymes used to
    begin the process of breaking down food.

The Digestive Structure
  • Your tongue will automatically ball food up into
    a shape suitable for swallowing.
  • The food first enters the pharynx , followed by
    the esophagus on its path to your stomach.
  • Epiglottis The small flap that covers your
    trachea to prevent food from entering.

The Digestive Structure
  • Talking while eating will prevent complete
    closure of the epiglottis, causing a natural
    reflex reaction and choking to remove remnants of
    food from the trachea (your windpipe).

The Digestive Structure
  • Peristalsis A series of involuntary smooth
    muscle contractions moving food through your
  • A sphincter muscle, circular in shape, opens and
    closes letting food into the stomach.

The Digestive Structure
  • The sphincter muscles throughout the digestive
    tract prevent stomach acid from entering the
    esophagus and food from backing up through the
    digestion system.

The Digestive Structure
  • The stomach is a hollow organ which consists of a
    three layered, muscular wall, designed to expand
    when it becomes filled.
  • The stomach serves four main purposes in the
    digestive process

The Digestive Structure
  • Continuing the breakdown of food
  • A storage facility for food waiting to enter the
    small intestines.
  • Mixes food together with Pepsin (an enzyme) and
    hydrochloric acid. The pepsin breaks down
    proteins. Hydrochloric acid kills bacteria taken
    in from the food and creates a better digestive

The Digestive Structure
  • A mucus lining is found in the stomach to prevent
    the stomachs acids from digesting itself. These
    cells are replaced every three days.
  • And finally, the stomach controls the rate at
    which food enters the small intestines.
  • Check p. 415 for stomach facts.

The Digestive Structure
  • When the stomach churns food it produces what is
    known as chyme, a mixture of gastric acids and
    liquefied food. This production causes

The Digestive Structure
  • The small intestine is where the majority of
    digestion and absorption takes place.
  • It is approximately 20-23 feet in length and one
    inch in diameter.
  • The small intestine absorbs the chyme through the
    villi, tiny fingerlike substances that have
    capillaries in them to absorb food into the
  • Complete chemical breakdown of food, including
    proteins, fats and carbohydrates, takes place in
    the small intestines.

The Digestive Structure
  • Intestinal juices and secretions from the liver
    and pancreas finish the chemical breakdown
    process of food in the small intestine.
  • The large intestine, or colon, is about 5-6 feet
    long and 2 ½ inches in diameter.
  • The primary function of the large intestine is to
    absorb water, vitamins and electrolytes and
    evacuate any unused waste products.
  • The bacteria in the large intestine change food
    stuffs into a semi solid waste product.

The Digestive Structure
  • The Liver second largest organ in your body,
    primary purpose is to regulate the chemicals in
    your blood.
  • The Gallbladder a small organ underneath the
    liver that stores bile produced by the liver, to
    later be released into the small intestines to
    break down fats.

The Digestive Structure
  • Pancreas A unique organ that is part of the
    digestive and endocrine systems. It releases
    insulin to control blood sugar and trypsin,
    amylase and lipase to digest proteins, carbs and

Digestive Care
  • It is important to have a diet with high amounts
    of fiber.
  • Soluble fiber will dissolve in water and can
    lower your bad cholesterol.
  • Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water,
    making it a a good protector from bowel problems
    and possibly even colon cancer.

Digestive Problems
  • Indigestion a burning discomfort in the upper
  • Causes
  • Eating too much
  • Eating too quickly
  • Eating certain foods
  • Stomach disorders
  • Stress

Digestive Problems
  • Heartburn (A.K.A.- Acid Reflux) A burning
    sensation in the middle to upper part of the
  • The primary cause is a backflow of stomach acid
    up into the esophagus, specifically caused by an
    incomplete closure of the sphincter found between
    the esophagus and stomach.

Digestive Problems
  • Hiatal Hernia A condition in which part of the
    stomach pushes through an opening in the
    diaphragm. This may also cause heartburn.
  • Gas Certain foods produced greater amounts of
    gas in the stomach and intestines, making it

Digestive Problems
  • Nausea A feeling of distress or weakness that
    often precedes vomiting.
  • Nausea can be produced by motion, pathogens,
    medicines, drugs or other substances in the

Digestive Problems
  • Diarrhea A condition where the feces are watery
    and expelled frequently.
  • Diarrhea can be caused by poor diet, or viral or
    bacterial infections.
  • Constipation The feces become dry and hard
    making bowel movements difficult.

Digestive Problems
  • Constipation A condition where the feces become
    dry and hard, making bowel movements difficult.
  • Not enough fiber in your diet can result in

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Gallstones small crystals which form in your
    bladder as a result of chemical disruption in the
  • Can be treated with medicine to dissolve them or
    ultrasonic shock waves to destroy them.
  • Surgery is only if they cannot be destroyed.

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Appendicitis An inflammation of the appendix, a
    3-4 inch extension at one end of the large
    intestine. The condition is caused by a backup
    of bacteria in one end of the organ.
  • Symptoms might be lower adominal pain, cramping,
    fever, nausea, vomiting, the feeling of
    constipation and gas.

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Gastritis An inflammation of the mucus membrane
    which lines the stomach.
  • Caused by poor diet, smoking, alcohol or
  • Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea or

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Lactose Intolerance The inability to digest
    lactose, a sugar found in milk.
  • People who are lactose intolerant lack or are
    deficient of the enzyme lactase, which helps
    break down lactose in the small intestine.
  • Symptoms include cramps, bloating, gas and

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Peptic Ulcer A sore in the lining of the
    digestive tract. It can occur in the esophagus,
    stomach or duodenum.
  • Ulcers occur when the protective lining is
    damaged allowing the acids to eat away at it.

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Increased risk caused by aspirin, ibuprofen,
    smoking and a bacterial infection (H. Pylori).

Structural Digestive Problems
  • Colitis An inflammation of the colon, often
    caused by a virus, bacteria or an amoeba.
  • Hemorrhoids Swollen veins in the lower rectum or
    anus region. Constipation, sitting a lot,
    pregnancy and giving birth are common causes.
  • Tooth Decay Health teeth lead to a healthy diet.

The Urinary System
  • Urine Liquid waste containing nitrogen and
    unused nutrients, vitamins and minerals.
  • The Kidneys Located on each side of your back,
    these fist sized organs continually filter your
  • 50 gallons filtered each day

The Kidneys
  • Nephrons These are the functional part of the
    kidney. Each one contains a tubule with a series
    of capillaries, called a glomerulus, that
    functions as the filtering funnel.
  • The kidneys filter wasted from your blood and
    regulate the amount of salt and water excreted
    into the urine.

The Kidneys
  • Ureters Tubes that connect to the kidneys to
    your bladder.
  • Bladder A hollow reservoir (storage tank) for
    urine. The average size of a male bladder is
    larger than a female bladder.
  • Urethra The tube that leads from the bladder to
    the outside of the body.

Care for Urinary System
  • The best way to naturally care for your urinary
    system is to eat healthy, non-toxic foods, and to
    drink plenty of water (about 6-8 glasses of water
    per day, which included foods that contain water).

Kidney Problems
  • Cystitis A bacterial infection of the bladder,
    most common in females.
  • Urethritis An inflammation of the urethra.
  • Incontinence The inability to hold in your urine.

Kidney Problems
  • Nephritis An inflammation of the nephrons.
  • Kidney Stones Hard crystals formed from
    substances in the urine.
  • If the stone can not be passed through the urine
    naturally, then a procedure known as lithotripsy
    is used to break the stones apart with high
    intensity sound waves.

Kidney Problems
  • Uremia When the kidneys are unable to rid waste
    from the body, poisonous substances being to
  • Kidney Failure Any disease that can damage your
    kidneys can cause failure.

Kidney Problems
  • Three ways to help with kidney failure
  • Hemodialysis the use of an artificial machine to
    filter the blood.
  • Peritoneal Dialysis Inserting a tube into the
    peritoneal cavity, which acts as a blood
    filtering organ.
  • Kidney Transplant A very successful transplant
    procedure, over 80.
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