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Title: 9. FIRE

  • Many fires are associated with the use of
    high-risk materials and, through ongoing
    legislation should result in continuing
  • it often takes several years before older,
    high-risk materials are replaced.
  • In large or tall buildings, the much higher
    potential risk resulting from reduced access of
    emergency services has long been recognized
    through again, fires still occur, sometimes due
    to failure of one or two parts of the structure
    to prevent fire spread.
  • Increasing attention is now being given to fire
    stops in cavities, ducts and roof spaces.

  • Three prequisites for a fire are
  • Fuel
  • Oxygen
  • Heat
  • 1. Fuel
  • Almost all organic materials behave as fuels.
  • Carbon and Hydrogen are the main constituents so
    that the materials rich in these will be a
    greater hazard and especially those rich in
    hydrogen, such as oil products and gas, since
    hydrogen generates more heat than carbon.

  • 2. Oxygen
  • This is present in the form of air, diluted with
    nitrogen which is inert.
  • Pure oxygen, sometimes stored in cylinders is
    highly dangerous.
  • 3. Heat
  • Heat causes
  • Chemical decomposition of most organic materials
    releasing volatile vapor. This effect is called
  • Reaction between both the solid and vapour
    fraction and oxygen
  • C O2 ? CO2 heat (solid fuel)
  • CH4 2 O2 ? CO 2H2O Heat (hydrocarbon fuel)
  • These are combustion processes though it is the
    reaction of vapor with oxygen together with
    accompanying light emission that is described as
    a FLAME

  • They are not necessary for fire but their
    pressure usually increases the severity of a
  • Because
  • Gases have much greater mobility than solids so
    that flames help spread the fire.
  • The temperature in a flame is very high- usually
    ? 1200oC.

  • The application of sufficient heat will initiate
    the combustion process, which then generates more
    heat and ultimately, when the temperature is high
    enough, ignition or flaming will occur.

Fire and Density
  • The ideal for habitable buildings might be
    considered to be avoidance of all combustible
  • Normally totally impracticable
  • because organic materials are inseparably linked
    to human comfort furniture, furnishings,
    clothing- and to human activity-books paper and
  • In many cases for reasons of economy and/ or
    convenience the enclosure itself will involve
    combustible materials (wooden floors, doors,
    window frames and partitions).

Fire Load
  • The risk presented by the combustible contents of
    an enclosure is defined as FIRE LOAD.
  • Fire Load total mass of combustible contents
    in the enclosure
  • expressed as wood equivalent per unit floor area.
  • Fire Load Comb.mass/(m2 (floor))
  • Higher fire loads produce longer duration fires.

  • Fire Severity
  • Depends on
  • Type and decomposition of combustible material,
  • Ventilation characteristics
  • good ventilation may reduce the durability of
    fires by venting heat.

Development of Fires
  • Damage of fire depends on
  • situation which give rise to it,
  • the way in which it develops and spreads.
  • In the early stages of most fires, spreading is
    largely the result of flaming and localized heat
  • hence it requires materials which are not only
    combustible but in a flammable form.

  • It is the most important stage in any fire (See
    Figure 9.1).
  • Occurs when the air temperature in the enclosure
    reaches about 6000C.
  • At that point, pyrolysis (vaporisation) of all
    combustable materials takes place so that they
    all become involved in the fire and flaming
    reaches dramatic proportions, limited only by the
    total fuel available and/or by the supply of air.

Figure 9.1 BS476 tests relating to initiation,
growth, and spread of an uncontrolled fire in the
compartment of origin.
  • In many such fires, flaming occurs mainly outside
    windows using to lack of air internally and this
    helps spread the fire upwards to adjacent floors
    of the building.
  • A priority in design for fire resistance is to
    prevent or delay flashover since there is little
    change of survival in an enclosure once this has

  • The thermal inertia of the surfaces of an
    enclosure is an important factor
  • highly conductive, heat absorbent materials such
    as brick, help to delay the temperature rise as
    well as being non-combustible.
  • Flashover may be prevented in poorly ventilated
    closures due to lack of air for combustion, or
    delayed in very large ones where there are large
    volumes of air in relation to available fuel-they
    have a cooling effect.
  • It is estimated at present that the fire services
    arrive before flash-over in about 90 of fires.

Fire Tests
  • Fire tests attempt to classify materials and
    components in relation to fire performance and
    form the basis of Building Regulations. They
    cover 2 chief areas
  • 1. The development and spread of fire.
  • These tests include combustability, ignitibility,
    fire propogation, spread of flame and heat
    emission of combustible materials.
  • 2. Effects of fire on the structure, adjacent
    structures and means of escape, the first
    priority in any fire being the safety of the
  • These tests are concerned with the structural
    performance of buildings, their ability to
    contain the fire and problems associated with

  • Many of the above aspects are covered by BS476,
    Figure 9.2. A brief resume of the contents of
    parts relating to fire spread in current Building
    Regulations is given in Table 9.1.
  • Examples on fires
  • Collapse of World Trade Centers (New York)

Figure 9.2 Five ways in which fire can be
Table 9.1 BS476 tests relating to fire
development and spread referred to in current
Building regulations.
After Fire
  • the amount of debris,
  • blackening of the structure,
  • Peeling,
  • loss of finishes,
  • can give the impression that the concrete
    elements are severely damaged.

Assessing fire-damage
  • An inspection of the site including limited
    non-destructive testing, sampling and laboratory
    investigation to produce a repair classification
    for each element.
  • Experienced practitioner can obtain a significant
    amount of information during a site inspection.
  • Laboratory investigation is often critical to
    establish the temperature achieved at different
    depths in the concrete and thus the condition of
    that element.
  • An indispensable technique is the investigation
    in petrographic examination.

General considerations
  • Loss of strength and modulus of elasticity
  • Concrete looses strength on heating.
  • Residual strength of a concrete element after a
    fire depends on several factors, for temperatures
    up to 3000C the residual strength of
    structural-quality concrete is not severely
  • Concrete is unlikely to possess any useful
    structural strength if it has been subjected to
    temperatures above 5000C, the strength then being
    reduced by about 80.

  • Typically, concrete made with lightweight
    aggregate does not lose significant strength
    until 500oC.
  • The effects of a fire on modulus of elasticity
    are similar to the effects on strength.
  • Up to 300oC, the modulus of elasticity is not
    severely reduced but by 800oC it may be as little
    as 15 of its original value (85 loss).

Effects of fire on reinforcement
  • Steel looses strength on heating but
    reinforcement is often protected from the effects
    of fire by the surrounding concrete, which is a
    poor thermal conductor.
  • Steel reinforcement suffers a reduction in yield
    strength at temperatures above 450oC for
    cold-worked steel and 600oC for hot-worked steel.
  • Prestressed steel looses tensile strength at
    temperatures as low as 200oC and by 400oC may be
    at 50 of normal strength.
  • Buckling of reinforcement can occur at high
    temperatures if there is restraint, for example
    by adjacent elements, against thermal expansion.

Spalling of concrete after fire
  • In a fire, most concrete structures spall to some
    extend, although lightweight aggregate concretes
    are usually more resistant.
  • The surface can scale in the early stages of a
    fire as the near-surface aggregate splits as a
    result of physical or chemical changes at high
  • Explosive spalling also occurs in the early
    stages of a fire but involves larger pieces of
    concrete violently breaking away from the surface
    and may continue from areas already spalled. Such
    spalling usually results from high moisture
    content in the concrete.
  • The thermal shock of a cold water on to hot
    concrete during fire-fighting can also induce

Depth of damage
  • Concrete is a poor thermal conductor and so high
    temperatures will initially be confined to the
    surface layer with the interior concrete
    remaining cooler.
  • At corners where two surfaces are exposed to the
    fire, the effect will penetrate further because
    of the transmission of heat from the two
  • If concrete spalls early in a fire, the depth of
    effect from the original surface will be greater
    than if the concrete does not spall or if
    spalling occurs later in the fire.

Damage assessmentSite inspection
  • Various features of the concrete and associated
    materials in the fire-affected locations must be
    noted and from these a visual classification of
    the damage produced.
  • The Concrete Society report (CSTR 33) includes a
    useful numerical classification and this is shown
    in a simplified format in Table 9.2

Table 9.2. CSTR 33 classification of fire damage.
Damage assessmentSite inspection
  • Firstly, the condition of any plaster or other
    surface finishes is noted.
  • Surfaces may be sooty but otherwise unaffected by
    the fire.
  • As the effects become more severe, the finishes
    start to peel until they are completely lost or
  • Likewise, during the fire the concrete surface
    will progressively craze until it is lost.
  • The concrete color may also be affected during
    the fire, generally changing with increasing
    temperature from normal through pink to red, then
    whitish grey and finally buff.

  • The pink and red colours relate to the presence
    of small amounts of iron in some aggregates,
    which oxidise and can be indicative of particular
  • It is important to note that many concreting
    aggregates do not change colour at temperatures
    normally encountered in an ordinary fire.
  • Although colour change clearly indicates a
    particular temperature, the absence of colour
    change does not mean that the temperature was not

Other site investigation requirements
  • Cores - or, if these are not possible, lump
    samples - should be taken for laboratory
    investigation from a number of locations
    representing the range of damage classifications
    observed and should include comparable unaffected
    concrete as a control.
  • Laboratory petrographic examination is necessary
    to support and enhance the site findings.

  • The depth of cover to any reinforcement must be
    measured during site investigation so that, once
    the laboratory investigation has been completed,
    it will be possible to determine whether the
    steel is likely to have been affected by the
  • It is also possible to take steel samples for
    laboratory analysis, but this is usually
    necessary only if the visual inspection reveals a
    cause for concern.

Laboratory investigation petrographic examination
  • Petrographic examination should be conducted by
    someone experienced in the technique and in
    examining fire-damaged concrete, and is best
    performed in accordance with ASTM C856.
  • An initial low- to medium-power microscopic
    examination of all cores allows the selection of
    those for thin-section preparation and more
    detailed examination with a high- power

  • As well as identifying physical distress such as
    cracking, this examination can identify features
    that allow temperature contours' to be plotted
    on the concrete.
  • Binocular examination allows contours to be
    plotted that equate to around 300C provided the
    aggregate has become pink, the colour deepening
    to brick-red between 500C and 600C.

  • Any flint in the concrete calcines (loses its
    water component, about 4 ) between 250C-450C,
    while at similar temperatures the normally
    featureless cement paste begins to show patchy
    anisotropy with yellow-beige colours.
  • Thus, careful and informed petrographic
    examination can usually reveal an
    approximate 500C contour.
  • Cracking of the surface of the concrete occurs at
    relatively low temperatures, but deep cracking
    indicates around 550C was reached.

  • Quartz alters structurally at 575C resulting in
    a volume increase that typically causes extensive
    fine microcracking.
  • As most concrete contains quartz, an approximate
    600C contour can usually be plotted.
  • The change in colour from brick-red to grey also
    begins at 600oC.
  • Limestone aggregate calcines at 800C and
    concrete becomes a buff colour by 900C.

Laboratory investigation
  • Another laboratory technique sometimes used to
    assess the temperature reached is
  • Based on the fact that quartz emits visible light
    when heated to 300-500C, unless it has already
    been heated to that temperature.
  • It is be possible to establish the depth to which
    the concrete has been affected.
  • The usefulness of this method is somewhat reduced
    by its limited availability and cost.
  • However in special circumstances,
    thermo-luminescence is invaluable, despite the

Overall assessment
  • The visual damage classification prepared on site
    provides the basis for a repair strategy.
  • However the laboratory investigation -
    particularly the petrographic temperature
    contouring - provides critical information about
    the depth of any fire damage, and any
    classification of damage should be reviewed after
    the laboratory investigation.
  • Critical temperatures (T) are as follows
  • T gt300oC considerable loss in strength of the
  • T 200-400C considerable loss of strength of
    prestressed steel.
  • T gt450oC loss of residual strength of
    cold-worked steel.
  • T gt600C loss of residual strength of hot-rolled

Options for repair requirements for demolition
  • Detailed information about repair is given in
    CSTR 33.
  • A brief guide to the level of repair required can
    be based on the final classification of damage.
  • On the basis of practical experience, Figure 9.3
    has been devised to illustrate the types of
    repair that might be appropriate for different
    classes of damage.

World Trade Centre - New York - Some Engineering
  • General Information
  • Height 417 meters and 415 meters
  • Owners Port Authority of New York and New
    Jersey.(99 year leased signed in April 2001 to
    groups including Westfield America and
    Silverstein Properties)
  • Architect Minoru Yamasaki, Emery Roth and Sons
  • Engineer John Skilling and Leslie Robertson of
    Worthington, Skilling, Helle and Jackson
  • Ground Breaking August 5, 1966
  • Opened 1970-73 April 4, 1973 ribbon cutting
  • Destroyed  Terrorist attack, September 11, 2001

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Figure 9.3. Simplified illustration of
Classification and Repair.
Some peeling of finishes, slight crazing minor
spalling. Class 1 rapair slight damage.
Total loss of finish, Whitish grey
colour, Extensive crazing, Considerable spalling
up to 50 reinforcement exposed, minor cracking,
class 3 principal repair involving strengthening.
Much loss of finish, pink colour, crazing, up to
25 reinforcement exposed, class 2 restoring
cover to reinforcement with general repairs
reinforced with light fabric
Plaster paint intact, Class 0 clean
redecorate if required.
Finishes destroyed, buff colour, surface lost,
almost all surface spalled, over 50
reinforcement exposed, major cracking. Class 4
major repair involving strengthening or
demolition replacement.
  • EXAMPLE from Cyprus

TRNC Ministry of Culture Education, Turkish
Cypriot State Theatre Hall
Theatre Hall- after fire, 2006
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
duration 20 minutes only
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
State Theatre Hall /Lefkosa-After fire in 1999
Theatre Hall after fire, 2006
Theatre Hall after fire, 2006
  • More examples

Caracas Fire
Interstate bank
Meridian Plaza
The Windsor Building Fire, Madrid, SpainHuge
Fire in Steel-Reinforced Concrete Building Causes
Partial Collapse
Time Collapse Situation 129 East face of the
21st floor collapsed 137 South middle section of
several floors above the 21st floor gradually
collapsed 150 Parts of floor slab with curtain
walls collapsed 202 Parts of floor slab with
curtain walls collapsed 211 Parts of floor slab
with curtain walls collapsed 213 Floors above
about 25th floor collapsed Large collapse of
middle section at about 20th floor 217 Parts of
floor slab with curtain walls collapsed 247 South
west corner of 1 2 floors below about 20th
floor collapsed 251 Southeast corner of about
18th 20th floors collapsed 335 South middle
section of about 17th 20th floors collapsed
Fire broke through the Upper Technical
Floor 348 Fire flame spurted out below the Upper
Technical Floor 417 Debris on the Upper
Technical Floor fell down
Sunday, Jan. 10, 2016 photo, the burned hulk of
The Address Downtown is seen in Dubai, United
Arab Emirates. Skyscraper fires like the blaze
that struck the 63-story luxury hotel in Dubai on
New Year?s Eve, 2016, swiftly turning it into a
towering inferno, are not that rare. The fire in
Dubai has raised new issues about the safety of
exterior sidings put on high-rise buildings in
the United Arab Emirates and around the world.
(AP Photo/Jon Gambrell)
Assessment of fire damaged structuresBRE
Information Paper IP 24/81
  • Buildings, or portions of buildings, look a
    sorry sight after a fire
  • some may have collapsed and be only twisted
    ruins, others may have mainly suffered damage
    from smoke.
  • Between these extremes there is a wide range of
    degree of damage.
  • Where there is no visible damage such as
    charring of timber, spalling of concrete or
    distortion of steelwork, there is generally
    little likelihood of permanent loss of
    strength of the material although this cannot
    always be assumed.
  • It is essential to do a thorough inspection of
    the complete premises in order to ensure that
  • eg through thermal expansion or water leakage,
    has not occurred in those parts not directly
    involved in the fire.

  • Standard fire resistance tests determine the
    period of time for which elements of building
    construction should fulfill their design function
    of load bearing and / or fire separation while
    exposed to heat in accordance with a
    predetermined time / temperature relationship is
    an idealisation of an uncontrolled growing fire
    in a room.
  • It assumes an unlimited supply of fuel and its
    burning rate, being controlled mainly by
    ventilation condition, follows a predictable

  • In real incidents, fire may have remained
    localised for a long time, the rate of
    temperature rise may have been faster, or slower,
    than in the standard test, or extensive spread
    may occur.
  • Different rooms and different parts of a building
    may have suffered different fire intensities.
  • It is important to determine as accurately as
    possible the condition of each element of the
    structure following the fire.
  • Particular attention also needs to be given to
    those features which are an indirect consequence
    of the fire,
  • eg forces not considered in the orginal design
    may have been generated by expansion or damage to
    other members.

  • Table 1 gives an approximate guide to the
    estimation of temperatures attained by various
    components in building fires, from an examination
    of debris.

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  • The colouration of concrete at various depths is
    a clue to both the maximum surface temperature
    attained (Figure 1) and the time / temperature
    experience (Figure 2).
  • Care and experince are required when considering
    spalled surfaces.
  • The interpretation will depend on judgement as to
    whether spalling occured during the period of
    maximum heat exposure or subsequently, and as to
    the allowance to be made for this factor.
  • The extent of the change of colour varies with
    the type of fine and coarse aggregate but changes
    will occur to some degree for all types of
  • Wetting the affected concrete surface will
    enhance the colours. Some types of stone shows
    similar changes.

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  • The depth of charring from the orginal surface
    gives a rough guide to the duration of fire
    attack on a timber member.
  • Timber will char at a steady rate on each face
    exposed to heating.
  • The rates which are given in Table 2 relate BS
    476Part 8 conditions and allow an assessment to
    be made in terms of an equivalent fire resistance
  • Increased values are appropriate for the rate of
    depletion of columns and beams when exposed on
    all faces.
  • Due allowance must be made for areas which have
    been allowed to smoulder after the fire has been

  • With palsterboard of 9.5 mm thickness, the
    unexposed paper face will be charred if there
    has been a fire equivalent in severity to about
    ten minutes under BS 476 Part 8 conditions.

  • any material heated above 200oC is likely to show
    significant loss of strength which may, or may
    not, be recovered after cooling.

  • Clay bricks withstand temperature in the region
    of 1000oC or more without damage but under very
    severe and prolonged heating the surface of a
    brick may fuse.
  • Spalling can occur with some types of brick
    particularly of the performed type.
  • A load bearing wall exposed to fire will suffer a
    progressive reduction in strength due to
    deterioration of the mortar in the same manner as
  • Severe damage is more likely to be caused by the
    expansion or collapse of other members.
  • Small expansion cracks in the structure may
    collapse up after the building has cooled.

Cast Iron
  • Because of their heavy mass and low design
    stresses, cast iron members generally show good
    performance in fires.
  • The member should be carefully examined for signs
    of cracking. A permanent loss of strength can
    occur when the temperature of a cast-iron member
    exceeds 600oC but because of their large thermal
    mass this requires a fire of such severity that
    rebuilding is probably necessary anyway.

  • The behaviour of concrete structures in fire is
    discussed elsewhere5.6. The pink colour change at
  • 300oC which occurs with most natural aggregates
    used in the UK is very important as it coincides
    with the temperature below which the compressive
    strength is not significantly reduced. Higher
    temperatures up to approximately 500oC or above
    may be endured by lightweight concrete before
    significant loss of strength occurs. In a
    concrete member, only the temperature of the
    outside layers increases initially and the
    temperatures of the internal concrete will be
    comparatively low, unless the fire exposure is
    prolonged, as concrete is a poor conductor of
    heat (Figure 2). Temperature rise at a greater
    depth than indicated in that figure will occur if
    extensive spalling occurs during fire exposure.
    Natural aggregate concretes heated to
  • 300oC or above, and lightweight aggregate
    concretes heated to 500oC or above, may need to
    be replaced in
  • critical areas during reinstatement.

Steel Reinforcement
  • Looses strength at high temperatures as discussed
    below. Loss in effective concrete section in
    prestressed members may significantly alter the
    intended design stress profile in addition to
    permitting a higher temperature in any adjacent
    steel tendons with consequent increased loss.

  • Hollow clay tiles and woodwool cement slabs (used
    in floors)
  • may be damaged but when these are used as formers
    for the structural concrete section they have no
    structural significance and the damage can be
  • Plaster
  • Plaster tends to be loosened in a fire and may
    require replacement for this reason.
  • If it is severely stained by smoke which is
    resistant to washing, it will probably be more
    satisfactory to replace the plaster than to
    overpaint the smoke stains.

  • When a building has been exposed to fire the
    structural steelwork may suffer from any or all
    of the following effects
  • a) expansion of heated members relative to
    others which restrain this movement, leading to
    distortion of the heated member or its neighbours
    particularly at connection,
  • b) increased ductility, reduced strength and
    plastic flow while metal is at a high
  • c) change, persisting after cooling, in the
    mechanical properties of the metal.
  • The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of
    steel is nominally 14 X 10-6/0C. In a fire this
    may be sufficiently small for it to be taken up
    by elastic deformation, expansion joints etc, or
    may permanent distortion of the framework or
    extensive cracking of bearing walls.

  • The temperature at which the flow stress of mild
    steel falls to the design stress is generally
    taken to be about 550oC -
  • for a design factor of safety of about 2. At
    stress levels less than the maximum permitted in
    design, this critical temperature will rise.
    The effects of constraints and continuity can
    also raise the critical temperature.
  • Unless temperatures of 650oC are exceeded, there
    will be no deterioration in the mechanical
    properties of mild and micro-alloyed steels on
  • After heating cold-drawn and heat-treated steels
    lose their strength more rapidly than mild and
    micro-alloyed steels and, on cooling from
    temperatures in excess of about 300oC and 400oC
    respectively, part of this loss of strength will
    be permanent.

  • In general, any steel members which have
    not distorted can be considered to be
    substantially unaffected by the heat to which
    they have been subjected. However, it must be
    realized that in certain cases some degradation
    in strength will have occurred.
  • Members should be examined for cracks around
    rivet or bolt holes if expansion movements have
    taken place.
  • It will usually however, be the cleast, rivets
    and especially bolts which will have suffered and
    not the main members.
  • Decision on reinstatement may need to be taken in
    the light of expert engineering and metallurgical

  • Tiles and slates
  • Clay tiles that have survived a fire unbroken may
    be reused, as can slates that appear sound.
  • Timber
  • Behaviour of timber in fire is predictable with
    regard to the rate of charring and loss of
  • It is free from rapid changes of state and has
    very low coefficient of thermal expansion and
    thermal conductivity.
  • For practical purposes, it can be assumed that
    full strength is maintained below the charred
  • For assessment of fire resistance of structural
    timber, BS 52683 provides calculation methods for
    flexural, compressive and tensile members.

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Woodwool cement
  • The material below the crumbly fire damaged layer
    will be sound.
  • If a sufficient depth of sound material is
    present the slabs may be retained.

  • A design procedure for the reinstatement of fire
    damaged buildings is given elswhere also a case
    study on building reinstatement.
  • The problems caused by fire will of course
    include damage from water used in fire fighting
    as well as from heat and smoke.

  • The initial consideration of fire damaged
    premises should classify the damage to building
    components in terms of superficial, repairable or
    requiring replacement.
  • In any investigation, it is essential to
    determine the exact form of construction of each
  • Specialist advice may be needed in cases where
    there is much borderline repairable damage or
    where the construction is sophisticated.
  • The final decision on the extent of repair or
    demolition may include consideration of costs,
    time and possible improvements.

  • 1. British Standars Instution. Fire tests on
    building materials and structures. Test methods
    and criteria for the fire resistance of elements
    of building construction. BS 476 Part 81972
    London. BSI 1972
  • 2. Bessey GE. Investigation on building fires.
    Part 2. The visible changes in concrete or mortar
    exposed to high temperatures. National Building
    Studies Technical Paper No 4 . London, HMSO,
  • 3. British Standards Instution. The structural
    use of timber. Fire resistance of timber
    structures. Method of calculating fire
    resisitance of timber members. BS 5268 Part 4.
    11978. London, BSI,
  • 1978.
  •  4. Lie T T. Fire and Buildings. Applied Science
    Publisher Ltd. London, 1978.
  •  5. Asseement of fire damaged concrete structures
    and repair by gunite. Concrete Society Technical
  •  Report No 15. The Concrete Society. London,
  •  6. Green J K. Some aids to the assessment of
    fire damage. Concrete. January, 1976.
  •  7. Smith C I et al. The reinstatement of fire
    damage steel framed structures. British Steel
  •  Research Organization. Teeside Laboratories.
  •  8. Malhotra H L and Morris W A. An investigation
    into the fire problems associated with woodwool
    permanent shuttering for concrete floors.
    Building Research Establishment Current Paper
    CP68/78. Borehamwood, 1978.
  • 9. Marchant E W ( Editor). A complete guide to
    fire and buildings. Medical and Technical
  •  Co Ltd. Lancaster, 1972.
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