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From Policy to Practice Trends and Evidence on Adopt A School Program


From Policy to Practice Trends and Evidence on Adopt A School Program Baela Raza Jamil Chairperson Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) Presented at the Workshop – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From Policy to Practice Trends and Evidence on Adopt A School Program

From Policy to Practice Trends and Evidence on
Adopt A School Program
  • Baela Raza Jamil
  • Chairperson Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA)
  • Presented at the Workshop
  • Hosted by the
  • Sindh Education Foundation
  • Karachi June 21, 2005

Presentation in Seven Segments
  1. Call for Action on School Improvement through
    partnerships Adopt a School Program.. A
    citizens response
  2. AAS from an innovative scheme to nationwide
    mainstreamed policy on public private
    partnerships with incentives ..
  3. Scale of SIP through AAS program .. The Quality
  4. Tapping Corporate and Individual Philanthropy
    PCP, Unilever
  5. Evidence of school improvement
  6. 2nd Wave of Reforms .. Mainstreaming innovations
    for sustainability
  7. New Roles, Modalities and Next Steps

PCP, Unilever City District Govt Lahore are
duly credited for relevant texts
1. Call for Action on School Improvement through
Adopt a School Program.. A Citizens Response to
Public Inaction
  • In 1990 Professor Anita Ghulam Ali highlighted
    the need for AAS program in a Situation Analysis
    report for Sindh ..AAS was conceived as an APPEAL
    to Citizens to counter widespread education
    malaise, poor governance in the public sector,
    skills quality gap and a major service delivery
  • In 1997 AAS program was launched by the Sindh
    Education Foundation with partner NGOs. SEFs
    role was that of facilitation, advocacy and
    technical intermediation, i) between adopters
    and government, and ii) between adopters and
  • 1n 1998 AAS program expanded to Punjab, Lahore by
    the Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL)

2. From an Innovative Scheme to Mainstreamed
National Policy Practice
  • AAS was incorporated as an innovative program of
    the Education Sector Reforms Action Plan
    2001-2005 under a cross-cutting thrust area of
    ESR, viz., Public Private Partnerships (PPPs),
    one of the 7 thrust areas. AAS was subsumed under
  • PPP or Triple P was conceived as an
    acknowledgment of widespread presence of private
    and non-state actors in education provision and
    the inability of govt. to meet targets on its
    own, on account of its efficiency and
    effectiveness gaps.
  • An incentive package was approved by the cabinet
    in 2001 for mobilizing all partners to meet EFA
    sector wide ESR Goals through PPPs
  • Policy on PPPs was incorporated in the Poverty
    Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)
  • PPP found provision in provincial and district
  • Lahore, Faisalabad Kasur Sheikhupura, Jhang
    Rawalpindi, Thatta, Ghotki Hyderabad Sukkur
    Mirpurkhas, Karachi, Kech Gwadar, Chaghi, etc.
  • PPPs are increasingly reflected as a core
    component of all donor funded programs . Eg.
  • The Pakistan Development Forum 2005 had a segment
    on AAS as Best Practice

Defining PPP
  • PPP is a collaboration of government,
    communities, NGOs, individuals and private
    sector, in the funding, management and operations
    to support education development in Pakistan
  • A complementary role of all partners that enables
    them to maintain their identities and to draw out
    their respective comparative advantage/ the Value
    Added dimension.
  • Collaboration may be at
  • a) government learning sites /institutions,
  • b) community sites, and
  • c) private sector sites
  • Governance of educational institutions shall be
    strengthened and PPP shall be introduced to
    improve management, financing and planning. ESR
    2001 2005, pg. 3

  • According to the Canadian Council for
    Public-Private Partnerships, the concept is
    defined as "a cooperative venture between the
    public and private sectors, built on the
    expertise of each partner, that best meets
    clearly defined public needs through the
    appropriate allocation of resources, risks and

ESR Access to Quality, Improved Service Delivery
  • Targets 2001-2005
  • Provision of incentive package for the private
  • Involvement of the private sector in the
    management of under-utilized public sector
  • Provision of grants and soft loans through
    restructured Education Foundations
  • Adopt School Program replicated across the
  • Community Participation Project (CPP) for school
    up-gradation in afternoon shifts from primary to
    middle and middle to secondary and higher
    secondary levels.
  • Introduction of IT courses in schools / college
    through private sector under PPP
  • Access to public funds 25 utilization of funds
    at district level through CCBs and PTAs
  • PPPs are today in over 7000 public sector
    schools. The number is growing.
  • Government options for education provision
    through non-elite CSOs is growing and needs to be
    tapped more efficiently with higher returns to

3. Scale of SIP through AAS program
  • Sindh 350 (SEF 200)
  • Punjab 500 .. Six Districts (2400
    schools NRSP )
  • ICT 50
  • NWFP -
  • Balochistan 10

Major Players of AAS.. Harnessing the Valued
  • Foundations SEF Major . NEF (minor)
  • Govt. Agencies Pakistan armed forces Navy
  • GO NGOs NCHD..17 districts Rural Support
    ProgramsNRSPPRSP,SRSP (RSPs in 74 districts)
  • NGOs Sindh Based NGOs CARE, ITA,
    HelplineDove, AIE
  • Expert Agencies Pakistan Centre for
    Philanthropy (PCP)
  • Expatriates DIL Pakistan Association of
    Greater Houston ITACEC AISHA
  • Industry Corporate Social Responsibility
    Commerce FPCCI, Tandianwala,
    Tullow..many more etc.

Formal Agreements are a common feature of AAS or
SIP spelling out duration, roles and
responsibilities, as well as exit clauses
Four Phases of SIP through PPP.. Quality
  • Each phase is fully operationalized through
    tools, formats protocols, which are iterative,
    adaptable, working always with shifting baselines
  • Phase I
  • School Identification Orientation to the SIP
  • Phase II
  • Formalizing PPP MoU, Peoples Mobilization
    /Changing Attitudes
  • Phase III
  • School Development Planning and Implementation
    Changing Practices
  • Phase IV
  • Exit Strategy Partnerships for Sustainability
    (Quality and Financing)
  • Two Programs Whole school improvement program
    Schools as Community Learning Centres (CLCs)

Multiple Domains of School Effectiveness
Curriculum management its assessment
Physical environment of the school
Teacher supply, training and professional
Effective learning teaching
School leadership, internal organization and
Accountability mechanisms and processes
The well-being, attendance and motivation of
all students
Quality assurance and support systems
Links and partnerships with parents and
School Improvement Frameworkwhole school
approach Empowering Schools Empowering
  • 4 Dimensions
  • Quality Curriculum Management, Assessment,
    Pedagogy Teacher Training, Learning incl. Special
    needs Physical Environment, Supervision
  • Leadership and Management ..Vision, Targets,
    Strategies and systems .. Shared responsibilities
    ..Head teacher led model
  • Community Participation and mobilization ..SMCs/
    PTAs, Parents and Local Councilors
  • Health and Childs well being Strategy
  • Primary health care in schools/homes
  • Referrals for secondary and tertiary support
  • Childrens enrichment programs

A comprehensive program which requires
investments human, institutional and financial.
SIP partners thus need to mobilize resources to
cover support over 3-5 years. .
4 Tapping Corporate Philanthropy PCP Policy
framework 3Ps
  • Pakistan Centre for Philanthropy (PCP) at the
    cutting edge of tapping corporate social
    responsibility and linking industry with
    certified NGOs for social sector development. PCP
    derives its mandate from existing national
  • Education is the most important factor
    distinguishing the poor from the non-poor (PRSP)
  • Increased role of the private sector, CSOs and
    communities for promotion of education by
    involvement in formulation, implementation and
    monitoring of strategies (PRSP ESR)
  • Public private partnerships are critical to
    reaching the goals of access and quality at all
    levels of education creating possibilities for
    both voice and choice and improved service
    delivery (PRSP ESR)

PCPs 3Ps Model
The project aims to
Create linkages between the state primary
secondary education outlets, the corporate
philanthropists and nonprofit organizations
Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs) have capacity to
mobilize and organize communities
Government has a large Infrastructure and a wide
network of social sector assets
Corporate philanthropists have financial resources
Partners Making a Difference
Role of PCP
  • PCPs role includes but is not limited to the
  • Identify and cultivate local corporate
    philanthropists to invest in improving the
    condition of state run schools.
  • Identify government schools for improvement in
    consultation with potential corporate
    philanthropists and the Executive District
  • Development of detailed budgeted intervention
  • Develop implementation and monitoring plans for
    effective management of adopted schools.
  • Act as a technical resource to perform tasks such
    as preparation of partnership agreements,
    identify and engage appropriate local expertise,

5.b The Corporate Perspective UNILEVER
..Millennium Goals
  • Issue - One billion people denied basic amenities
  • Promote global citizenship and interdependence
  • Connect Business, Government, Stakeholders
  • Mobilise global science, technology, knowledge
  • Tackle hunger, disease, environmental degradation
  • --- Kofi Annan

The Challenge
  • Over one billion people live on 1 per day
  • Convert poverty into opportunity
  • Reach via effective networks
  • Focus on big hits
  • Measure results
  • Achieve sustainability and scale
  • Involvement of business with social and public
  • Revisit existing paradigms

The Belief
  • Business is part of society, not outside it
  • Business has responsibility - not just profits
    for shareholders, but long term sustainable
    business for its stakeholders
  • Private-sector involvement is crucial for poverty

Corporate Social Responsibility the Approach
...Start recognizing the poor as resilient and
creative entrepreneurs and value conscious
consumers a whole new world of opportunity will
open up
The Fortune at the Bottom of the
Pyramid C.K. Prahalad
Unilevers Approach
  • Global Compact and Millennium Development Goals
    at the core
  • Strategic Thrust in Pakistan focuses on
  • Education
  • Water Sustainability
  • Health
  • Work through strategic alliances and partnerships
  • Sustainable, measurable and scaleable commitment

Impact on Society
5. Evidence of AAS on School Improvement
  • Enrolments from 20 to 200
  • Infrastructure . Missing facilities all
  • Furniture For students and staff
  • Staffing/HR From 20 to 500
  • TeacherTraining..Intensive support
  • Comm.Mob.. .. PTA/SMC strengthening
  • IT provision .. From none to a 24 computer
  • Supporting /Strengthening Tehsil Resource Centres
  • Extending the school use in the afternoons as
    CLCs for IT literacy, literacy programs, homework
    study centres training and summer schools
  • Improved school ethos.culture, well being of
    children, teachers and community
  • Influencing policy eg. merging of all school
    funds revision of tuck shop rents teacher
    presence after school teacher presence during
    the summer schools payment of utilities and
    other dues by support staff who unscrupulously
    charged all expenses to schools
  • SIP through partnerships is now becoming a
    positive model accompanied by appropriate tools
    to be picked up by active Departments/Directorates
    of Education (FDE) There are formal
    Instrumental approaches to SIP

  • Example of Lahore City District
  • Exemplary PPP for School Improvement

  • CARE 97.586 million
  • Ghazi Educational Trust 20.000 million
  • Idara Taleem o Agahi 12.850 million
  • DOVE 10.000 million
  • Help Line 7.710 million
  • National Progressive Society 3.126
  • Baba Azam Society 1.426 million
  • TOTAL 152.698 Million

6. 2nd Wave of Reforms .. Mainstreaming the
Innovation for Sustainability
  • Federal ESR .. MISSING FACILITIES in 2001- 2,
    Rs. 50 million given to RSPs for missing
    facilities by Govt. of Punjab
  • GoPunjab agreement with NRSP for SIP in 2400
    schools in six districts also with PRSP for SIP
    through SMC strengthening as part of Punjab
    Education Sector Reforms Program (PESRP)
  • In 2004 NGOs encouraged to make CCBs for SIP ..
    Lahore Rs. 30 million extended for AAS
  • Pakistan Centre for Philanthropy (PCP) Triple P
    project by ESRA to tap corporate social
    philanthropy Rs. 20 million mobilized for SIP
    through CSR .. CSR now subsumed under corporate
    governance/corporate citizenship ..Code of
    Corporate Governance 2002 by SECP ..
  • Expatriate Pakistanis supporting AAS /SIP
    through various institutionalized initiatives in
    North America, UK, UAE etc. ... NCHD.other NGOs

New Trends in Resourcing SIP
  • Sustainability of SIP

District Funds CCBs
Expatriate Philanthropy
Corporate Social Responsibility from Welfare
Philanthropy to Stakeholder Partnership Part of
Compliance to Global Corporate practices
Govt. Enhanced Sector Allocations Eg. PESRP,
ESR Sindh
Comparative Perspectives of SIP
  • In Pakistan PPPs and SIP extends beyond any norms
    of partnerships globally .. An extra-ordinary
    level of generosity and good will which needs to
    be celebrated
  • In UK the Education Action Zones (EAZ)
    initiatives for SIP found PPP as vendor
    substitution not a net transfer of resources ..
    But at best a BOT (build operate and transfer )
    deal to improve efficiencies
  • In USA SIP is organized through Foundations such
    as the Melinda and Bill Gates/SOROS/Ford etc as
    grant programs for school districts more
    recently school districts are being run by
    universities .. School-University partnerships
    e.g Boston University others
  • In South Africa READ has been active in SIP to
    improve reading, literacy skills and quality
  • In India CSR is emerging in a big way due to
    shifts in post liberalized India from Welfare
    Philanthropy to Stakeholder Participation..
  • The Ministry of HR borrowed AAS agreements from

  • Policy not translated into procedures evenly.
    Lack of information exchange and thus environment
    of mistrust ..provincial district levels
  • Absence of well defined roles for each partner
  • Striking the right balance between public and
    private sectors
  • Often poor ownership by government of new
    strategic initiatives
  • NGOs not equally capable of turning around
    failed or dysfunctional schools
  • Shared management and limited power over
    decision making in govt. adopted schools is often
    very frustrating for adopters partners of SIP
  • Corporate sector is seeking a more active role
    in direct engagement with SIP as part of the new
    CSR regime. Pakistans rate of growth projected
    to 7-8 over next decade.. A unique opportunity
    and challenge
  • Industry a new player both private and state
    companies. Corporate Governance regimes
    emerging Codes of Practice at National Global
    levels present a niche which needs to be tapped

7. New Roles, Modalities and Next Steps
  • Govt. is engaging with civil society to improve
    schools through public sector CCBs,
    Project/Service Agreements, allocation of Public
    Sector Development Program Budgets (PSDP) to
    civil society organizations to help improve
    performance and utilization
  • CCB funds mobilized for SIP through
    Partnerships.. Sustaining the initiatives through
    mainstreamed funds
  • Charter Schools a possibility. Serious Non-state
    partners to move from AAS to Charter Schools for
    sustaining improvement. Early examples are NRSP,
    Book Group as proto types. Charter schools needs
    formalization (explained in slides 35-36)
  • SEF must continue with its technical brokering
    and demonstration role to ensure standard setting
    /quality assurance and relationship management

Next Steps
  • District Govts may collaborate with an
    established partner for improving management
    practices at the school and district level
    embracing envisioning , reallocation and
    rationalization of human and financial resources
    which is linked to performance and measurable
  • District Govt. to develop with SEF, PCP ITA
    comprehensive dossiers on school improvement
    options through partnerships to improve
    performance and for capacity building of its own
    staff and NGOs
  • Learning consortium of partners developed on SIP
    for sharing what works and also to actively
    influence policy
  • Corporate Social Responsibility must be
    recognized as a formal and integral part of SIP
    with annual public recognition, shields and
    awards.. It would help them in corporate
    governance and compliance codes
  • SIP in public sector is now providing the basis
    for improving non-elite private sector schools
    eg. SEFs Strengthening Private Education
    Institutes Program (SPEIP).

Charter Schools .Can we do it !
  • What is a Charter school?A charter school is a
    nonsectarian public school of choice that
    operates with freedom from many of the
    regulations that apply to traditional public
    schools. The "charter" establishing each such
    school is a performance contract detailing the
    school's mission, program, goals, students
    served, methods of assessment, and ways to
    measure success.
  • Duration for charter grants are for 3-5 years.
    Renewal of contract is possible Charter schools
    are accountable to their sponsor-usually a state
    or local school board-to produce positive
    academic results and adhere to the charter
  • Accountability The basic concept of charter
    schools is that they exercise increased autonomy
    in return for this accountability. They are
    accountable for both academic results and fiscal
    practices to several groups the sponsor that
    grants them, the parents who choose them, and the
    public that funds them.

Charter Schools Contd..
  • Objectives/performance targets. To (1)
    increase opportunities for learning and access to
    quality education for all students, (2) create
    choice for parents and students within the public
    school system, (3) provide a system of
    accountability for results in public education,
    (4) encourage innovative teaching practices, (5)
    create new professional opportunities for
    teachers, (6) encourage community and parent
    involvement in public education, and (7) leverage
    improved public education broadly.Funding of
    Charter Schools comes from the government itself
    However, they receive less than 100 of the
    funds allocated to their traditional counterparts
    for the operation of public schools
  • 40 States in US with over 3000 Charter Schools
  • http//
  • http//

Public Private Initiatives .. From adversaries to
collaborators in the most critical enterprise..
  • PPIs can be seen across all sites for
  • Local level planning of School Development Plans
    with CCBs/School Councils
  • Cluster based teacher training thru. Community
    Learning or Local Resource Centres for both
    public and private schools
  • Low cost community based construction of
    government schools to provide facilities for
    enabling quality learning
  • Initiating IT centers in government facilities
    all day use
  • School upgradation in afternoon/morning shifts

  • Setting up private sector schools through the
    Sindh Education Foundation (SEF) and district
    resources (CCBs) especially for middle and
    secondary levels in rural areas and urban slums
    with a particular focus on girls and
    disadvantaged groups. Bridging access gaps at
    middle and secondary levels
  • Creating learning belts between public and
    private sector in school improvement
  • Technical education and placement services
    between schools and industry industry
    learning clusters
  • Setting up a PPP learning and quality assurance
    centre as an incubator for seeking effective
    learning solutions (K1-14) in subject based and
    management competencies as a partnership between
    experts, industry, and district government
    outreach program for public and private sector
    schools .tapping CSR strategically alongwith
  • Research, evaluation and advocacy activities with
    government, universities and Private Voluntary
    Organizations. Forging university school links
    as partnerships for SIP

  • Thank You

Annex PCP SMC and NPO partner Besides, the
roles of the key partners in the management of
this project are illustrated in the following
Elements Major Responsibility Financial Support Technical Support
1. Social Mobilization NPO PCP PCP
2. Small Infrastructure / Maintenance SMC CP / SMC EDO-E EDO-W
3.Major Infrastructure SMC CP/ EDO-E EDO-W
4. Salary of Contract Teachers SMC/NPO CP / SMC --
5. Selection Recruitment of Contract Teachers SMC/NPO CP --
6. Salary of Government Teachers EDO-E EDO-E --
7. Selection Recruitment of Gov. Teacher EDO-E EDO-E --
8. Monitoring Teacher attendance SMC -- NPO
9. Teachers training NPO CP EDO-E, PCP
10.Teaching aids /science Education at Secondary Level NPO CP EDO-E/PCP
11. Sports/Extra Curricular activities SMC/NPO CP/SMC NPO/PCP
12. Nutrition Program SMC/NPO CP NPO/PCP
13. Scholarship/stipends CP/SMC CP NPO/PCP
14. Rewards to teacher for better performance CP/SMC CP NPO/PCP
Com. Community NPO Non- Profit
Organization NGO Non-Government
Organization SMC School Management
Committee EDO-E Executive District
Officer-Education CP Corporate
Philanthropist EDO-W Executive District
Officer-Works PCP Pakistan Center for
SIPs Intervention Grid (ITA)
Sr. Project Activities/ Interventions Responsibility Time line . Status
1. Needs Assessment Form
2. Adoption/ Signing of MoU
3. House Hold Educational social survey
4. Hopes and fear session with teacher
5. Session with Students (Creative art work) what they want in school
6. General Body meeting (Session with Community)
7. Formation of School Council (SC)
8. School Development Plan (SDP) Formulation.
9. Implementation of School Development Plan
10. Construction and Physical Rehabilitation Installation of electricity (After Adoption)
11. Hiring of Teachers
Sr. Project Activities Responsibility Time Line Status
11. Teachers Training
Early Childhood Education
12. Health Action Program/Health club
School Enrichment Program Home work study centre Literacy Center Summer School
13. Promotion of ICTs / IT Center
14. Monitoring of the school development plan
Up-gradation of Schools to the next level
Exit Strategy
Emerging Trends in CSR Corporate Governance
  • Conclusion
  • The new economic era in India i.e. the
    post-liberalization phase of the Indian economy
    was a catalyst for the radical transformation in
    the corporate social responsibility related
    practices in the country, The change was two
  • transformation of the conceptual understanding of
    corporate social responsibility and
  • innovations at the implementation level.
  • At the conceptual level, there was a fundamental
    transformation from the charity-oriented approach
    to the stakeholder-oriented approach where the
    target group was seen as stakeholder in the
    community whose well-being was integral to the
    long term success of the company.
  • However, the real revolution occurred at the
    implementation stages whre companies have started
    committing manpower, expertise in addition to
    financial resources in order to provide a host of
    services, programs and schemes that are flexible
    enough to accommodate the needs of the target
  • The CSR initiatives have also see greater people
    participation at all stages and tighter
    accountability standards. The issue of norms for
    corporate social responsibility seems to have
    been adequately dealt with by industry practices
    like benchmarking, CSR ratings and certification
    by different agencies.
  • Emerging Trends In Corporate Social
    Responsibility Perspectives And Experiences From
    Post-Liberalized India Sudip Mahapatra and
    Kumar Visalaksh
  • National Academy of Legal Studies and Research,
    University of Law, Hyderabad
  • Presented at the LUMS Conference May 2005
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