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Judaism, Christianity,


Judaism, Christianity, & Islam Brief History Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism in Mesopotamia around 1300 B.C. Judaism is the oldest of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Judaism, Christianity,

Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Brief History
  • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded
    Judaism in Mesopotamia around 1300 B.C. Judaism
    is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths
    (religions with one God).
  • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was
    crucified around A.D. 33 in Palestine in the city
    of Jerusalem. It was after his death when his
    followers came to believe in him as the Christ,
    the Messiah.
  • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad in A.D. 622.

4000550 BC
Abrahams Genealogy
All 3 Religions are linked by AbrahamHe is the
patriarch of all 3
  • Islam-Quran
  • Judaism-Torah

12 Arabian Tribes
Mecca (Muslims)
  • Muhammad (the last prophet)
  • Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam

12 Tribes of Israel
  • Other 10 tribes-(Israelites) (Hebrews)
  • 2 Tribes - (Jews) of Judah
  • Jesus Christ (son of God)
  • The Hebrew Bible - Old Testament in the Christian

Judaism Briefly
  • Judaism is over 3000 years old and is the oldest
    of the world's monotheistic religions (religions
    with only one God). It's also the smallest, with
    only about 14 million (7th) followers around the
  • Its holy city is Jerusalem.

Judaism Beliefs
  • Jews believe that there is a single God (Yahweh)
    who not only created the universe, but with whom
    every Jew can have an individual and personal
  • They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly
    king. They believe in heaven, but that God
    determines where they go after life on earth.
  • Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.

Judaism Holy Book
  • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first
    five books of the Christian Bible). Others
    include Judaism's oral tradition, the written
    form of which is known as the Talmud.
  • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five
    books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai.
  • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and

Judaism Place of Worship
  • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. Men and
    women usually sit separately.
  • Worship is led by a Rabbi.
  • Saturday (begins at sundown on Friday) is time
    for worship.

Stamford Hill, London
The Temple
  • According to the Bible, the First Temple for
    Jewish worship was built around 900-1000 BCE and
    destroyed by Babylonians in 586 BCE.
  • The Jews were then sent out of Canaan, but
    returned after 50 years in exile.
  • A Diaspora occurs when a group of people leave
    their homeland and move to many different
    locations separately.
  • All of the worlds Jewish communities today that
    do not live in present-day Israel are part of the
    Jewish Diaspora.

The Temple
  • A new temple was finished 70 years later on the
    site of the First Temple, but was badly
    plundered by invading Romans about 54 BCE.
  • King Herod, a Jew, ruled Judea for the Romans.
    Under him the second temple was rebuilt in 20
  • When the Romans attacked Jerusalem again in 70
    CE(AD), they destroyed Herods temple.
  • Today, the single remaining temple wall, the
    Western Wall, is a place of prayer for Jewish
  • Jews moved away from the land again, until the
    modern state of Israel was formed in the late

Judaism Map!
  • Judaism in 1500 C.E.
  • Judaism Today

Today, located in Israel and U.S.
In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East
Christianity briefly
  • Christianity is the world's largest religion,
    with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide. It is
    based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived
    in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

Christianity Beliefs
  • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son
    of God
  • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from
    the consequences of its sins
  • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after
    his Crucifixion (the Resurrection)
  • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah
    promised in the Old Testament
  • Christians believe that there is only one God,
    but that this one God consists of 3 "persons-God
    the Father, God the Son, God the Holy
  • Christians believe that God made the world.

Christianity Beliefs
  • Christians believe that they can have a personal
    relationship with God, and that they are saved by
    faith, and good works.
  • They believe in heaven and hell.
  • They believe that the Bible is the inspired word
    of God.

Christians Holy Book
  • The Bible is the Christian holy book. It is
    divided into the Old and New Testaments. Parts of
    the writing contained in the Old Testament are
    also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.

Christian Place of Worship
  • The Christian place of worship is called a
    Church, which are built in the shape of a cross
    with the altar facing east towards the rising
    sun. Services are led by a priest, pastor or
  • Day of worship is normally Sunday.

Westminster Abbey London
Christian Sects
  • Roman Catholicism vs. Eastern Orthodox-Christian
    Church divided when the Roman Empire was divided
    and then fell. Orthodox Christians do not
    recognize the authority of the Pope.
  • Catholicism vs. Protestantism-as a result of the
    Reformation, Protestant sects broke with the
    Catholic Church and established their own
    separate churches.

Christianity Map!
  • Christianity 1500 C.E.
  • Christianity Today

In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East
Today, located in Americas and Europe
Islam Briefly
  • Islam is the second most popular religion in the
    world with 1.3 billion followers. Islam began in
    Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the
    Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Those who
    follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe
    that there is only one God, called Allah, who
    speaks Arabic.

Islam Holy Book
  • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is
    'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices
    are rooted in the Qur'an.
  • Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect
    because they believe that the Qur'an is from
    Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred.
  • Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word
    of God.

Islam Place of Worship
  • The Muslim building for communal worship is
    called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic
    for "place of prostration".
  • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day
    from minarets towers on the mosque corners.
  • They contain only designs, no people or animals
    or furniture.
  • Normal day of worship is Friday.
  • Religious leaders are called imams.

Grand mosque in Mecca
Five Pillars Belief system/law code
  • Shahadah declaration of faith "I bear witness
    that there is no god, but God I bear witness
    that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting
    this, one enters Islamic faith.
  • Salah Pray 5 times a day facing MeccaMuslims
    are required to pray five times a day, washing
    themselves before prayer and facing in the
    direction of Mecca while praying.
  • Zakat Give a fixed proportion to charity
    Muslims are required to give away a percentage
    of their earnings to those less fortunate,
    regardless of their religion.
  • Saum Fast during the month of RamadanMuslims
    fast for one lunar month each year, a period
    called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect
    on their behavior and strive to purify their
  • Hajj Make a pilgrimage to MeccaIf it is
    financially possible, Muslims are required to
    travel to Mecca once in their lifetime.

The Hajj
  • HijjaThe month of pilgrimage during which all
    Muslims, at least once in their life, should try
    to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and worship at
    the Kaaba

Muslim Sects
  • Sunni-the majority
  • Shia-the minority
  • The split rose from an early dispute over who
    should be the leader of Islam after the death of
    Muhammad. The Sunnis argued that the successor
    should be appointed by election and consensus, as
    tradition dictated. (Sunni comes from the Arabic
    word Sunna , meaning tradition.) The Shia
    believed that Muhammad's successors should come
    from his family, starting with Ali, his
    son-in-law. These, the partisans of Ali, were
    named from the word Shia , meaning partisan in

Islam Map!
  • Islam in 1500 C.E.
  • Islam Today

In 1500, located in Middle East, Africa, and
Southern Europe
Today, located in Middle East, Africa, and Asia
View of Fellow Abrahamic Religions
  • Judaism Islam and Christianity are false
    interpretations and extensions of Judaism.
  • Christianity Judaism is a true religion, but
    with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false
  • Islam Jews and Christians are respected as
    fellow believers, but with wrong beliefs and only
    partial revelation.
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