Ancient%20Kingdoms%20of%20the%20Nile - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient%20Kingdoms%20of%20the%20Nile

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Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile GEOGRAPHY OF THE NILE VALLEY If no Nile, then no Egypt swallowed up by the deserts +deserts protect from invasion : ) -limit settlement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient%20Kingdoms%20of%20the%20Nile


1
Ancient Kingdomsof the Nile
2
GEOGRAPHY OFTHE NILE VALLEY
  • If no Nile, then no Egypt
  • swallowed up by the deserts
  • deserts protect from invasion )
  • -limit settlement (
  • BLACK LAND rich, irrigated, 10 miles wide
  • RED LAND sun-baked desert across N. Africa
  • use Nile Valley for farming

3
Yearly Floods
  • people eagerly awaited
  • life-giving water
  • deposits of silt
  • needed to control floods
  • dikes, reservoirs, irrigations ditches, etc
  • store excess for dry season

4
Uniting the Land
  • 2 regions
  • Upper (south)
  • From 1st cataract to about 100 miles of
    Mediterranean Sea
  • Lower (north)
  • Delta region
  • King Menes united the 2 regions, 3100BC
  • Used Nile as highway to link north south
  • Officials armies could be moved via river
  • Nile Egypt worlds 1st unified state
  • Served as trade route to Africa, Middle East,
    Mediterranean world

5
OLD KINGDOM(2700BC-2200BC)
  • Government
  • pharaohs organized strong centralized state
  • claimed divine support for rule
  • believed to be a god
  • absolute power over all land in kingdom
  • preserve justice order
  • depend on vizier to supervise business of govts
    various dept tax, farming, irrigation
  • scribes carry out viziers instructions
  • Ptah-hotep
  • wrote Instruction of Ptah-hotep
  • training for young officials

6
Pyramids
  • built during this time
  • still stand _at_ Giza
  • tombs for eternity due to belief in the afterlife
  • suggest size and strength of ancient Egyptian
    civilization
  • VERY COSTLY
  • require great planning and organization
  • Collapse
  • power struggles
  • crop failures
  • cost of pyramids

7
MIDDLE KINGDOM2050BC-1800BC
  • turbulent period
  • -Nile did not rise regularly
  • -corruption and rebellions common
  • large drainage project, more farming land
  • occupied Nubia
  • trade with people of Middle East Crete
  • -/Hyksosforeign invaders, 1700BC
  • Egyptians awed by horse-drawn chariots
  • Egyptians mastered new military technology
  • Hyksos impressed by Egyptian civilz and
    adopted some of customs, beliefs, languages

8
NEW KINGDOM1550BC-1100BC
  • drove out Hyksos
  • powerful ambitious pharaohs
  • brought into greater contact with western Asia
    other parts of Africa
  • Powerful Rulers
  • Hatshepsut, woman ruler who exercised all the
    rights of a pharaoh
  • Ramses II, most powerful pharaoh of NK
  • after years of fighting Hittites Egyptians
    signed a peace treaty, first document known to
    have survived history shall be at peace and
    brotherhood forever

9
EGYPT NUBIA
  • area that developed to the south of Egypt
  • a.k.a. the Kush
  • Egypt fought or traded with Nubia for centuries
  • under Ramses II used gold from Nubia to pay for
    charioteers in army, Nubians served in Egyptian
    armies, left mark on Egyptian culture
  • as Egypt declined, Nubia regained independence,
    Nubian kings marched north, adding Egypt to their
    lands
  • Nubians saw themselves not as foreign conquerors
    but as restorers of Egyptian glory, ruled Egypt
    like early pharaohs respecting Egyptian
    traditions
  • Assyrians descended on Egypt pushed Nubians back
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