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Nile River Valley Civilization

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Nile River Valley Civilization Egypt: Gift of the Nile – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nile River Valley Civilization


1
Nile River Valley Civilization
  • Egypt Gift of the Nile

2
Geography
  • Developed along the Nile River
  • Longest river in the world
  • Flood, plant, harvest, flood
  • Silt rich, fertile soil
  • Worshipped as a god
  • Deserts
  • Protected from invasions
  • Reduced interaction with other peoples

3
Geography
  • Upper Egypt
  • South
  • 1st cataract (rapids) to where river fans out
  • Lower Egypt
  • North near the sea
  • Nile delta region
  • Broad, marshy area formed by silt deposits at
    mouth of river

4
Lower Egypt
5
GeographyADVANTAGE
  • Advantage over Mesopotamian civilizations Nile
    River very predictable in flooding.
    Tigris/Euphrates Rivers very unpredictable.

6
Geography
  • Flooding
  • Yearly flodding in July
  • Rain and melted snow traveled from central-east
    Africa
  • Navigation
  • Drift North towards the delta
  • Sail south with the wind

7
Geography
  • Natural Barriers
  • The desert surroundings reduced contact with
    other civilizations
  • The desert also provided a natural barrier that
    shut out invaders

8
History
  • Menes first ruler of a united Egypt
  • The Old Kingdom 2660-2180 B.C.
  • The Middle Kingdom 2080-1640 B.C.
  • The New Kingdom 1640-1075 B.C.

9
United EGYPT
10
OLD Kingdom
  • Social Cultural
  • Polytheistic- deities associated with objects and
    emotions
  • Pyramids-final resting place for pharaohs
  • Hierarchy-royal family and nobles, middle class,
    and lower class
  • Afterlife-soul weighed against a feather

11
Social Hierarchy
12
OLD Kingdom
  • Political
  • God-Kings- success depended on his ability to
    fulfill his religious obligations and believe to
    be divine
  • THEOCRACY- government where the ruler is seen as
    divine
  • Capital at Memphis

13
OLD Kingdom
  • Economic
  • Massive Public Works-building of the pyramids
  • Pyramids at Giza
  • Papyrus-record keeping on first paper
  • disadvantage decomposes

14
Giza
15
Middle Kingdom
  • Social
  • Hierarchy continues- strong central authority
    established by nobles and pharaohs power
    diminished

16
Middle Kingdom
  • Political
  • Hyksos-asian nomads swept into Egypt with horse
    drawn chariots

17
Middle Kingdom
  • Economic
  • Trade and Transportation- canal dug from Nile to
    Red Sea
  • MODERN day Suez canal

18
New Kingdom
  • Social
  • Valley of the Kings
  • Hierarchy continues

19
New Kingdom
  • Political
  • Hatshepsut-encouraged trade instead of war
  • since queen was not accepted even she is
    depicted as having a beard
  • Term Pharaoh is first used
  • Capital moved to Thebes
  • KING TUT-unimportant rule, but famous

20
King Tut
21
New Kingdom
  • Economic
  • First time trade is encouraged

22
General Political/Rulers
  • God-Kings
  • Pharaohs divine
  • Theocracy ruler a divine figure
  • Responsible for Kingdoms well being
  • Dynasties ruling families

23
Social/Cultural
  • Religion polytheistic (many gods)
  • Believed in after-life and judgment
  • Pyramids tombs after death
  • The Old Kingdom was great age of pyramid building
  • Mummification preserve body by embalming and
    drying
  • Consumed with the after-life

24
What happened when a Pharaoh died?
  • When a pharaoh died, the body was preserved by
    people called embalmers.
  • Embalmers took the body to the Beautiful House-
    the name of where they worked.
  • They removed some of the inner parts of the body
    first. The organs were taken out and stored in
    special containers called canopic jars.
  • The heart was left in the body however, so that
    it could be weighed in the afterlife.

25
  • Then they rubbed the body with special ointments
    and wrapped it tightly with bandages.
  • When a body had been treated in this way it was
    called a mummy.
  • The mummy was put in a coffin. The coffin was the
    same shape as the body, and had a carved ,
    painted face on it.
  • A funeral was held by a Priest in the temple.

26
  • The coffin was then taken to the pharaohs tomb.
  • The pharaoh was buried with all their
    possessions, for use on the journey to the next
    world.
  • The Egyptians believed that mummification
    preserved the body of the deceased and ensured
    their survival forever.

27
Pyramid
28
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29
Great Sphinx
30
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31
Social/Cultural
  • Society structured like a pyramid
  • Royalty at top
  • Upper Class wealthy landowners, government
    officials, priests, etc.
  • Middle Class merchants and artisans
  • Lower Class peasants, etc.
  • Women had many of same rights as men

32
Pharaohs and Queens
  • Who were the Pharaohs?
  • They were the kings or Queens of Egypt. They
    were the head of the government and high priest
    of every temple. The pharaoh owned all of Egypt.
    He or she decided what was right or wrong and
    their word was law. The people of Egypt
    considered the pharaoh to be a half-human and
    half-god.

33
Priests
  • Priests were very important people in Egyptian
    times. Besides serving the gods, priests did many
    other jobs, such as teaching, or even helping
    with the harvest. Priests had to be pure and
    clean. They shaved their heads and bodies and
    washed four times a day.

This statue of a priest has a bald head, a fake
beard and he is in the praying position
34
Nobles
Court Officials and Noblemen held high office in
Ancient Egypt and helped the Pharaoh to rule the
country. The Pharaoh would often reward loyal
nobles with gifts of land, so that they would
earn their own money from taxes. Being a noble
was one of the best jobs in Egypt. Nobles were
rich and could enjoy themselves hunting and
having banquets.
Noble on a hunting trip with his family
35
Scribes
  • What is a Scribe?Scribes were the few
    Egyptians who knew how to read and write. Being a
    scribe was an extremely difficult job because in
    total, there were hundreds of different
    hieroglyphs to remember.
  • A scribe's job was highly regarded in Ancient
    Egypt. Although being a scribe was rewarding, the
    training could take as long as twelve years.

Scribes were very wise
This statue of a Scribe was found in his tomb
A peasant making papyrus
36
Craftsmen
  • Egyptian craftsmen were highly skilled. They
    learned their trade from their fathers and, in
    turn, taught their sons. They used simple
    techniques and tools to make all sorts of useful
    things. The Pharaoh, government or temples often
    employed them.

Craftsmen carving statues and ornaments
Carpenters using a bow drill
Metal workers making precious objects
37
Peasants
  • The most important business in Egypt was
    farming. Most of the people who worked in the
    fields and barns were peasants. During the flood
    season when no farming could be done the peasants
    did building work on temples and palaces.

Peasants herding cattle for the Pharaoh
Peasants preparing food for a banquet
38
Social/Cultural
  • Writing
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Papyrus writing surface (paper)
  • Rosetta Stone
  • Discovered in 1799
  • Clue to deciphering hieroglyphics

39
Economic
  • Nile River helped unify Egypt and promote trade
  • Reliable transportation between Upper and Lower
    Egypt
  • During Middle Kingdom, dug canals from Nile to
    Red Sea
  • Trade with Mesopotamia and Indus river valley
    civilizations

40
Economic
  • Wealth from new trade used for public works
    projects
  • Dikes and irrigation

41
Accomplishments
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Papyrus
  • Geometry-property boundries
  • Mathematics and Engineering- building of pyramids
  • Solar calendar
  • Advances in medicine-pulse, surgery
  • Use of bronze-two wheeled chariots

42
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