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## Geography Skills Handbook

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Title: Geography Skills Handbook

1
Geography Skills Handbook
• Essential Vocabulary
• and

2
Why is this Important?
• Geography skills provide the tools and methods
for us to understand the relationships between
people, places, and environments. We use
geographic skills when we make daily personal
decisions -where to buy a home where to get a
job how to get to the shopping mall where to go
on vacation.

3
Why is this Important?
• Community decisions, such as where to locate a
new school or how to solve problems of air and
water pollution, also require the skillful use of
geographic information.

4
Why is this Important?
• This Geography Skills Handbook introduces you to
the basic geographic tools-globes, maps,
graphs-and explains how to use them. These
geography course-and provide you with skills you
will use for the rest of your life.

5
Thinking Like a Geographer
Skill Example (s) Tools/Technique
Acquire
Organize
Analyze
6
Latitude, Longitude, and Location
• Geography is often said to begin with the
question Where? Although this question can be
answered in many ways the basic tool for finding
the answer is location. Lines on globes and maps
places. These lines cross one another, forming a
pattern called a grid system. This system helps
you find exact places on the Earths surface.

7
Grid System
8
Latitude
• Parallels Parallel to the Equator, measure the
distance north and south of the Equator in
degrees. Equator measured at 0 latitude, the
poles are 90 N and 90 S.
• North latitude Parallels north of the Equator
• South latitude Parallels south of the Equator

9
Longitude
• Meridians Circle the Earth from Pole to Pole.
Run east and west of the Prime Meridian.
• Prime Meridian Line of longitude that runs
through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich,
England.
• East longitude Places east of the PM
• West longitude Places west of the PM

10
The Global Grid
• Absolute location A global address where
latitude and longitude lines cross exactly at
that place.
• Example Tokyo, Japan is located at 36N
latitude and 140E longitude.
• Minutes Give a more precise reading each
degree of latitude and longitude is subdivided
into 60 units.

11
So How Do I Read a Global Grid?
• Just like a graph in math class.
• Why is this grid no good?

12
From Globs to Maps
• A globe is a scale model of the earth. Because
the earth is round, a globe presents the most
accurate depiction of geographic information such
as area, distance, and direction. However,
globes show little close-up detail.
• A printed map is a symbolic representation of all
or part of the planet on a flat piece of paper.
Unlike globes, maps can show small areas in great
detail. Another advantage of printed maps is
that they can be folded, stored, and easily
carried from place to place.

13
From 3-D to 2-D
• Cartographers Mapmakers
• Issues When the curves of the globe become
straight lines on a map, distortion of size,
shape, distance, or area occurs.

14
How Map Projections Work
• Map Projections Purpose of the map dictates
which style is used.

Planar
Cylindrical Conic
15
Projections and their Uses
Planar Projection Cylindrical Projection Conic Projection
Details of the globe are projected onto a plane (a flat surface) yielding a rectangular-shaped map. planar maps have a lot of distortion towards the edges. Type of map in which a cylinder is wrapped around a sphere (the globe), and the details of the globe are projected onto the cylindrical surface. Then, the cylinder is unwrapped into a flat surface, yielding a rectangular-shaped map. Type of map in which a cone is wrapped around a sphere (the globe), and the details of the globe are projected onto the conic surface. Then, the cone is unwrapped into a flat surface.

16
Common Map Projections
• The curved surface of the earth cannot be shown
accurately on a flat map. Every map projection
stretches or breaks the curved surface of the
planet in some way as it is flattened. Distance,
direction, shape, or area may be distorted.
• Cartographers have developed many map
projections, each with some advantages and some
degree of inaccuracy. Four of the most popular
map projections, named for the cartographers who
developed them, are shown below.

17
Winkel-Tripel Projection
• NG official projection
• Good size/shape balance
• Polar areas distorted

18
Robinson Projection
• Developed before the Winkel-Tripel
• Minor distortions, poles are very distorted

19
Lets Compare
20
Goodes Interrupted Equal-Area Projection
• Good to show data
• True size/shape of landmasses
• Distance distorted

21
Mercator Projection
• Useful for sea travel
• Further from equator, become extremely distorted
• Shows true size/shape of landmasses

22
• In addition to scale and the lines of latitude
and longitude, maps feature other important tools
contain. Learning to use these map tools will

23
Key/Legend
• Every map has different symbols, to assure that
the symbols used are clear every map contains a
key a list that explains what the symbols stand
for.

24
Boundary Lines
• On political maps boundary lines highlight the
borders between different countries, states, or
counties.

25
Compass Rose
• A marker to indicate direction
• Cardinal Directions
• N, S, E, W
• Intermediate Directions
• NE, NW, SE, SW

26
Scale Bar
• Shows the relationship between map measurements
and actual distances.

27
Cities
• Represented by dots. Relative sizes of cities
can be used by using dots of different size.

28
Capitals
• National capitals are often represented by a star
with in a circle.

29
Small-Scale Maps
• A small-scale map can show a large area but
little detail. Note that the scale bar for this
map indicates that about ½ an inch is equal to
200 miles and about 300 kilometers.

30
Large-Scale Maps
• A large-scale map can show a small area on the
earths surface with a great amount of detail.
Note that map measurements correspond to much
smaller distances than on a small-scale map.

31
Absolute and Relative Location
• As you learned before, a places absolute
location is found at the precise point where one
line of latitude crosses a line of longitude.
Another way that people indicate location is by
relative location. You may be told, for example,
to look for a street that is two blocks north
of another street. Relative location is the
location of one place in relation to another
place.

32
Absolute and Relative Location
• To find relative location, find a reference
pointa location you already knowon a map. Then
look in the appropriate direction for the new
location. For example, locate Houston (your
reference point) on this map. The relative
location of Dallas can be described as northwest
of Houston and Galveston can be described as
southeast of Houston.

33
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34
Types of Maps
• Maps are prepared for many uses. The use for
which a map is intended determines the kinds of
information it contains. Learning to recognize a
its content.
• General Purpose Maps
• Used for reference, education, and travel. There
are 2 main types

35
Physical Map
• Shows location and the topography, or shape, or
the earths physical features. Physical maps use
colors or patterns to indicate reliefthe
difference in elevation, or height, of landforms.
• These physical features often help to explain the
historical development of a country.

36
Physical Map
37
Political Map
• Shows the boundaries between countries. Smaller
internal division, such as states or counties,
may also be indicated by different symbols.
• Political maps often show human-made features
such as capitals, cities, roads, highways, and

38
Political Map
39
Special Purpose Maps
• Maps that emphasize a single idea or a particular
kind of information about an area are called
special-purpose maps. There are many kinds of
special-purpose maps, each designed to serve a
different need relief maps, climate maps,
population density maps, vegetation maps,
elevation profiles, economic activity maps, and
cartograms.

40
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41
Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
• In addition to globes and maps, geographers use
other visual representations to display and
interpret data. Graphs, charts, and diagrams
provide valuable information in forms that are
well organized and easy to read.

42
Graphs
• A graph is a visual representation of
information. There are many kinds of graphs,
each suitable for certain purposes. Most graphs
show two sets of data, one displayed along the
vertical axis and the other displayed along the
horizontal axis. Labels on these axes identify
the data being displayed.

43
Line Graph
• Shows change in two variables or changing sets of
circumstances over periods of time.
• To analyze data on a line graph, study the
changes and trends as shown by the line.

44
Bar Graph
• Shows comparisons. To analyze a bar graph, note
the differences in quantities.

45
Circle Graph
• Also called a pie chart, shows the relationship
of parts to a whole.
• Percentages are indicated by relative size and
sometimes by color.
• To analyze a circle graph, study the
relationships of areas to one another and to the
whole.

46
Charts and Tables
• Data are arranged in columns and rows in a chart
or table. Charts and tables display facts in an
organized manner and make comparisons easy. To
find key information in a chart or table look for
the intersections of columns and rows.

47
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48
Diagrams
• A diagram is a drawing that shows what something
is or how something is done. Many diagrams
feature several drawings or sections that show
the steps in a process.