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Title: The%20Peacemakers

The Peacemakers
  • b. 1833 in Stockholm, d. 1896
  • father was industrialist construction business
  • made fortune making sea - mines
  • Alfred well-educated w/ interests in poetry and
  • had more than 355 patents, including

Alfred Nobel
  • never married
  • Bertha von Suttner
  • peace activist
  • probably influenced his inclusion of Peace Prize

(won Peace Prize in 1905)
The Nobel Peace Prize
Perhaps my factories will put an end to war
sooner than your congresses on the day that two
army corps can mutually annihilate each other in
a second, all civilised nations will surely
recoil with horror and disband their
troops. Letter to Bertha von Suttner
- intended his invention of dynamite be used for
industrial, not military purposes
Does deterrence work?
The Nobel Peace PrizeHis Will
the interest on which (his estate) shall be
annually distributed in the form of prizes to
those who, during the preceding year, shall have
conferred the greatest benefit on mankindone
part to the person who shall have done the most
or the best work for fraternity between nations,
for the abolition or reduction of standing armies
and for the holding and promotion of peace
  • never saw the destructive use of his invention
    in WWI
  • understood the need to build structures for
    world peace

The Nobel Peace Prize
  • Facts
  • 93 times awarded
  • 19 times no winners (usually during times of
  • 100 individual laureates 21 organization
  • International Red Cross won 3 times
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    won 2 times
  • award is approximately 1.4 million
  • 23 American individuals organizations
  • 15 women have been winners

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011 winners
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Leymah
Gbowee Tawakkol Karman for
their non-violent struggle for the safety of
women and for womens rights to full
participation in peace-building work We cannot
achieve democracy and lasting peace in the world
unless women obtain the same opportunities as men
to influence developments at all levels of
society - Thorbjoern Jagland - Second time
three individuals have shared the prize
The Nobel Peace Prize 2012 winner
European Union for over six decades
contributed to the advancement of peace and
reconciliation, democracy and human rights in
The Nobel Peace Prize Winners (and some who did
The Nobel Peace Prize
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
The Nobel Peace PrizeThe Bad
  • Yasir (Yasser) Arafat (1929-2004)
  • Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation
    Organization (PLO)
  • President of the Palestinian National Authority
  • leader of the Fatah political party

1994 Winner
The Nobel Peace PrizeYasir Arafat
for their efforts to create peace in the Middle
East.For several decades, the conflict between
Israel and its neighbour states, and between
Israelis and Palestinians, has been among the
most irreconcilable and menacing in international
politics. The parties have caused each other
great suffering.By concluding the Oslo Accords,
and subsequently following them up, Arafat, Peres
and Rabin have made substantial contributions to
a historic process through which peace and
cooperation can replace war and hate. The
award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 1994 to
Arafat, Peres and Rabin is intended by the
Norwegian Nobel Committee to honour a political
act which called for great courage on both sides,
and which has opened up opportunities for a new
development towards fraternity in the Middle
East. It is the Committees hope that the award
will serve as an encouragement to all the
Israelis and Palestinians who are endeavouring to
establish lasting peace in the region.
The Nobel Peace PrizeYasir Arafat
  • The Oslo Accords
  • first direct agreement between Israel PLO
  • framework for future negotiations and settlement
    of Palestinian conflict with Israel
  • create Palestinian National Authority to
    administer Palestinian territory
  • borders established later for creation of
    two-state solution

The Nobel Peace PrizeYasir Arafat
  • gun-runner during 1948 Arab-Israeli War
  • help found Fatah dedicated to liberation of
    Palestinians through armed conflict
  • found guilty of murdering a pro-Syrian
    Palestinian leader in Syria
  • terrorism becomes official policy of PLO in

- involved in 1972 Munich Olympic massacre
The Nobel Peace PrizeYasir Arafat
  • US accusation - 1973 Khartoum diplomatic
    assassination of 5 diplomats and 5 hostages was
    planned and carried out with the full knowledge
    and personal approval of Yasser Arafat

- involvement in Lebanese civil war (1975-1990
250,000 civilians killed)
- intifada
- personal wealth estimated at 1.3 billion
(No Transcript)
The Nobel Peace PrizeYasir Arafat
What did he accomplish?
Are Peace Accords a key factor in creating
permanent peace?
The Nobel Peace PrizeThe Bad, cont.
  • Henry Kissinger (1923 - )
  • National Security Advisor and Secretary of State
    under Presidents Nixon Ford
  • developed policy of détente with Soviet Union
  • open relations with Communist China
  • brokered Paris Peace Accords ending Vietnam War

The Nobel Peace PrizeHenry Kissinger
At its meeting on October 16 the Nobel Committee
of the Norwegian Storting decided to award the
Peace Prize for 1973 to Henry Kissinger and Le
Duc Tho, the two chief negotiators who succeeded
in arranging the ceasefire after negotiating for
nearly four years.For many long and bitter
years the civilian population of Vietnam and the
fighting troops engaged on both sides had borne
the sufferings and privations of war. This was a
war that concerned not only Vietnam and its
people it was a war moreover that had poisoned
the atmosphere in countries and between countries
all over the world Today a handful of great
statesmen are sitting down at the conference
table, deciding the question of war and peace in
the world.But the millions of people whose fate
is at stake cannot allow the politicians to carry
the burdens and responsibility alone. By means of
an active and positive world opinion we must make
our contribution to the fulfillment of our hopes
for peace.
The Nobel Peace PrizeHenry Kissinger
Irrespective of national boundaries the peoples
of this world, and not least the peace
organisations, must speak with one voice, the
voice of peace, so loudly that the politicians
are forced to listen.There are people today who
cynically shrug their shoulders at negotiated
agreements. This is an amoral, nay, a dangerous
attitude. Ceasefire agreements between states
must not be called in question, they must not be
interpreted merely as paper resolutions, but as a
moral and inviable obligation between the states
that have signed them. Only with an honest
approach of this kind to the intentions and
obligations of international agreements can they
help us along the road to peace.The peace at
which we must aim must not be limited merely to
the avoidance of military conflict. Real peace in
the world can only mean that all of us, in every
country, should make it possible for people,
irrespective of race, religion, ideology, or
nationality, to live a life free from fear, free
from violence, free from terrorism - a life in
which the fundamental human rights are the secure
and imperishable possession of every single human
The Nobel Peace PrizeHenry Kissinger
  • Chile
  • helped overthrow popularly elected government of
    Salvador Allende
  • install Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990)

Nixon Nothing new of any importance or is
there? Kissinger Nothing of very great
consequence. The Chilean thing is getting
consolidated and of course the newspapers are
bleeding because a pro- Communist government has
been overthrown. Nixon Isnt that something.
Isnt that something.
The Nobel Peace PrizeHenry Kissinger
Kissinger I mean instead of celebrating in the
Eisenhower period we would be heroes. Nixon
Well we didnt as you know our hand doesnt
show on this one though. Kissinger We didnt do
it. I mean we helped them. garbled created the
conditions as great as possible. Nixon That is
right. And that is the way it is going to be
played. But listen to me, as far as people are
concerned let me say they are not going to buy
this crap from the Liberals on this one.
The Nobel Peace PrizeHenry Kissinger
  • Pinochet responsible for 3200 deaths and more
    than 250,000 detained and tortured, including
    numerous Americans
  • never tried for human rights violations
  • Charles Horman
  • Argentina déjà vu all over again 1976-1983
  • wars in Africa Angola present-day Zimbabwe
  • - Bombings in Cambodia

The Nobel Peace PrizeHenry Kissinger
What did he accomplish?
Was his work a key factor in creating permanent
The Nobel Peace PrizeThe Good
  • Mother Teresa (1910-1997)
  • b. Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Macedonia (Ottoman
  • joined order of Irish nuns with missions in
    India in 1928
  • left convent in 1946 to serve the poorest of
    the poor
  • formed Missionaries of Charity order - added
    to give wholehearted, free service to the very
    poorest to their vow

1979 Peace Prize Winner
The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
In making the award the Norwegian Nobel Committee
has expressed its recognition of Mother Teresas
work in bringing help to suffering humanity. This
year the world has turned its attention to the
plight of children and refugees, and these are
precisely the categories for whom Mother Teresa
has for many years worked so selflessly.The
Committee has placed special emphasis on the
spirit that has inspired her activities and which
is the tangible expression of her personal
attitude and human qualities.A feature of her
work has been respect for the individual human
being, for his or her dignity and innate value.
The loneliest, the most wretched and the dying
have, at her hands, received compassion without
condescension, based on reverence for man. This
is not the first time the Norwegian Nobel
Committee has awarded the Peace Prize for work
undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty
and distress in the world, which also constitute
a threat to peace. It has awarded the Peace Prize
to champions of human rights, including those who
have fought for racial equality.
The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
I think that we in our family dont need bombs
and guns, to destroy to bring peace - just get
together, love one another, bring that peace,
that joy, that strength of presence of each other
in the home. And we will be able to overcome all
the evil that is in the world. There is so much
suffering, so much hatred, so much misery, and we
with our prayer, with our sacrifice are beginning
at home. Love begins at home, and it is not how
much we do, but how much love we put in the
action that we do. It is to God Almighty - how
much we do it does not matter, because He is
infinite, but how much love we put in that
action. How much we do to Him in the person that
we are serving. - Nobel Laureate speech, 11
December, 1979
The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
So what did she actually do? - Missionaries of
  • care for sick and homeless
  • soup kitchens
  • schools for the destitute
  • disaster relief
  • have aided those abandoned by society
    prostitutes, orphans, lepers, AIDS victims,
  • hospices for the dying

  • services provided regardless of caste or
  • order now works in over 133 countries around the

The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
  • Controversy
  • accusations of poor conditions in hospices and
  • Lancet claims unsanitary conditions eg., reuse
    of needles, terminally ill housed with sick, lack
    of trained professional doctors
  • accusations of misused funds
  • accusations of lack of transparency (Keating

The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
A lot of people help the poor so, why did she
  • inspiration to those hoping to help
  • growth of organization into world relief
  • respect for the individual and the individuals
    worth and dignity
  • compassion devoid of condescension
  • giver gets more than recipient

The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
Mother Teresa is one of those liberated souls who
have transcended all barriers presented by race,
religion, and nationality. In our present- day
troubled world, incessantly plagued by conflict
and hatred, the life that is lived and the work
that is carried out by people like Mother Teresa
bring new hope for the future of
mankind. Republic of India in recognition of her
work - seed of good
The Nobel Peace PrizeMother Teresa
Will her work help to create real and permanent
The Nobel Peace PrizeThe Good, cont.
  • Jody Williams (aka J.K. Rowling) 1950 -
  • b. in Vermont and trained as ESL teacher
  • received MA in International Relations in 1984
  • 1984-86 - co-coordinator of the
    Nicaragua-Honduras Education Project
  • 1986-92 - deputy director of Medical Aid for El
    Salvador humanitarian organization

1997 Winner
The Nobel Peace PrizeJody Williams
1992 founder of International Campaign to Ban
Landmines (ICBL) - achieved its goal of an
international treaty banning antipersonnel
landmines during the diplomatic conference held
in Oslo in 1997
- honored also for her organizational skills
  • model for future movements for peace
  • mobilized 1,000s of organizations worldwide to
    join movement

The Nobel Peace PrizeJody Williams
  • used modern technology to reach many groups and
    signed them onto helping process 1400
    organizations in 90 countries!!

Imagine trying to get hundreds of organizations
each one independent and working on many, many
issues to feel that each is a critical element
of the development of a new movement. I wanted
each to feel that what they had to say about
campaign planning, thinking, programs, actions
was important. So, instead of sending letters,
Id send everyone faxes. People got in the habit
of faxing back. This served two purposes people
would really have to think about what they were
committing to doing before writing it down, and
we have a permanent, written record of almost
everything in the development of the campaign
from day one. Jody Williams
The Nobel Peace PrizeJody Williams
  • Mine Ban Treaty or Ottawa Treaty
  • calls for ending production of mines and
    destruction and removal of mines
  • according to 2009 Landmine Monitor Report 44
    millions mines destroyed and 86 countries have
    destroyed all their mines
  • reduced mine-affected areas from 200,000 square
    km to 3000 square km
  • original treaty had 122 signatory nations, today
    156 have signed (up to 161)
  • biggest holdouts include China, Russia, India,

the United States
The Nobel Peace PrizeJody Williams
The Nobel Peace PrizeJody Williams
- big supporter of her work before her death was
Princess Diana
How valuable is her work? Why not ban all mines
or even all weapons?
Is this the beginning of a permanent peace
process? Is she more effective than Mother Teresa?
The Nobel Peace PrizeThe Ugly (I am not saying
these people are ugly, just Anthony)
Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, 1948
  • murdered in January, 1948
  • no award in 1948 no suitable candidate
  • Nobel committee regretted lack of award saying
    the award to Dalai Lama was in part a tribute to
    the memory of Mahatma Gandhi

The Nobel Peace PrizeMahatma Gandhi
  • no reason ever given for oversight
  • So, what did he do?
  • Hindu beliefs of non-violence tolerance
  • South Africa
  • break unjust and repressive laws be willing
  • to accept punishments for breaking laws
  • reject legitimacy of law and make oppressive
    regime see this
  • becomes basis for Indian independence from Great

The Nobel Peace PrizeMahatma Gandhi
  • also worked to unite Hindus, Christians, and
    Muslims in India
  • stop discrimination against Untouchables laws
    passed protecting rights
  • So why didnt he win?
  • Nobel committees focus was too narrow 1948,
    most winners were from west
  • also, not a politician did not lead an
    organization or establish peace congresses
  • regarded as special but criticized as not

The Nobel Peace PrizeMahatma Gandhi - Criticism
  • Indian nationalist ignored blacks in S. Africa
  • his movement led to violence 1921
  • he is a freedom fighter and a dictator, an
    idealist and a nationalist. He is frequently a
    Christ, but then, suddenly, an ordinary
  • greatest accomplishment was also greatest defeat
  • Indian independence was accompanied by Indian

The Nobel Peace PrizeMahatma Gandhi
  • posthumous award discussed
  • it seems beyond doubt that a posthumous award
    would be contrary to the intentions of the
  • reasonable to assume he would have won had he
  • selected as Time Person of the Year in 1930
    and runner-up as Person of the Century to
    Albert Einstein
  • India awards Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace PrizeThe Ugly, continued
Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) - Nominated in
1947, 1949, 1955 - wife of Franklin Roosevelt
so what?!
  • First US Ambassador to UN
  • drafted UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    with René Cassin, who won Prize (1968)
  • also fought for womens rights
  • forced 1924 Democratic National Convention to
    select women delegates

The Nobel Peace PrizeEleanor Roosevelt
  • Established lists of qualified women for her
    husbands to consider for executive appts
  • Frances Perkins 1st woman Cabinet member
    Secretary of Labor
  • pressed for civil rights anti-lynching laws,
    more support for education for African-Americans
  • wherever the standard of education is low, the
    standard of living is low

The Nobel Peace PrizeEleanor Roosevelt
Deserving Recipient?
How does she stack up to Yasser Arafat, Henry
Kissinger, and
2009 Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize?
The Reconciler Nelson Mandela
  • b. 1918 - Rolihlahla (troublemaker) Mandela
    name Nelson given to him by a teacher
  • first member of family to attend school
  • at 30, becomes politically active with election
    of Afrikaner-dominated National Party government
    ? support apartheid policies official policy of
    South Africa
  • Apartheid white supremacy
  • four classes of people ? whites, blacks, colored
    (mixed race), Asians many subgroups
  • laws prohibit mixing of people ? separate living
    places based on skin color or racial identity

Nelson Mandela
  • forces removals
  • identity cards
  • marriage or sex between racially diverse people
    ? criminalized
  • segregation
  • discrimination
  • disenfranchisement

Nelson Mandela
  • African National Congress (ANC) formed in early
    1900s to fight against injustice against blacks
    in Africa
  • Mandela joins and leads different branches
  • forms law firm with Oliver Tambo to provide free
    or low-cost legal counsel to many blacks who
    lacked attorney representation
  • initially committed to non-violent resistance
  • arrested in 1956 for treason with 150 other
    activists ? all acquitted
  • calls for more radical actions against apartheid

Nelson Mandela
  • March 21, 1960 Sharpesville Massacre 69
    people killed by police
  • 1961 formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of
    the Nation) military wing of ANC ? led by
  • coordinated sabotage campaign to end apartheid ?
    prepare for guerilla war, if necessary
  • blast the symbolic places of apartheid, like
    pass offices, native magistrates courts, and
    things like that ... post offices and ... the
    government offices. But we were to do it in such
    a way that nobody would be hurt, nobody would get
    killed. - fellow ANC member Wolfie Kadesh

Is this terrorism or freedom fighting?
Nelson Mandela
I, and the others who started the organization,
did so for two reasons. Firstly, we believed that
as a result of Government policy, violence by the
African people had become inevitable, and that
unless responsible leadership was given to
canalize and control the feelings of our people,
there would be outbreaks of terrorism which would
produce an intensity of bitterness and hostility
between the various races of this country which
is not produced even by war. Secondly, we felt
that without violence there would be no way open
to the African people to succeed in their
struggle against the principle of white
supremacy. All lawful modes of expressing
opposition to this principle had been closed by
legislation, and we were placed in a position in
which we had either to accept a permanent state
of inferiority, or to defy the Government. We
chose to defy the law. We first broke the law in
a way which avoided any recourse to violence
when this form was legislated against, and then
the Government resorted to a show of force to
crush opposition to its policies, only then did
we decide to answer violence with violence. But
the violence which we chose to adopt was not
terrorism. We who formed Umkhonto were all
members of the African National Congress, and had
behind us the ANC tradition of non-violence and
negotiation as a means of solving political
disputes. We believe that South Africa belongs to
all the people who live in it, and not to one
group, be it black or white. We did not want an
interracial war, and tried to avoid it to the
last minute.
  • August, 1962 arrested charged with leading
    illegal strike (CIA helped)
  • sentenced to 5 years in prison
  • July, 1963 charged with sabotage and plotting
    foreign invasion (admitted to planning sabotage)
  • During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to
    the struggle of the African people. I have fought
    against white domination, and I have fought
    against black domination. I have cherished the
    ideal of a democratic and free society in which
    all persons live together in harmony and with
    equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope
    to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it
    is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.

Nelson Mandela
  • sentenced to life imprisonment in June, 1964
  • performed hard labor in prison quarry
  • little rations and only 1 visitor and letter
    every 6 months
  • becomes internationally famous
  • February, 1985 offered freedom if he renounced
    violence What freedom am I being offered while
    the organisation of the people remains banned?
    Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot
    enter into contracts.
  • Free Mandela movement

Nelson Mandela
  • February, 1990 F.W. De Klerk renounces ban on
    ANC announces release of Mandela
  • 27 years in prison
  • returns to the leadership of the ANC and,
    between 1990 and 1994, led the party in the
  • F. W. de Klerk, was recognized when they were
    jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 -
    for their work for the peaceful termination of
    the apartheid regime, and for laying the
    foundations for a new democratic South Africa
  • April 1993 - assassination of ANC leader Chris
  • fear of riots and breakdown of negotiations

Nelson Mandela
Tonight I am reaching out to every single South
African, black and white, from the very depths of
my being. A white man, full of prejudice and
hate, came to our country and committed a deed so
foul that our whole nation now teeters on the
brink of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner
origin, risked her life so that we may know, and
bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded
murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves
throughout the country and the world. ...Now is
the time for all South Africans to stand together
against those who, from any quarter, wish to
destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for the
freedom of all of us.
Nelson Mandela
  • assassination speech places negotiations back
    on track
  • new national elections for April, 1994
  • Mandela wins Presidency
  • policy achievements numerous
  • compulsory education
  • health care
  • land reform
  • fair labor practice
  • occupational safety
  • infrastructure renewal repair

Nelson MandelaTruth Reconciliation Commission
we are overwhelmed by the awfulness of evil that
has been revealed, but we are exhilarated by the
incredible magnanimity of peoplelet us shut the
door on that past and now move forward together
to enjoy the glorious future which God is holding
out to all of us. Desmond Tutu
Nelson Mandela Truth Reconciliation Commission
  • court-like body assembled in South Africa after
    the end of Apartheid
  • Desmond Tutu ? blessings from Nelson Mandela
  • transition from apartheid ? Promotion of
    National Unity and Reconciliation Act
  • bear witness to crimes
  • record and in some cases grant amnesty to the
    perpetrators of crimes relating to human rights
  • reparation and rehabilitation

Nelson Mandela Truth Reconciliation Commission
  • more than 21,000 people testified from 1995 to
  • ... a necessary exercise to enable South
    Africans to come to terms with their past on a
    morally accepted basis and to advance the cause
    of reconciliation.
  • primary objective ? preach forgiveness to heal
    the emotions and wounds of hatred or anger that
    had been created by the apartheid
  • would you be able to forgive the people who
    did this to you and your family? She answered,
    We would like to forgive, but we would just like
    to know who to forgive.

Nelson Mandela Truth Reconciliation Commission
  • Three committees
  • Human Rights Violations Committee
  • investigated human rights abuses that occurred
    between 1960 and 1994
  • Reparation and Rehabilitation Committee
  • restoring victims dignity and formulating
    proposals to assist with rehabilitation
  • Amnesty Committee
  • considered applications from individuals who
    applied for amnesty
  • two conditions ? crimes were politically
    motivated whole truth told

Nelson Mandela Truth Reconciliation Commission
  • People charged with crimes include
  • ordinary citizens
  • members of the police
  • political leaders
  • members of the African National Congress
  • 7112 people applied for amnesty
  • granted 849 times
  • denied 5392 times
  • many withdrew application

Nelson Mandela Truth Reconciliation Commission
  • Did it work?
  • October 28, 1998 - Commission presented its
    report, which condemned both sides for atrocities
  • generally regarded as very successful
  • All participants perceived the TRC to be
    effective in bringing out the truth, however, in
    varying degrees. The Afrikaners perceived the TRC
    to be less effective in bringing out the truth
    than the English participants and much less
    effective than did the Xhosa... Jay Erica
  • reconciliation ? harder to measure

Nelson Mandela Truth Reconciliation Commission
  • Criticism of TRC both sides
  • did not achieve reconciliation
  • blacks feel too many granted amnesty for
    terrible crimes lack of justice
  • political expediency ? keep capitalist system,
    possible cause of apartheid?
  • too quick
  • large number of victims still not compensated ?
    lack of reparations
  • overall TRC is regarded as successful ? few
    incidents of racial violence or retaliation since
  • model for other nations

How important is truth and reconciliation?
  • Yips Three-Fold Path to Peace
  • Political Will
  • Social Justice
  • Truth and Reconciliation
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