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TRAINING AND CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES Chapter 4 Overview Lack of physical fitness is one of the primary causes of sports injury. Coaches and athletic trainers should ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Chapter 4

  • Lack of physical fitness is one of the primary
    causes of sports injury.
  • Coaches and athletic trainers should work
    cooperatively to supervise training and
    conditioning programs.
  • The coach and athletic trainer must possess sound
    understanding of the principles of training and
    conditioning relative to flexibility, strength,
    and cardiovascular endurance.

Relationship Between Coaches, ATCs, and CSCSs
  • All must work together for the common good.
  • High schools may not have ATCs or CSCSs
  • The coach is responsible in their absence
  • It is important to implement all aspects of a
    strength and conditioning program
  • Flexibility
  • Strength
  • Cardiovascular fitness (aerobic, anaerobic)
  • Nutrition etc.

  • Periodization organizes a training and
    conditioning program into cycles
  • Macrocycle usually one year-long cycle
  • Preseason
  • In-season
  • Post-season
  • Off-season

  • Mesocycle usually lasts weeks or even months
  • Transition (post-season) recreational exercise
  • Preparatory (off-season) emphasis for gains
  • Hypertrophy phase low intensity and high volume
  • Strength phase moderate intensity and moderate
  • Power phase high intensity and low volume
  • Competition (in-season) maintainance
  • Includes a mix of intensities and volumes
  • Microcycles during a week may help the athlete
    peak at the end of the week.
  • Intense early in the week
  • Light at the end of the week

Principles of Conditioning
  • Warm-up and Cool-down
  • Motivation
  • Overload
  • Consistency
  • Progression
  • Intensity
  • Specificity

Principles of Conditioning
  • Specificity
  • Individuality
  • Minimize stress
  • Safety first

Improving and Maintaining Flexibility
  • Flexibility the ability to move a joint or
    series of joints smoothly and easily throughout a
    full range of motion.
  • An athlete who has a restricted range of motion
    will realize a decrease in performance
  • Flexibility is important in preventing injury to
    the musculotendinous and skeletal anatomy.

Factors That Limit Flexibility
  • Bony structure
  • Excessive fat
  • Skin
  • Muscles and tendons
  • Connective tissues
  • With the exception of bony structure, age, and
    gender, all of the other factors that limit
    flexibility may be altered to increase range of
    joint motion.

Range of Motion
  • Active Range of Motion (dynamic flexibility)
  • Passive Range of Motion (static flexibility)
  • Resistive Range of Motion (strength)

Stretching Techniques
  • The goal of any effective flexibility program
    should be to improve the range of motion at a
    given articulation by altering the extensibility
    of the musculotendinous units that produce
    movement at that joint.

Stretching Techniques
  • Warm-up
  • Stretch to the point of tightness
  • Stretching is specific only to the muscle you
  • Avoid stretching joints and ligaments
  • Stretch slowly and under control
  • It is recommended to stretch 5 to 6 times per

Stretching Techniques
  • Ballistic stretching
  • Involves a bouncing movement
  • May cause muscle soreness
  • Static stretching
  • Passive stretch (hold for 30 seconds)
  • Is very safe to perform
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Involves a combination of stretches and
  • Use a 10 sec. push phase and a 10 sec. relax phase

Stretching Techniques
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
  • Slow-reversal-hold-relax
  • Contract relax
  • Hold relax
  • PNF is based on the stretch reflex
  • Muscle spindles reflexively contract
  • Golgi tendon organs reflexive relaxation
  • Golgi tendons override the muscle spindles over

Stretching Techniques
  • Autogenic inhibition relaxation of the muscle
    during or after contraction (tension).
  • Uses the contract relax method
  • Reciprocal inhibition a contraction of the
    opposite muscle causes a reflex relaxation in the
    muscle to be stretched.
  • Uses the slow-reversal-hold technique
  • Uses the hold relax method

Stretching Techniques
  • Increased ROM can be determined with a goniometer
    at the joint.
  • Other flexibility tests (tape measure)
  • Sit and reach
  • Trunk extension test
  • Trunk rotation test
  • Shoulder lift test

Stretching Techniques
  • Stretch by body area
  • Stretch by sport
  • Stretch by muscle
  • Stretch by necessity

Strength Training
  • Muscular strength
  • Muscular endurance
  • Muscular power

Strength Training
  • Skeletal muscle is capable of three types of
  • Isometric
  • Static
  • Concentric
  • Eccentric
  • Isokinetic

Strength Training
  • There are three basic types of muscle fibers
  • Slow-twitch (type I)
  • Fast-twitch (type IIa)
  • Fast-twitch (type IIb)
  • It now appears that there can be almost any
    change of these fibers in response to training.

Strength Training
  • Factors that determine muscular strength
  • Hypertrophy vs atrophy
  • Size of the muscle
  • Neuromuscular efficiency
  • Biomechanical factors
  • Mechanical (leverage) advantages (genetic)
  • Length-tension relationship (optimum is 90 deg.)
  • Overtraining
  • Reversibility

Strength Training
  • Physiology of strength development
  • Fiber splitting theory
  • Capillary density with training
  • Myofilament increase (protein synthesis)
  • Increased bone and collagen increase
  • Increased enzymes
  • Enhanced energy use of the muscle etc.

Strength Training
  • Techniques of Resistance Training
  • Isometrics (abtronics do not transfer)
  • Progressive Resistance Exercise (PREs)
  • Isotonics
  • Overload (reps? Sets? Intensity? Frequency?
  • Progression
  • Goals (strength vs endurance)
  • Free weights vs machine weights
  • Circuit training (stations)

Strength Training
  • Techniques of Resistance Training
  • Plyometrics
  • Cross training
  • Calisthenic strengthening exercise
  • Females vs Males

Aerobic Anaerobic Conditioning
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance the ability to
    perform whole-body large muscle activities for
    extended periods of time.
  • Involves the transport and utilization of oxygen
  • Heart
  • Lungs
  • Blood vessels
  • Blood
  • Measured by maximum aerobic capacity (Vo2 Max)
  • Mostly genetically determined potential
  • Training determines how close you can come to
    your potential

Aerobic Anaerobic Conditioning
  • Measured indirectly by heart rate
  • Training Effect causes stroke volume to increase
    while the heart rate is reduced at a given
    exercise load (cardiac output SV x HR).
  • Fatigue is closely related to the percentage of
    Max VO2 that a particular workload demands.

Aerobic Anaerobic Conditioning
  • Energy Systems
  • The Energy Systems
  • ATP (retreived by creatine phosphate)
  • Glucose / Glycogen
  • Free Fatty Acids
  • Protein
  • Aerobic -vs- Anaerobic Metabolism
  • They function simultaneously
  • Types of activities ..

Aerobic Anaerobic Conditioning
  • Continuous Training (aerobic)
  • Mode anything that raises your heart rate
  • Frequency 3 6 times a week
  • Duration at least 20 minutes
  • Intensity
  • Maximum HR 220 age (.75)
  • Karvonen Equation
  • Target HR Zone RHR (.75 MHR RHR)

Aerobic Anaerobic Conditioning
  • Interval Training intermittent activities with
    periods of work with active recovery.
  • More anaerobic
  • Includes a training-recovery ratio
  • Fartlek Training speed play

Fitness Assessment
  • Tests may be used to assess flexibility, muscular
    strength, muscular endurance, muscular power,
    cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance,
    agility, or quickness depending upon the stated
    goals of the training and conditioning program.
  • See page 107

  • Chapter 5

  • Athletes who practice sound nutritional habits
    reduce the likelihood of injury, and enhance
    performance through the development of strength,
    flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. 57

Nutrition Basics
  • Nutrition is the science of the substances that
    are found in food that are essential to life.
  • 6 classes of nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Energy Sources
  • Carbohydrates
  • Should account for 55 - 70 of an athletes total
    caloric intake.
  • Sugars (simple)
  • Monosacharides (single sugars)
  • Disacharides (two monosacharides)
  • Starches (complex carbohydrates)
  • Fiber (non digestable plants)

Energy Sources
  • Fats should be less than 30 of total calories
  • Saturated (are from animal products)
  • Unsaturated (are from plants and are liquid at
    room temperature)
  • Monounsaturated
  • Polyunsaturated
  • Fat substitutes are a good alternative because
    they contain no cholesterol and 80 less

Energy Sources
  • Proteins the building blocks of the human body
  • Amino Acids obtained through food are referred
    to as the essential amino acids.
  • Most of the proteins from animal foods contain
    all of the essential amino acids that humans
    require and are called complete proteins.
  • The increase in muscle mass that result from
    conditioning and training are associated with
    only a small increase in protein requirements
    that can easily be met with the usual diet and
    therefore supplements are not necessary.

Regulatory Nutrients
  • Vitamins regulators of body processes
  • Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fats
  • A, D, E, and K (see table 5-1)
  • Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water
  • C used to build bone, teeth, connective tissue
    and strengthen the immune system
  • Bs used to regulate metabolism

Regulatory Nutrients
  • Antioxidants protect cells from destructive
    agents like oxygen and lactic acid.
  • Vitamin C fruits and vegetables
  • Vitamin E vegetable oils, some fruits and
  • Beta-carotene a plant pigment found in dark
    green, yellow or orange fruits and vegetables.
  • Deficiency disease results from a lack of any
  • For most people supplements are a waste of money.
  • A wide variety of foods in the diet can prevent
    the need for supplementation.

Regulatory Nutrients
  • Minerals more than 20 elements have an essential
    role in the body and therefore need to be
    supplied by the diet.
  • Magnesium needed for energy-supplying reactions
  • Sodium and Potassium are important for
    transmission of nerve impulses.
  • Iron needed for energy metabolism and is
    assisted with protein to form hemoglobin (to
    carry O2).
  • Once again minerals can be obtained by eating a
    variety of foods and supplementation is not

Regulatory Nutrients
  • Water is the most essential of all of the
    nutrients in the body.
  • 60 of all body weight
  • Necessary for temperature control
  • Necessary for energy production
  • Necessary for digestion
  • Necessary for elimination of waste

Regulatory Nutrients
  • Water
  • Replacing fluid after heavy sweating is far more
    important than replacing electrolytes
  • Dehydration
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Exhaustion
  • Fainting
  • Electrolyte requirements
  • Sodium, cholride, potassium, magnesium, and
  • Can be sufficiently replaced with a balanced diet

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • A nutrient requirement is that amount of the
    nutrient that is needed to prevent the nutrients
    deficiency disease.
  • A nutrient recommendation is that which will
    prevent the deficiency disease for nutrients and
    calories of a given food.
  • Recommended RDA helps consumers compare
    nutritional value of foods.
  • Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) or adequate intake

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Food Labels percentages of daily values based on
    a standard 2,000 calorie diet.
  • The Food Pyramid specifies the minimum number of
    servings that should be eaten daily with examples
    of the foods to eat (pg. 122).

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Exercise increases the need for energy, not for
    proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
  • A megadose of a nutrient supplement is
    essentially an overdose.
  • An increased need for nutrients is easily
    fulfilled when the athlete eats more nutritious
  • Exceptions include calcium (osteoporosis)
  • Exceptions include iron (anemia)

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Protein supplementation
  • RDA .8 grams per kilogram
  • Athletes 1 1.5 grams per kilogram
  • Athletes diets typically easily exceed these
    requirements (1.8 4.4 grams per kilogram).

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Creatine supplementation
  • Free creatine
  • Phophocreatine
  • Stored in skeletal muscle
  • Used to produce ATP during anaerobic activity
  • Side Effects

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Sugar and Performance
  • Simple sugars (anaerobic benefit)
  • The insulin response is not as detrimental as
    once believed.
  • Complex sugars (aerobic benefit)
  • Provides long lasting energy

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Caffeine is a stimulant
  • Can cause irritability, nervousness, increased
    heart rate and headaches
  • Enhances the use of fat for energy during
    endurance exercise
  • Enhances calcium absorption in the muscles for
    muscle contractions

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Alcohol
  • Provides little nutritional value
  • 7 calories per gram
  • Depressant
  • Decreases coordination
  • Slows reaction times
  • Decreases mental alertness
  • Diuretic effect

Preevent Nutrition
  • Pre Game Meal proposes to provide the competitor
    with sufficient energy and fluids for competition
  • Eating preferences of the athlete need to be
  • Digestability are important
  • Liquid food supplement advantages
  • Eating fast foods
  • Glycogen Supercompensation
  • Fat loading

Weight Control and Body Competition
  • Body Composition
  • Weight charts are very inaccurate
  • Different ways to measure percent body fat
  • Hydrostatic weighing is the gold standard
  • Calipers
  • Electrical Impedence
  • Dexa or MRI are others
  • Recommended for males is 6 to 12 percent
  • Recommended for females is 16 to 24 percent

Weight Control and Body Competition
  • Overweight having excess body weight
  • Obese an extreme amount of excess fat
  • Above 30 for females
  • Above 20 for males
  • Assessing Caloric Balance
  • Calories in and calories out
  • 1500 calories 1 lb.

Weight Control and Body Composition
  • Methods of weight loss
  • Dieting
  • Fad dieting is very popular but not helpful
  • Dieting is a selection of all food groups
  • Dieting should not be a total restriction
  • Exercise
  • Combinations of dieting and exercise is the best
    method of losing 1 to 2 lbs. a week.

Weight Control and Body Composition
  • Methods of weight gain
  • Eating Disorders
  • Bulemia
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Female athlete triad syndrome
  • Why is weight management a concern for coaches?
  • Why is weight management so difficult?

Environmental Conditions
  • Chapter 6

Heat Stress
  • Maintenance of normal temperature in a hot
    environment depends on the ability of the body to
    dissipate heat.
  • Body temperature can be affected by 5 factors.

Heat Stress
  • 5 factors that influence body temperature
  • Metabolic heat production
  • Conductive heat exchange
  • Direct contact with the turf
  • Convective heat exchange
  • Uses a circulating medium like wind or water
  • Radiant heat exchange
  • Radiation from the sun
  • Evaporation heat exchange
  • Sweat evaporates taking large amounts of heat
    with it.

Monitoring the Heat Index
  • Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)
  • Dry bulb temperature (DBT)
  • thermometer
  • Wet bulb temperature (WBT)
  • Sling psychrometer
  • Use the WBGT Index (pg. 141)
  • Use a Relative Humidity Index

Heat Illnesses
  • Heat Rash (prickly heat)
  • Red raised rash
  • Tingling
  • Heat Syncope
  • Rapid physical fatigue
  • Fainting, nausea caused by pooling of blood in
    the extremities to try to cool the body off.

Heat Illnesses
  • Heat Cramps
  • Painful muscle spasms
  • Usually occur in the calf, hamstrings abdomen
  • Related to loss of water and electrolytes
  • Treated with water, electrolyte drinks,
    stretching the muscles, and cooling the body.

Heat Illnesses
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Results from dehydration
  • Dizziness, Collapse
  • Profuse sweating
  • Rapid pulse, Pale skin
  • Elevated temperature (102 deg.)
  • Treatment includes rehydration and sometimes
    intravenous fluids
  • Cool the athlete as quickly as possible

Heat Illnesses
  • Heat Stroke
  • Life threatening emergency due to a breakdown of
    the thermoregulatory system
  • Core temperature over 106 degrees
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Flushed hot skin, sometimes dry
  • Treatment includes cooling the body off quickly

Preventing Heat Illness
  • Gradual acclimatization to conditions
  • Identify susceptible athletes
  • Lightweight uniforms
  • Routine weight record keeping
  • Unrestricted fluid replacement
  • Well balanced diet
  • Monitor hot humid conditions
  • Use common sense

Warning Signs of Heat Illness
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Mental slowness
  • Incoherence
  • Visual disturbance
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Unsteadiness
  • Collapse
  • Unconsciousness
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Cramps
  • Seizures
  • Rigidity
  • Weak, rapid pulse
  • Pallor
  • Flush
  • Faintness
  • Chill
  • Cyanotic appearance

  • Causes of a drop in core body temperature
  • Low temperature
  • Wind
  • Wetness
  • Symptoms
  • Exhaustion
  • Impairment in neuromeuscular responses
  • Shivering
  • Death can occur with a core temperature between
    77 degrees and 85 degrees

  • Prevention
  • Wear waterproof and windproof fabrics
  • Wear lots of thin layers
  • Proper warm up
  • Maintain hydration

Common Cold Injuries
  • Frost Nip
  • Involves ears, nose cheeks, fingers and toes
  • Skin is firm and may blister
  • Treat by warming the area

Common Cold Injuries
  • Chillblains
  • Skin redness, swelling, tingling and pains
  • Superficial frost bite
  • Skin appears pale, hard, cold, and waxy
  • When rewarmed will burn and tingle
  • May produce blisters later

Common Cold Injuries
  • Deep Frost Bite
  • Involves tissues that are frozen
  • Requires immediate hospitalization
  • Skin is hard, pale or white, and numb
  • Treat by rapidly rewarming the tissue
  • Later the tissue may become gangrenous, causing a
    loss of tissue.

  • At high altitudes the athletes oxygen uptake is
    decreased causing a decrease in performance.
  • The body compensates by increasing the heart rate
  • Hyperventilation can occur along with increased
    breathing rate, increased heart rate

  • Symptoms of Altitude Illness
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Dyspnea
  • Cough
  • weakness

Overexposure To Sun
  • Sun exposure should be avoided during competition
  • Sun exposure causes early fatigue and can lead to
  • Causes skin cancer and skin aging
  • Sun Protection Factor (SPF)
  • SPF 30 sunscreen is advised when participating in
    outdoor events lasting long durations.

Electrical Storms
  • Flash-to-Bang provides an estimation of how far
    away the lightning is.
  • Seconds divided by 5 miles away
  • 30 seconds closely monitor the conditions
  • 15 seconds immediately seek shelter

Other Environmental Conditions
  • Jet Lag
  • Air Pollution
  • Artificial Turf
  • Wet Conditions
  • Hard Surfaces
  • Others ..

Protective Sports Equipment
  • Chapter 7

Commercial Equipment
  • Proper selection and proper fit of sports
    equipment are essential in the prophylactic use
    of many sports injuries.
  • Prophylactic refers to the use of equipment and
    other protective devices that prevent, preserve,
    and protect the athlete from initial injury and

Head Protection
  • Football helmets
  • Standards developed by NOCSAE
  • Helmet reconditioning
  • Air helmets and Fluid helmets
  • Fitting the football helmet
  • No gaps between the pads and the head or face
  • Should be two fingers above the eyebrow
  • Earholes should match
  • Face mask should be three fingers from the nose
  • The helmet should not rock

Head Protection
  • Ice hockey helmets
  • Must be able to decelerate the forces of impact
    (prevent concussions).
  • Must carry the stamp of approval from the
    Canadian Standards Association (CSA)

Head Protection
  • Baseball Batting Helmets
  • Need to be improved to dissipate external forces
    from a baseball or collisions.
  • Prevent concussions and some facial injuries
  • Softball Helmets
  • Also need to be improved
  • Now provide a hole for pony-tails

Face Protection
  • Face guards (football helmets baseball helmets)
  • Made of metal or polycarbonate
  • Mouth guards (football)
  • Many different types
  • Ear guards (wrestling)
  • Eye protection devices
  • Glasses (plastic)
  • Contact lenses
  • Eye guards
  • Throat protectors

Trunk and Thorax Protection
  • Shoulder pads
  • Sports bras
  • Flack-jacket vs suspended rib pads
  • Girdle vs belt type hip and buttocks pads
  • Cup

Limb Protection
  • Neoprene sleeves
  • Socks
  • Sport specific shoes
  • Track
  • Baseball/Softball
  • Basketball
  • Tennis

Foot and Ankle Protection
  • Commercial Foot Pads
  • Corns, calluses, bunions, fallen arches
  • Commercial orthotics vs custom orthotics
  • Heel cups
  • Commercial ankle supports
  • Taping vs lace-up braces vs hinged braces

Leg Protection
  • Shin guards
  • Thigh pads
  • Knee pads
  • Knee braces
  • prophylactic
  • Functional
  • Patellar tendon straps

Hand, Wrist, and Elbow Protection
  • Gloves
  • Wrist braces
  • Elbow pads
  • Tennis elbow straps

Construction of Protective and Supportive Devices
  • Soft Materials
  • Lambs wool
  • Gauze padding
  • Cotton
  • Adhesive felt/foam
  • Moleskin
  • Sorbothane

Construction of Protective and Supportive Devices
  • Non-yielding materials
  • Thermomoldable materials (orthoplast)
  • Casting materials
  • Tools
  • Adhesives
  • Tapes
  • Scissors or utility knife
  • Velcro

  • Chapter 8

  • Bandages a strip of cloth or other material used
    to cover a wound.
  • Gauze
  • Sterile pads for wounds
  • Padding for blisters
  • Roller bandage for holding a dressing in place
  • Cotton cloth
  • Ankle wraps
  • Cravat bandages

  • Elastic roller bandage a controlled compression
    bandage for many uses.
  • Compression for swelling
  • Support soft tissue (muscle)
  • Cohesive elastic bandage a bandage that adheres
    to itself without sticking to the skin.
  • To hold a dressing in place
  • To provide soft tissue support for muscles or

Bandaging Techniques
  • Ankle Wrap (with a cloth wrap)
  • Figure 8
  • Heel locks
  • Groin Wrap (with elastic wrap)
  • Figure 8
  • Pull the leg into internal rotation
  • Shoulder Spica (with elastic wrap)
  • Figure 8
  • Pull the arm into internal rotation

Bandaging Techniques
  • Hand and wrist Spica
  • Figure 8
  • Cervical arm sling (triangular bandage)
  • A swath may be used to compress the bandage to
    the body.
  • Quadricep/Hamstring wrap

  • Used for retention of wound dressings
  • Used to stabilize compression bandages
  • Used to support recent injuries
  • Used to stabilize an injury during rehabilitation
    or during exercise
  • Used to protect and prevent acute injuries by
    limiting the motion of the body

Tape Characteristics
  • Linen Adhesive Tape
  • Tape grade
  • Adhesive mass
  • Winding tension
  • Widths
  • Light elastic tape
  • Elastoplast

Using Adhesive Tape in Sports
  • Preparation for taping
  • Shaving
  • Heal and lace pads
  • Adhesives
  • Prewrap
  • Proper taping techniques
  • Proper tape tearing

Rules for Tape Application
  • Place the body part in the position it is to be
  • Overlap the tape at least half of the width of
    the tape below
  • Avoid continuous taping
  • Keep the tape roll in the hand whenever possible
  • Smooth and mold the tape as it is laid on the skin

Rules for Tape Application
  • Allow the tape to fit the natural contour of the
  • Start taping with an anchor piece and finish by
    applying a lock strip.
  • When maximum support is desired, tape directly
    over the skin.
  • Do no apply tape if skin is hot or cold from a
    therapeutic treatment.

Taping Techniques
  • The tear drop arch support
  • The sprained great toe (turf toe)
  • The ankle for inversion sprain
  • The achilles tendon strain/tendonitis
  • The elbow hyperextension
  • The wrist sprain from hyperextension
  • The thumb spica
  • The thumb checkreins
  • The jammed finger
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