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The Rise of Islam

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Title: The Rise of Islam


1
Chapter 6
  • The Rise of Islam

2
Geography
  • Lived in the Arabian Peninsula
  • desert lands lacked rivers and lakes
  • nomadic
  • moved constantly to find water and food for their
    animals

3
The Arabs
  • Organized tribes
  • Sheikh chosen leader of a tribe
  • Farmers and sheep herders
  • Lived on rain-fed and oasis areas

4
The Arabs
  • Most were polytheistic
  • Traced their ancestors to Abraham and his son
    Ishmael, who were believed to have built at
    Makkah (Mecca) the Kaaba, a house of worship
  • Recognized Allah as the supreme god

5
The Life of Muhammad
  • Married rich widow Khadija
  • Was troubled by growing gap between rich and poor
  • Went to meditate and was believed to have
    received revelations from God through the angel
    Gabriel

No representation of Muhammad is in any Islamic
art
6
The Life of Muhammad
  • Believed that Allah had already revealed himself
    through Moses (Judaism) and Jesus (Christianity)
  • Final revelations were through Muhammad

Cave of Hira, site of 1st revelation
7
The Life of Muhammad
Oldest manuscript 9 c. only 1/3 survives
  • Quran - holy book of Islam
  • Islam - peace through submission to the will of
    Allah
  • Contains ethical guidelines and laws to follow
  • Islam has only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is
    Gods prophet

8
The Life of Muhammad
  • Tried to convince people of Mecca but, was
    persecuted
  • He and his 30 followers moved to Medina (city of
    the prophet)
  • Journey known as Hijrah

9
The Life of Muhammad
  • Won support from the Bedouins, of Medina
  • Formed 1st community of practicing Muslims
  • Muslims saw no separation between political and
    religious authority

10
The Life of Muhammad
  • Muhammad becomes political, religious, and
    military leader
  • In 630, takes force of 10,000 soldiers to conquer
    Mecca (place of persecution)

Muhammad and his companions advancing on Mecca
(angels also shown)
11
The Teachings of Muhammad
  • Monotheistic
  • Allah is the all-powerful Creator
  • Gives salvation and hope of an afterlife
  • Muhammad was the prophet of Allah

12
The Five Pillars of Islam
13
Sharia Code of Laws
  • provides believers with a set of practical laws
  • applies teachings of the Quran to daily life
  • does not separate religion from politics
  • The Hadith warns against imitating God by
    creating pictures of living things
  • Muslims can NOT eat pork, drink alcoholic
    beverages, gamble or engage in dishonest behavior

14
Islamic Civilization Culture
  • Sections 3 4

15
Prosperity in the Islamic World
  • Prosperity based on extensive trade by ship and
    camel
  • Camel caravans went from Morocco (Northwest
    Africa) to the Caspian Sea

16
(No Transcript)
17
  • Items traded
  • gold, slaves (Southern Africa)
  • ivory (East Africa)
  • sandal wood, spices, textiles (India)
  • silk, porcelain (China)
  • grain (Egypt)
  • linens, dates, and jewels (Iraq)

18
The Emerald City
  • Large, magnificent cities
  • Baghdad, Cairo,
  • Damascus, Córdoba
  • Palaces mosques
  • Public buildings w/fountains, baths, and
    marketplaces (bazaars covered market)

19
Islamic Society
  • Islam claims that all people are equal in the
    eyes of Allah
  • However, in the Arab Empire, there was a
    well-defined class system
  • Upper Class ruling families, wealthy merchants,
    and elites
  • Lower Class Peasants and slaves
  • Slaves captives of war from Africa Asia most
    served as soldiers women slaves were domestic
    servants

20
Islamic Society
Women voting for the 1st time in Iraq (2005)
  • Women
  • Quran granted spiritual and social equality w/men
  • Women could own and inherit land
  • Still dominated by men
  • Male guardian
  • Secluded at home
  • Kept from social contacts with men outside their
    families

21
Islamic Society
  • Parents arranged marriages
  • Men could have up to four wives
  • Women had a right to divorce, however, the right
    was extended only to men
  • Women cover much of their body (traditional Arab
    practice)

22
Science
  • Observatory scientists studied and named many
    stars
  • Astrolabe helped sailors determine their
    location by observing the position of the stars
  • Medicine Ibn Sina wrote a medical encyclopedia
    showed that unsanitary conditions contributed to
    the spread of contagious diseases

23
Literature
  • Muslims believed the Quran was their greatest
    work of literature
  • The Arabian Nights collection of folktales,
    fables, and romances
  • Story of Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba
    and the forty thieves (Open Sesame)

Ali Baba and the 40 Thieves
24
Art Architecture
  • The Great Mosque of Samarra (Iraq)
  • Minaret tower from which the crier, muezzin,
    calls the faithful to prayer 5 times a day
  • Example?
  • 90 feet high

25
Cordoba, Spain
26
The Alhambra Islamic Palace Granada, Spain
27
The Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey
28
Damascus Forest of Trees hundreds of columns
29
Art Architecture
  • Arabesques repeated Arabic letters, plants,
    abstract figures, and geometric patterns
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