River Valley Civilizations: The Nile and the Indus - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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River Valley Civilizations: The Nile and the Indus

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Title: River Valley Civilizations: The Nile and the Indus


1
River Valley Civilizations The Nile and the Indus
2
River Valley Civilizations
  • Nile Valley and Indus Valley
  • Each civilization has a distinct pattern that is
    different from Mesopotamia
  • Nile state more important than cities
  • Lack of evidence about Indus valley civilization

3
Egypt The Gift of the Nile
  • Nile naturally irrigated cropland with
    predictable, annual flooding
  • Adjacent deserts protected Egypt from invasion
  • Waterfalls hindered invasion from the south
  • Stability meant long-term indigenous government

4
  • Man-made irrigation

5
Ancient Egyptian History
Periods Time Frame
Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E.
Archaic 3100 2650 B. C. E.
Old Kingdom 2650 2134 B. C. E.
Middle Kingdom 2040 1640 B. C. E.
New Kingdom 1550 1070 B. C. E.
Late Period 750 332 B. C. E.
Greek Ptolemaic Era 332 30 B. C. E.
Roman Period 30 B. C. E. 395 C. E.
6
Earliest Egypt Before the Kings
  • Agriculture sustained life
  • Saharan drought led to more Nile settlement
  • String of villages along Nile by 3600 B.C.E.

7
The Growth of Cities - c. 3300 BCE
  • Egypt had no independent city-states
  • Egyptians lived in network of riverbank villages
    interspersed with larger towns that may have
    become administrative cities (nomes)

8
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9
Unification and the Rule of Kings
  • 3100 B.C.E peoples along the Nile were unified
  • Menes often seen as first king
  • Kings came to be seen as divine
  • Kings balanced nature and invited Nile to flood

Im Menes. They call me
The Unifier!
10
Annual flooding of the Nile
  • PredictableLeft behind fertile soil

11
Gods and the Unification of Egypt
  • Osiris the god of order and virtue
  • Seth the god of disorder and evil
  • Seth cut Osiris into fourteen pieces and
    scattered him across Egypt
  • Isiss collection of pieces symbolizes
    unification of Egypt

12
  • Isis conceived son Horus with a
    briefly-revivified Osiris
  • Horus defeated Seth in battle and made father
    Osiris divine and in charge of underworld

13
  • Horus was first Egyptian god to be worshipped
    nationally
  • Belief in afterlife led to practice of
    mummification

14
Scenes of Ancient EgyptianDaily Life
15
Making Ancient Egyptian Beer
16
Making Ancient Egyptian Wine
17
An Egyptian Womans Must-Haves
Mirror
Perfume
Whigs
18
Egyptian Social Hierarchy
19
Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs
Tutankhamon1336-1327 B. C. E.
Thutmose III1504-1450 B. C. E.
Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E.
20
Egyptian Nobility
21
  • Pyramids and Fortresses
  • Large pyramids of Khufu, Khefren, and Menkaure in
    Fourth Dynasty (2575-2465 B.C.E.)
  • Pyramids reflected Egyptian strength
  • Power extended to fortress at first cataract of
    the Nile

22
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23
Preparations for the Underworld
Priests protected your KA, or soul-spirit
24
Materials Used in Mummification
1. Linen
6. Natron2. Sawdust
7. Onion3. Lichen
8. Nile Mud4. Beeswax
9. Linen Pads5. Resin
10. Frankinsense
25
Preparation for the Afterlife
26
Egyptian Mummies
Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E.
Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C.
E.
Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E.
27
Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara
28
Bent Pyramid of King Sneferu
29
Giza Pyramid Complex
30
Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu
31
Egyptian Priestly Class
32
Egyptian Scribe
Writing emerged at same time as in Sumer
33
Papyrus ? Paper
Hieratic Scroll Piece
Papyrus Plant
34
Egyptian Math Draftsmenship

1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
What number is this?
35
Hieroglyphic Cartouche
36
The Rosetta Stone
37
Indus Valley
38
Indus Valley
  • The Harappan culture existed along the Indus
    River in what is present day Pakistan.
  • It was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa
    and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important
    centers of the Indus valley civilization.
  • This Indus Valley civilization flourished
    around 4000-1000 B.C.

39
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40
Harappa
41
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42
Harappan Civilization
  • By 2500 BCE, communities had been turned into
    urban centers (integration).
  • So far, six such urban centers have been
    discovered, including Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and
    Dicki in Pakistan, along with three others in
    India.
  • Irrigation used to increase crop production and
    mud brick structures.

43
Geography
  • Mountains of the Himalaya and Hindu Kush provide
    a continuous source of water
  • These mountain ranges also provided important
    timber, animal products, and minerals, gold,
    silver, tin and semiprecious stones that were
    traded throughout the Indus Valley.

44
Coast
  • These coastal settlements were involved in
    fishing and trading, using the monsoon winds to
    travel back and forth to Oman and the Persian
    Gulf region.

45
Major Cities Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
  • The cities are well known for their impressive,
    organized and regular layout.
  • They have well laid our plumbing and drainage
    system, including indoor toilets.
  • Over one thousand other towns and villages also
    existed in this region.

46
The similarities in plan and construction between
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa indicate that they were
part of a unified government with extreme
organization.
Remains of palaces or temples in the cities have
not been found.
47
The Great Bath
  • The "great bath" is the earliest public water
    tank.

48
Streets
  • At Mohenjo-Daro narrow streets and alleyways are
    off of the major streets, leading into more
    private neighborhoods.
  • Many of the brick houses were two stories high,
    with thick walls and high ceilings to keep the
    rooms cool in the hot summer months.

49
Gateway
50
Language
  • The Indus (Harappan) people used a pictographic
    script.
  • Some 3500 specimens of this script survive
  • Writing has not been deciphered

51
Ancient Indus
52
Economy-Trade
  • The Harappan civilization was mainly urban and
    mercantile.
  • Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded with
    Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and
    Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise.
  • Irrigation First to cultivate cotton

53
Collapse
  • Possible Theories
  • intense flooding
  • decrease in precipitation
  • decreased river flow
  • Aryan invasion (doubtful)

54
The Spread of Aryan Settlement
  • Aryans are named for their use of Sanskrit and
    other languages included in the Indo-Aryan family
    of languages
  • Arrived in waves from either central Asia or the
    Iranian plateau, mixed with local people and
    moved eastward to the Ganges by 1000 B.C.E.
  • MIGRATION AND DIFFUSION

55
Indus Valley and Its Mysteries
  • Legacies of the Harappan Civilization
  • Was succeed by and blended with the Aryan
    civilization
  • Aryans have extensive literary legacy but
    virtually no artifacts
  • Aryans learned farming from Harappans
  • Caste system used to control Harappans?

56
Civilization?
  • Criticism of calling it a civilization because
    even though the culture is fairly homogenous,
    there is a lack of elite (such as high status
    burials).
  • Thus, some researchers argue that it was actually
    more of a chiefdom, rather than a state-level
    society.
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