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Title: Introduction%20to%20AP%20Human%20Geography

Introduction to AP Human Geography
Introductory Questions
  1. Why do students study geography? (3 examples)
  2. How does geography affect your life? (3 examples)
  3. How would your life be different if you lived in
    Japan? (3 examples)

Intro. Cont..
  1. In this course, we will examine why different
    areas have developed differently in terms of
    culture, economics, politics, and urban
  2. Geography is a means to understand why certain
    areas are similar to and different from each
    other. Human geography in particular, helps us
    to focus on how the world is and how it might
  3. Geography is a means to understand why certain
    areas are similar to and different from each
    other. Human geography in particular, helps us
    to focus on how the world is and how it might

Intro. Cont
  • Human geography is different from other branches
    of geography because its primary focus is people.
    It studies human groups and their activities,
    such as language, industry, and the building of
    cities it is a social science. (It looks at how
    people modify their environment, how they
    interact over space, as opposed to with space).
  • Other Fields of Geography
  • Population geography The study of the
    distribution of humankind across the earth
  • Cultural geography The study of the geography
    of human cultures
  • Political geography The study of the
    interaction between political processes and the
    distribution of all other activities
  • Economic geography The study of how various
    people make their living and what they trade
  • Urban geography The geographic study of cities
  • Physical Geography The study of the
    characteristics of the physical environment
  • Historical Geography The study of the geography
    of the past and how geographic distributions have

Are You a Geo-Genius
  • 1) Which state is bordered on the southwest by
    the Savannah River- South Carolina or Indiana?
  • 2) Which state produces more gold than any other
    state- Nevada or Nebraska?
  • 3) Which state is located closer to the Tropic of
    Cancer Louisiana or Wyoming?
  • 4) Which state has a longer border with Canada
    Alaska or Idaho?
  • 5) Which state does not have a coastline New
    Mexico or New Hampshire?

Chapter 1
  • Introduction to Geography

History of Geography
  • Classical Western World
  • (1) Erastosthones (275-195 B.C.) Director of
    library in Alexandria, calculated circumference
    of the Earth
  • Hipparchus (180-127 B.C.) Alexandria library
    director, first two place a grid on the earth
  • (2) Ptolemy ( 127 A.D. 150) Wrote Guide to
  • Non-European World
  • Muslim Scholars - Al-Edrisi (1099-1154),
    Ibn-Battuta (1304-1378), and Ibn-Khaldun
    (1332-1406) produced texts
  • The Tribute of Yu 5th Century B.C. describes
    geogrpahy of Chinese Empire
  • Phei Hsiu father of Chinese cartography
  • (3) Kangido Korea 1402, included East Asia,
    India, Islamic World, Africa, and Europe, far
    more extensive than knowledge of the Roman World

Since the 1400s
  • General geography (1650)
  • Bernhard Varen German professor
  • (4) Special geography regional geography,
    begins with explanation of local physical env.
    and then analyzes places in terms of categories,
    such as local population, customs, and politics.
  • (5) General geography topical/systematic
    geography, examines topics of universal
    application, basic approach for the outline of
    your textbook
  • Human-environment tradition
  • (6) Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)
  • Cosmos enormous intellectual impact in the
    United States, statue central park
  • (7) George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882)
  • Man and Nature (1864) U.S. ambassador to
    several Mediterranean countries, precursor of
    todays env. movement

The information that any citizen needs in order
to make an informed decision on an important
question of the day is largely geographic.
Geography Today
  • Association of American Geographers
  • (8) 55 topical specialties
  • Where?, What?, When?, Why?, and Why there?
  • Four approaches
  • Area analysis examines site, situation, and
  • Spatial analysis examines patterns in the
    distribution of human actions, movements and env.
    processes across Earths surface
  • (9) Physical System Analysis use models to
    analyze physical env.
  • Geographic information systems analysis use
    computer based GIS and GPS systems

Area Analysis
  • Site
  • (10) Exact location of a place
  • Situation or relative location
  • Location of a place relative to other places
  • Accessibility
  • (11) Constant change
  • Scale

  • Formal regions
  • Exhibit uniformity across a cultural or physical
  • Functional regions
  • Defined by interactions among places
  • Vernacular regions
  • (12) Widespread popular perception of existence

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Spatial Analysis
  • Distribution the distribution of a phenomenon
    means its position, placement or arrangement
    throughout space
  • Three properties of distribution
  • (13) Density describes the frequency of
    occurrence of a phenomenon in relation to a
    geographic area (fig. 1-11)
  • Concentration refers to the distribution of a
    phenomenon within a given area
  • (14) Pattern geometrical arrangement of objects
    in an area

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  • Distance Interaction of people and places
    across distance
  • Measurements (several ways to measure)
  • (15) Absolute measured in terms of miles or
  • Time i.e. something is 20 minutes away
  • Cost monetary amount required to overcome a
    distance (explains importance of water to growth
    of cities)
  • (16) Friction of distance effort to overcome
    distance when we transport items
  • Distance decay
  • As distance increases, importance of a particular
    phenomena decreases
  • Ex. Newspaper circulation

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Three Types of Diffusion
  • (17) Relocation diffusion i.e. a nomadic tribe
  • Contiguous diffusion occurs from one place
    directly to another place
  • (18) Hierarchical diffusion upward or downward
    in an organization (Roman Catholic Church)
  • Barriers to diffusion
  • Cultural barriers
  • Oceans, deserts, distance, time
  • Political boundaries, cultural differences

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4 Physical Systems
  • Atmosphere (air) surrounding Earth to an
    altitude of less than 300 miles (lower atm. pure
    air is 78 N and 21 O)
  • (19) Lithosphere (Earths solid rocks) consists
    of Earths crust and a portion of upper mantle
    directly below the crust, extending down 45 miles
  • Hydrosphere (water) surface water, vapor in the
    atmosphere, ice in glaciers, and groundwater in
    soil and rock
  • (20) Biosphere - living organisms on Earth

Human-Environmental Interaction
  • (21) Reciprocal interaction env. affects human
    life and cultures and humans alter the env.
  • Culture
  • Everything about the way people live language,
    food, religion, social ceremonies
  • (22) Natural landscapes
  • Without evidence of human activity
  • Cultural landscapes
  • Reveals how humans modify local environment

The Geographic Grid
  • Longitude
  • Measures distance east to west around the globe
    beginning at the Prime Meridian
  • Prime Meridian 0 Degree
  • International Date Line see figure 1-19
  • 0-180 degrees East or West
  • (23) Greenwich Mean Time
  • Latitude
  • Location on the Earths surface between the
    equator and either the north or south pole
  • (24) Parallels lines connecting all points at
    the same latitude
  • 0-90 degrees North or South

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Map Making
  • Cartography
  • Scale
  • Fraction 1/24,000
  • Ratio 124,000
  • Written statement 1 inch equals 1 mile
  • Bar style
  • Detail and area
  • (25) Small scale map less detail, large
    denominator (11,000,000)
  • (26) Large scale map more detail, small
    denominator (1100,000)

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  • Scientific method of transferring locations on
    Earths surface to a flat map
  • 4 types of distortion (see page 30)
  • (27) Shape objects are stretched more in some
    parts so that their shape changes
  • Distance latitude and longitude lines
  • (28) Relative size items become larger or
  • Direction lat. long. orientation changes

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Geographic Information Technology
  • Automated cartography
  • Manual techniques - expensive
  • (29) Computer Assisted Drawing (CAD)
  • Sophisticated, specialized digital cartography
  • Easier, cheaper editing
  • Also used for product design, i.e. Cannondale

Natural Landscape w/o evidence of human activity
Cultural Landscape - Reveals how humans modify
local environment
  • Questions
  • 1) When does an area become a cultural landscape
    and stop becoming a natural landscape?
  • 2) Are all landscapes cultural landscapes?
  • 3) How much of land in the U.S. should be

Accessibility can be as valuable as mineral
deposits or fertile soil
  • Accessibility Survey
  • How accessible is NYC? Philadelphia? Tanzania?
  • How accessible are your teachers?
  • 3. How accessible are you, can your friends
    easily contact you?
  • 4. How might your answers have been different
  • 50 years ago?
  • 5. What are the positives and negatives of
    increased accessibility?

Remote Sensing
  • Acquisition of data about Earths surface from a
    satellite orbiting the planet or from high-flying

  • (30) Landsat see page 35
  • First launch 1972 most recent launch 1999
  • Sensors measure radiation of colors of visible
  • Pixel size at first (resolution) 59 x 59 meters
  • IKONOS resolution now 1.5 x 1.5 meters
  • Weather satellites
  • Very large pixels cover several kilometers on a

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Remotely Sensed Data
  • Human activities
  • Changes in plant growth
  • Drainage patterns
  • Erosion associated with agriculture
  • (31) Logging and forest management
  • Wetland monitoring
  • Wartime applications

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GIS (32) Geographic Information Systems
  • Database software for digital information
  • Contains same information as regular database
  • PLUS
  • Spatial characteristics such as boundary
    information or coordinates
  • An identifying characteristic that locates the
    item in space (i.e., address)
  • Layers
  • Information with specific characteristics
  • Soils, hydrology, land ownership
  • Can be combined for analysis

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Digital Geographic Information
  • (33) Raster
  • Grid cells of data
  • Remote sensing images
  • Pixels
  • (34) Vector
  • Point, line, polygon data
  • X and Y coordinates
  • Different uses and spatial accuracies

Digital Data
  • Conversion of paper to digital formats
  • Digital database creation
  • Remote sensing images
  • Digitizing
  • Tracing lines
  • Available types of data
  • (35) Topographic maps
  • DRG and DLG
  • US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands
  • Census Bureau TIGER files

GIS Spatial Analysis
  • Calculating densities and distribution of
  • Counting lakes
  • Monitoring environmental changes with satellite
  • Analyzing changes in (36) food production and
    land use

Chapter 1 Vocab.
  • Space-time compression the reduction in the
    time it takes for something to reach another
  • Hearth the place where an innovation originates
  • Expansion diffusion spread of features from one
    place to another
  • Contagious diffusion rapid widespread diffusion
    throughout a population, for example a disease
  • Stimulus diffusion spread of an underlying
    principle, like the use of Windows
  • Uneven Development Increasing economic gap
    between regions in the core and periphery as a
    result of globalization

End of Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Vocab. Cont..
  • Transnational Corporation multinational corp.
    operates factories and sells products in many
  • Polder piece of land created from draining
  • Cultural Ecology geographic study of
    human-environment relationships
  • Environmental Determinism Human environment
    causes social development
  • Possibilism People have the ability to adjust
    to their environment
  • MDCS and LDCs
  • Culture body of customary beliefs, material
    traits and social forms that constitute a
    distinct group

Chapter 1 Vocab. Cont..
  • Regions
  • Formal
  • Functional
  • Regional
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