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Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy St. Thomas Aquinas He is a scholastic-university man; debates issues to increase knowledge Accepted the existence of God on faith, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Changes%20in%20Medieval%20Society

Changes in Medieval Society
  • A Medieval Town
  • Jam-packed wooden houses, each a potential
    tinderbox, sought extra room through upper
    stories jutting out over the street. The streets
    themselves were mere alleys, 6 to 10 ft. across.
    Sewers were open and sanitation scant. The
    stroller had to dodge slops (human wastes) from
    above and swilling pigs below scabrous (covered
    with scabs or rough patches of skin) beggars
    jostled him. Except when he raised his eyes to
    the Gothic grace of town belfry or church spire,
    signs of filth and disease assailed him
  • Why were medieval towns prone to disastrous
  • What danger from above did passerby face?
  • Why do you think people chose to live in towns
    despite the filth?
  • The passage describes the scene that assailed
    ones eyes. What other sense would have been

Other Stuff
  • While Church reform, cathedral building, and
    Crusades were taking place..
  • Advances in
  • Agriculture
  • Trade and finances
  • Population growth and growht of towns
  • Cultural interaction with Muslim and Byzantine

Changes in Agriculture
  • From 800 to 1200 the climate warms, opening more
    land to farming
  • Changes in technology result in more food

Switch to Horsepower
  • Harnessed horses replace oxen in pulling plows
    and wagons
  • Horses plow three times as much a day, increasing
    food supply

Watermills and Windmills
  • Most important device for harnessing power before
    the steam engine
  • Watermills were used to grind grains for flour,
    make cloth, sawmills to cut wood
  • Located by streams
  • If didnt have access to rivers, they used
  • Windmills used to pump water cut wood

The Three-Field System
  • Around 800 three-field system used-plant two
    fields, let one rest
  • This produces more food and leads to population

The Guilds
  • Guild-organization of people in the same
  • Merchant guilds begin first they keep prices up,
    provide security
  • Skilled artisans, men and women, form craft

  • Apprentice trained 2-7 years parents paid for
    training lived with master and his family not
    allowed to marry
  • Journeyman or Day Worker Worked for a master
    for pay worked 6 days a week needed to produce
    a masterpiece to become a master had to be
    accepted by the guild to be a master
  • Master Owned his own shop worked with other
    masters to protect their trade

European Women at Work
This manuscript painting shows women and men
cooperating in the baking of bread, long a staple
of European diets.
Guild Services
  • Guilds set standards for quality, prices, wages,
    working conditions
  • Guilds supervise training of new members of their
  • Built almshouses for victims of misfortune
  • Provided dowries for poor girls
  • Took turns policing the streets
  • The wealth of guilds influences government and

Commercial Revolution
  • Fairs and Trade
  • Europe sees Commercial Revolution-changes in
    business and trade
  • Trade fairs are held several times a year in
  • Trade routes open to Asia, North Africa, and
    Byzantine ports

  • Cloth was most important trade item.
  • Others bacon, salt, honey, cheese, wine,
    leather, dyes, knives, and ropes
  • No longer was everything produced on a
    self-sufficient manor.

Business and Banking
  • Merchants develop credit to avoid carrying large
    sums of money and made trading easier.
  • Also take out loans to purchase goods, and
    banking grows
  • Usury - lending money at interest
  • Church did not like this
  • Jews become moneylenders with lack of Christians
  • Church later relaxed its rule on usury and
    Christians entered the banking business.

Cities Make a Comeback
  • Growing Urban Population
  • 1000-1150 Europes pop. rises from 30 million to
    42 million
  • Paris-60,000 by 1200
  • Most towns - 1,500 to 2,500 people

Change is Not Good for Everyone
  • Towns are uncomfortable
  • Crowded, dirty, full of fire hazards, filled with
    animals and their waste
  • No sewers
  • Houses were built of wood with thatched roofs
  • Serfs can become free by living in a town for a
    year and a day

Merchants take over
  • Feudal lords tax and govern towns, causing
  • Burghers
  • Merchant-class town dwellers who take control of
    towns and cities

Whats in a Name??
  1. Occupation or social status. Examples Cooper -
    barrel maker Wagner or Waggoner - wagon maker
    Knight - knighthood Smith - blacksmith
  2. Nicknames describing person or personality.
    Examples Reid - red, ruddy complexion or red
    hair Stout - Body size Small - Body size
    Armstrong - strong arms Sharpe - sharp, smart
  1. Patronymic (from the first name of father).
    Examples Peters - son of Peter (English,
    German) Peterson - son of Peter (Swedish)
    Petersen - son of Peter (Danish) O'Reilly -
    grandson of Reilly (Ireland)
  2. Lives near locality or place. Examples
    KirkPatrick - Church (kirk) of St. Patrick
    Cliff - steep hill Fairholm - the fair island
    Ashley - field surrounded by ash trees

Learning Also Makes a Comeback
  • The Muslim Connection
  • Christian scholars read translations of Greek
    works made by Muslims
  • Crusaders return with Muslim knowledge of
    navigation, ships, and weapons

  • Groups of scholars gather and develop
  • Vernaculareveryday language
  • Dante Alighieri The Divine Comedy, which is
  • Geoffrey ChaucerThe Canterbury Tales, which is

European University Life in the Middle Ages
  • This 14th century manuscript painting shows a
    classroom scene from the University of Bologna in
    Italy. Note the sleeping and disruptive
    students. Some things never change.

Europes First Universities
  • University of Bologna, Italy
  • Attracted students from all of Europe
  • Most were administrators for kings princes
  • University of Paris
  • Oxford and Cambridge
  • In the 12th century, after they were expelled
    from the University of Paris because of a war
    between France and England, some English students
    and tutors settled at Oxford, and others at
    Cambridge. From this beginning evolved the two
    universities. They were the only ones in England
    until 1836, when the University of London was

Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy
  • St. Thomas Aquinas
  • He is a scholastic-university man debates issues
    to increase knowledge
  • Accepted the existence of God on faith, but
    believed it was subject to logical proof.
  • He taught that governments, as well as the
    individuals they served, were morally responsible
    for acting in accordance with divine law.

Fill in the blanks
  • 1. The first ____________was a group of
    merchants who worked to improve the economic and
    social conditions of its members.
  • Guild
  • 2. Merchants and craftspeople who lived in the
    towns and who demanded privileges such as freedom
    from tolls and the right to govern their town
    were called___________.
  • Burghers

  • 3. ____________were documents given by a bank to
    an individual allowing that person to withdraw an
    amount of money from that bank or one of its
  • Letters of credit
  • 4. The ______________allowed villages to grow
    more food by organizing land into three fields
    instead of two.
  • Three-field system

  • 5. In the 1100s, poets began to use the everyday
    language of their homeland, or the_______________.
  • Vernacular
  • 6. Scholars who met together at universities
    were known as schoolmen, or_____________.
  • Scholastics

  • 7. The expansion of trade and business as
    agriculture was expanding is called the
  • Commercial Revolution
  • 8. In many European countries, you
    _______________ could also label your profession.
  • surname

  • 9. A scholar in the 1200s named ________said
    that logic could prove many religious truths.
  • Thomas Aquinas
  • 10. A day worker, known as a _______
  • had to complete several steps in order to become
    a master in his craft.
  • journeyman

  • 11. __________wrote the Canterbury Tales which
    describes a pilgrimage to the shrine of St.
    Thomas a Becket, around 1387 in English
  • Chaucer
  • 12. _________wrote The Divine Comedy.
  • Dante
  • 13. When the harness was improved, _____could be
    successfully used for plowing and for pulling
  • Horses
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