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Islam, Judaism


Islam, Judaism & Christianity Christianity Beliefs Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islam, Judaism

Islam, Judaism Christianity
Origins of Each Faith
  • Date and Place founded
  • Judaism approximately 1300 B.C. in Palestine
  • Some say the date is unknown
  • Christianity approximately 33 A.D. in Palestine
  • Islam 622 A.D. in Saudi Arabia

Founders and Early Leaders
  • Founders and Early Leaders
  • Judaism Abraham and Moses
  • Christianity Jesus
  • Islam - Muhammad

Brief History on Origins
  • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded
    Judaism around 2000 B.C. Judaism is the oldest of
    the monotheistic faiths (religions with one God).
  • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was
    crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem. It was
    after his death when his followers came to
    believe in him as the Christ, the Messiah.
  • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad between
    A.D. 610 and A.D. 632

Spread of Each Faith
  • Early Expansion
  • Judaism Little expansion mostly confined to
  • Christianity by the end of the 4th century
    Christianity spread across the entire Roman
  • Islam Within 12 years, entire Arabian
    peninsula after 100 years stretched from Spain
    to Southeast Asia

Terms for Followers and Clergy
  • Followers Called
  • Judaism Jews
  • Christianity Christians
  • Islam Muslims
  • Clergy Called
  • Judaism rabbis
  • Christianity bishop, pastor, ministers, priest
  • Islam - imams

Where and When They Worship
  • House of Worship
  • Judaism synagogue or temple
  • Christianity church, cathedral, chapel
  • Islam mosque
  • Day of Worship
  • Judaism Saturday
  • Christianity Sunday
  • Islam - Friday

Languages of Faiths
  • Original Language
  • Judaism Hebrew
  • Christianity Aramaic and Greek, then Latin
  • Islam Arabic
  • Names of God
  • Judaism Yahweh and Elohim
  • Christianity God, the Trinity
  • Islam - Allah

Sacred Texts of Each Faith
  • Sacred Texts
  • Judaism Hebrew Bible
  • Christianity Old Testament and New Testament
  • Islam Quran (Koran)

Monotheistic Beliefs
  • Ultimate Reality (Type of Theism)
  • Judaism One God
  • Christianity Trinity (God the father, God the
    Son, and God the Holy Spirit)
  • Islam One God

Divine Revelation
  • How do we know about God?
  • Judaism through prophets recorded in the Hebrew
  • Christianity through prophets and Jesus as
    recorded in the Old and New Testament
  • Islam through Gods final prophet Muhammad
    recorded in the Quran

Identity of Jesus
  • Judaism False prophet
  • Christianity Son of God, the Messiah, Savior
  • Islam prophet of God

Death of Jesus
  • Judaism death by Crucifixion
  • Christianity death by Crucifixion
  • Islam Did not die, but ascended into heaven (a
    disciple took his place)

Resurrection of Jesus
  • Judaism Denied
  • Christianity Affirmed
  • Islam Denied since he did not die

Means of Salvation
  • Judaism Belief in one God good deeds
  • Christianity correct belief, good deeds by
    faith accept Christ as Savior (Protestants)
  • Islam Belief in one God good deeds and follow
    Five Pillars of Faith

  • Judaism eternal heaven, or no afterlife
  • Christianity eternal heaven
  • Islam eternal paradise (heaven)
  • Judaism - eternal hell, or no afterlife
  • Christianity eternal hell
  • Islam eternal hell

  • Judaism Star of David
  • Christianity cross
  • Islam crescent with name of Allah in Arabic

View of Fellow Abrahamic Religions
  • Judaism Islam and Christianity are false
    interpretations and extensions of Judaism.
  • Christianity Judaism is a true religion, but
    with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false
  • Islam Jews and Christians are respected as
    fellow believers, but with wrong beliefs and only
    partial revelation.

Where They Can Be Found
  • Major Locations TODAY
  • Judaism Europe, Israel, North America
  • Christianity Europe, North and South America
  • Islam Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia

Current Worldwide Followers TODAY
  • Judaism 14 million (ranks 12th)
  • Christianity 2 billion (ranks 1st)
  • Islam 1.3 billion (ranks 2nd)
  • In the USA
  • Judaism 5.6 million
  • Christianity 159 million
  • Islam 1.1 million

  • JUDAISM is a religion of just one people the
  • JUDAISM was the first to teach belief in only one
  • Two other important religions developed from
    Judaism Christianity and Islam.

Judaism Briefly
  • Judaism is around 3500 years old and is the
    oldest of the world's four great monotheistic
    religions (religions with only one God). It's
    also the smallest, with only about 12 million
    followers around the world.
  • Its holy city is Jerusalem.
  • The Jewish calendar is based on 29 or 30 days
    therefore they have 12.13 months.

Judaism beliefs
  • Jews believe that there is a single God who not
    only created the universe, but with whom every
    Jew can have an individual and personal
  • They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly
    king. They believe in heaven, but that God
    determines where they go after life on earth.
  • Give a tithe (10). Ten Commandments is the
    basic code of law.

  • Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a
    deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His
  • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah.
    The Jewish people do not agree they anticipate
    His arrival in the future.
  • Judaism teaches that death is not the end and
    that there is a world to come.

Jewish Philosophy
  • God is one and unique
  • God is the creator
  • God is transcendent
  • God is immanent.
  • God is lawgiver
  • God is personal
  • We have the obligation to worship
  • The Torah is God's law
  • God is judge
  • The Messiah will come.

Judaism Holy Book
  • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first
    five books of the Christian Bible). Others
    include Judaism's oral tradition, the written
    form of which is known as the Talmud.
  • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five
    books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai.
  • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers Deuteronomy
  • Hebrew is read right to left.

  • The "Torah," the first five books of the Hebrew
    Bible, is the most important Jewish scripture.
  • It contains the basic laws of Judaism.
  • Another important book is the "Talmud," serving
    primarily as a guide to the civil and religious
    laws of Judaism.

Judaism Place of Worship
  • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. Men and
    women usually sit separately.
  • Worship is led by a Rabbi.
  • Friday evening is time for worship.

Stamford Hill, London
  • The Jewish house of worship is called a
  • Rabbis (spiritual leaders) conduct services, act
    as interpreters of Jewish laws, and deliver
  • Today there are over 18 million followers of
    Judaism scattered throughout the world.
  • A large number of those people live in the Jewish
    nation of Israel. Over six million live in the
    United States.

Christianity briefly
  • Christianity is the world's biggest religion,
    with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide.
  • It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who
    lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

  • The early Hebrews who eventually developed into
    the Jewish religion became the foundation of
  • Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who
    disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of
    his day began to profess a new way of thinking.
  • This eventually led to the beginning of the
    Christian religion.

  • Christianity started about 2000 years ago about
    the same time of Jesus.
  • The central point of Christian belief is that
    God, the Father, entered into human history as
    the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy

Christian Philosophy
  • God is the Creator of the universe. There is one
    God, Who is Three  Persons-      Father, Son and
    Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus is both fully man and fully God.  He was
    born of the Virgin Mary  Crucified, resurrected
    from the dead, and ascended to the Father.

Christianity Beliefs
  • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son
    of God
  • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from
    the consequences of its sins
  • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after
    his Crucifixion (the Resurrection)
  • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah
    promised in the Old Testament
  • Christians believe that there is only one God,
    but that this one God consists of 3 "persons"
  • Christians believe that God made the world.

Christianity Beliefs continued
  • Christians believe that they can have a personal
    relationship with God, and that they are saved by
    faith, not works. Grace is the law code.
  • They believe in actual heaven and hell.
  • They believe that the Bible is the inspired word
    of God.
  • Their giving is a tithe or offerings.

Christian Philosophy
  • Sin and Evil are realities in our existence.
  • The Bible is the Holy Book that records God's
  • All believers are promised life everlasting.
  • The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the
    followers was his 12 disciples.

Christians Holy Book
  • The Bible is the Christian holy book. It is
    divided into the Old and New Testaments. Parts of
    the writing contained in the Old Testament are
    also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.

Christian Place of Worship
  • The Christian place of worship is called a
    Church, which are built in the shape of a cross
    with the altar facing east towards the rising
    sun. Services are led by a priest, pastor or
  • Day of worship is normally Sunday but most
    recently Saturday has been added.

Westminster Abbey London
Islam Briefly
  • Islam is the second most popular religion in the
    world with over a thousand million followers.
    Islam began in Arabia and was revealed to
    humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
  • Those who follow Islam are called Muslims.
    Muslims believe that there is only one God,
    called Allah, who speaks Arabic.
  • The Muslim calendar has 354 days and is based on
    the 12 crescent moon cycles.

  • ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached
    by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s A. D.
  • The Islamic religion started in the area known as
    Palestine in the year 600AD.
  • It has about 850 million followers, most of them
    in the region north and east of the Mediterranean

  • The holy book of Islam is the "Koran." Muslims
    believe its words to be those of Allah himself,
    spoken to Muhammad by an angel.
  • Allah, is the Islamic God.
  • People who believe these ideas are called

Islamic Philosophy
  • Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of
    testing and preparation for the life to come.
  • Angels record good and bad deeds.
  • People should behave themselves and help others,
    trusting in Allah's justice and mercy for their

Islam Holy Book
  • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is
    'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices
    are rooted in the Qur'an.
  • Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect
    because they believe that the Qur'an is from
    Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred.
  • Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word
    of God.
  • It is read from right to left and written in
    Arabic, the language of heaven.

Islam Place of Worship
  • The Muslim building for communal worship is
    called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic
    for "place of prostration".
  • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day
    from minarets towers on the mosque corners.
  • They contain only designs, no people or animals
    or furniture.
  • Normal day of worship is Friday.

Jamia Mosque in Derby England
  • Muslims pray five times daily in their mosques
  • While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca
    (in Saudi-Arabia) and sometimes kneel with faces
    to the ground.
  • All Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage
    (trip to a sacred place) to Mecca at least once
    in their lifetime.

Five Pillars Belief system/law code
  • Shahadah declaration of faith "I bear witness
    that there is no god, but God I bear witness
    that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting
    this, one enters Islamic faith.
  • Salah prayerMuslims are required to pray five
    times a day, washing themselves before prayer and
    facing in the direction of Mecca while praying.
  • Zakat giving a fixed proportion to charity
    Muslims are required to give away a percentage
    of their earnings to those less fortunate,
    regardless of their religion.
  • Saum fasting during the month of RamadanMuslims
    fast for one lunar month each year, a period
    called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect
    on their behaviour and strive to purify their
  • Hajj pilgrimage to MeccaIf it is financially
    possible, Muslims are required to travel to Mecca
    once in their lifetime.

Main Festivals Continued
  • HijjaThe month of pilgrimage during which all
    Muslims, at least once in their life, should try
    to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and worship at
    the Kaaba
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