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Life Span Development


Life Span Development Chapter 5: Development – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life Span Development

Life Span Development
  • Chapter 5
  • Development

Defining Terms
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Branch of psychology that specifically examines
    the physiological, cognitive, and emotional
    changes in an organism from conception to death.
  • Developmental Psychologists utilize a number of
    different methods of inquiry to gather this

Cross-Sectional Study
  • Study people of different ages at the same point
    in time
  • Advantages
  • Inexpensive
  • Can be completed quickly
  • Low attrition
  • Disadvantages
  • Different age groups are not necessarily much
  • Differences may be due to cohort differences
    rather than age

Longitudinal Study
  • Study the same group of people over time
  • Advantages
  • Detailed information about subjects
  • Developmental changes can be studied in detail
  • Eliminates cohort differences
  • Disadvantages
  • Expensive and time consuming
  • Potential for high attrition
  • Differences over time may be due to assessment
    tools and not age

Biographical or Retrospective Study
  • Participants past is reconstructed through
    interviews and other research about their life
  • Advantages
  • Great detail about life of individual
  • In-depth study of one person
  • Disadvantages
  • Recall of individual may not be accurate
  • Can be expensive and time consuming

Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal - period of time from conception to
  • Zygote a fertilized egg with full set of genes
  • Embryo
  • From about two weeks after conception to three
    months after conception (most of first trimester)
  • Organs begin to form heartbeat
  • Fetus
  • Three months after conception to birth (second
    and third trimesters)
  • Organs continue to form response to sounds
  • Placenta
  • Connects fetus to mother
  • Brings oxygen and nutrients and takes away wastes

Prenatal Development
  • Teratogens
  • Any agent that causes a structural abnormality
    following fetal exposure during pregnancy
  • Cocaine, alcohol, tetracycline, x-rays, lithium,
    diazepam (Valium)
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Occurs in children of women who consume large
    amounts of alcohol during pregnancy
  • Symptoms include facial deformities, heart
    defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments

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Prenatal Development
  • Critical period
  • Specific time during which an organism has to
    experience stimuli in order to progress through
    developmental stages properly.
  • If period passes without proper
    stimulation/development, development is hindered

The Newborn Babyaka NEONATE
The Competent Newborn Reflexes
  • Rooting
  • Baby turns its head toward something that brushes
    its cheek and gropes around with mouth
  • Sucking
  • Newborns tendency to suck on objects placed in
    the mouth
  • Swallowing
  • Enables newborn babies to swallow liquids without
  • Grasping
  • Close fist around anything placed in their hand
  • Stepping
  • Stepping motions made by an infant when held
  • Babinski
  • Stroke bottom of foot toes fan and curl
  • Moro
  • Drop baby unexpectedly (?!) or make loud noise
    and it will throw arms out, arch back and then
    grasp for something
  • Crawling
  • Place neonate on stomach and press down on soles
    of feet arms and legs move rhythmically

The Competent Newborn Temperament
  • Temperament refers to characteristic patterns of
    emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation
  • Thomas and Chess identified three basic types of
    babies (1977) Kagan (1988) added a fourth
  • Easy
  • Good-natured, easy to care for, adaptable
  • Difficult
  • Moody and intense, react to new situations and
    people negatively and strongly
  • Slow-to-warm-up
  • Inactive and slow to respond to new things, and
    when they do react, it is mild
  • Shy Child
  • Timid and inhibited, fearful of anything new or
  • Temperament may predict later disposition

The Competent Newborn Sensory Learning
  • In addition to reflexes present at birth,
    neonates also have the ability to learn
  • Habituation - basic type of learning involving
    decreased response to a stimulus judged to be of
    no importance/novelty
  • Visual learning focus on FACES
  • Olfactory learning fully functioning smell of
  • Auditory learning response to mothers voice
  • Taste Fully functioning preference for sweets!

The Competent NewbornVisual Perception
Dude. Im not going that way!
  • Clear for 8-10 inches
  • Good vision by 6 months
  • Depth perception
  • Visual cliff research
  • Despite his mothers beckoning, an infant
    hesitates to cross the visual cliffan
    apparently steep drop that is actually covered by
    transparent glass.
  • Most infants 6 to 14 months of age were reluctant
    to crawl over the cliff, suggesting they had the
    ability to perceive depth.
  • The ability to perceive depth is partly innate
    and partly a product of early visual experience.

The Visual Cliff
Perception of Scale
Perception of Scale
Infancy and Childhood
Stop touching me.
Ooh. How did you get your hair so silky soft?
Physical Development Body and
  • Children grow about 10 inches and gain about 15
    pounds in first year
  • Growth occurs in spurts, as much as 1 inch
  • Growth slows during second year
  • Neural pruning and paving

Motor and Memory Development
  • Developmental norms
  • Ages by which an average child achieves various
    developmental milestones
  • Occurs in a proximodistal and cephalocaudal
  • Back to Sleep movement to reduce SIDS may delay
  • Maturation
  • Automatic biological unfolding of development in
    an organism as a function of passage of time
  • Relatively uninfluenced by experience
  • Memory not solidified until after 3rd birthday
  • Known as infantile amnesia
  • Development of hippocampus?

Cognitive Development
  • Cognition all mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
  • Jean Piaget
  • Cognitive developmental psychologist who studied
    intellectual development in children
  • Stage-based theory of cognitive development
  • Intellectual growth as a process of adaptation
    (adjustment) to the world. This happens through
  • Formation of schemas mental frameworks
  • Assimilation using an existing schema to
    understand a new situation
  • Accommodation modifying schemas to incorporate
    new information
  • Adjusting schemas (equilibration) when new
    information doesnt fit existing ones

Piagets Stages of Development
  • Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years)
  • Take in world through senses
  • Object permanence and the A not B error
  • Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
  • Egocentrism intuitive over logical reasoning
  • Development of a theory of mind, ideas about
    their own and others cognitions and their
    resulting behaviors
  • The Mountain problem
  • Concrete Operations (7-11 years)
  • Logical reasoning about concrete events
  • Principles of conservation
  • Formal Operations (12 through adulthood)
  • Hypothetical problems solving
  • Understand abstract ideas

Piagets Stages - Summary
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
  • Many developmental theorists such as Vygotsky
    questioned the assumption that there are distinct
    stages in cognitive development
  • Criticism of notion that infants do not
    understand world
  • Piaget may have underestimated influence of
    social interaction in cognitive development

Lev Vygotsky believed development was a function
of social interaction
Social Development Attachment
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • Appears around 8 months coincides with mobility
  • Protective mechanism
  • Attachment through Contact
  • Humans form a bond with those who care for them
    in infancy
  • Based upon interaction with caregiver
  • Harry Harlows work role of physical contact in
  • Attachment through Familiarity
  • Imprinting (Lorenz) tendency to follow the first
    moving thing seen as the basis of attachment
  • Occurs in many species of animals in a critical

Top Harlows experiment Bottom Lorenz and
Social Development Attachment
  • Attachment Differences
  • Mary Ainsworths Strange Situation
  • Secure attachment Explores freely while the
    mother is present, will engage with strangers,
    will be visibly upset when the mother departs,
    and happy to see the mother return.
  • Anxious-ambivalent insecure attachment Anxious
    of exploration and of strangers, even when mother
    is present. When mother departs, the child is
    extremely distressed. The child will be
    ambivalent when she returns, seeking to remain
    close to the mother but resentful, and also
    resistant when the mother initiates attention.
  • Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment Avoids or
    ignores mother - showing little emotion when the
    mother departs or returns. Will not explore much
    regardless of who is there. Strangers not treated
    much differently from mother. Not much emotional
    range displayed.
  • Eriksons Basic Trust
  • Deprivation of Attachment
  • Impact of denying infant monkeys physical comfort
    from their mother
  • Cases of Genie and Victor
  • Daycare?

Self Concept and Parenting Styles
  • Self Concept understanding of who we are
  • If infants can achieve attachment, children must
    achieve a positive self concept
  • Develops gradually in first year (Mirror Test)
  • By 18 months, children know THEY are the image in
    the mirror, and that it is not another person
  • Children with a positive self concept are more
    confident, assertive, optimistic, and sociable,
    but how is this achieved?
  • Diana Baumrinds 4 Parenting Styles may help
  • Authoritarian demanding not responsive
  • Permissive not demanding but responsive
  • Neglectful not demanding, not responsive
  • Authoritative demanding and responsive
  • Impact of parenting styles on children?
  • Authoritative appears to be best, but
  • Correlational NOT causational research!

Mirror Test
Baumrinds Parenting Styles Comparison
Relationships With Other Children
  • Solitary play
  • Children first play by themselves
  • Parallel play
  • As they get older, children play side-by-side
    with other children, but not interacting
  • Cooperative play
  • By about 3 or 3½, children begin playing with
  • Peer group
  • A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances
    who give one another emotional and social support
  • When children start school, peers begin to have
    greater influence

Parallel Play vs. Cooperative Play
Sex-Role Development
  • Gender identity
  • Knowledge of being a boy or girl
  • Occurs by age 3
  • Gender constancy
  • Child realizes that gender cannot change
  • Occurs by age 4 or 5
  • Gender-role awareness
  • Knowing appropriate behavior for each gender
  • Gender stereotypes
  • Beliefs about presumed characteristics of each
  • Sex-typed behavior
  • Socially defined ways to behave different for
    boys and girls
  • May be at least partly biological in origin

The Nature of Adolescence
  • A Carefree Time vs. G. Stanley Halls Storm
    and Stress
  • The American experience?
  • Trends today?
  • Cultural differences?

Physical Changes
  • Growth spurt
  • Begins about age 10½ in girls and about 12½ in
  • Sexual development
  • Primary (reproductive) vs. Secondary
    (non-reproductive) sexual characteristics
  • Puberty
  • Onset of sexual maturation
  • Menarche
  • First menstrual period for girls
  • Neurological changes frontal lobe maturation

Physical Changes Sexual Activity
  • Early and late developers Implications?
  • Adolescent sexual activity
  • Approximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between
    15 and 19 have had intercourse
  • Average age for first intercourse is 16 for boys
    and 17 for girls
  • Teenage pregnancy
  • Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50
  • Highest in U.S. of all industrialized nations

Cognitive Changes
  • David Elkinds Theories
  • Imaginary audience delusion that everyone else
    is always focused on them
  • Personal fable delusion that they are unique and
    very important
  • Invulnerability
  • Nothing can harm them
  • Reckless behavior

Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • Preconventional (preadolescence)
  • Good behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or
    seek reward
  • Conventional (adolescence)
  • Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later
    adolescence, becoming a good citizen
  • Postconventional (adulthood...maybe)
  • Emphasis is on abstract principles such as
    justice, equality, and liberty

Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • The Heinz Dilemma
  • A woman was near death from a special kind of
    cancer. There was one drug that the doctors
    thought might save her. The drug was expensive to
    make, but the druggist was charging ten times
    what the drug cost him to produce. The sick
    woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew
    to borrow the money, but he could only get
    together about 1,000 which is half of what it
    cost. He told the druggist that his wife was
    dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him
    pay later. But the druggist said "No, I
    discovered the drug and I'm going to make money
    from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into
    the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
  • Should Heinz have broken into the store to steal
    the drug for his wife? Why or why not?
  • The response is not as important as the reasoning
    WHY in determining which stage of moral reasoning
    a person is in

Criticisms of Kohlbergs Theory
  • Research shows that many people never progress
    past the conventional level
  • Theory maintains that our rationale remains
    consistent does it?
  • Theory does not take cultural differences into
  • Theory is considered by some to be sexist in that
    girls often scored lower on tests of morality

Personality and Social Development
  • Major task in adolescence is identity formation
  • Forming an identity (James Marcia, 1980)
  • Achievement
  • Successfully find identity
  • Foreclosure
  • Settle for identity others wish for them
  • Moratorium
  • Explore various identities, but unable to commit
  • Diffusion
  • Unable to find themselves refusal to deal
    with the task escapist techniques
  • Eriksons 8 Psychosocial Stages
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens to early 20s)
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation (early 20s to early 40s)

Personality and Social Development
  • Relationships with peers
  • Adolescents often form cliques, or groups with
    similar interests and strong mutual attachment
  • Relationships with parents
  • Adolescents test and question every rule and
    guideline from parents
  • Can be a difficult time for parents AND children

Some Issues of Adolescence
  • Declines in self-esteem
  • Related to appearance
  • Satisfaction in appearance is related to higher
  • Depression and suicide
  • Rate of suicide among adolescents has increased
    600 since 1950, but has leveled off since 90s
  • Suicide often related to depression, drug abuse,
    disruptive behaviors, or child abuse
  • Youth Violence
  • Emerging Adulthood trends in lengthening this

Love, Partnerships, and Parenting
  • Forming partnerships
  • First major event of adulthood is forming and
    maintaining close relationships
  • Eriksons Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Parenthood
  • Having children alters dynamics of relationships
  • Marital satisfaction often declines after birth
    of child

Marital Satisfaction
Other Issues
  • The World of Work
  • Balancing career and family obligations is a
  • Many adults define who they are by what they do
  • Cognitive Changes
  • Fluid intelligence declines with old age
  • Crystallized intelligence does NOT decline, and
    even can increase as learning continues
    throughout life
  • Personality Changes
  • Less self-centered, better coping skills
  • Some men and women have a midlife crisis (or
    midlife transition)
  • Empty Nest Myth

Many parents report feeling a sense of relief
when their children move out!
Late Adulthood
Physical Changes
  • In late adulthood, physical deterioration is
  • As early as the twenties, strength, reaction
    times, sensory abilities and cardiac capacity
    decline, though in late adulthood we may finally
  • Menopause and the end of fertility

Social Development
I cant wait to swill my whiskey from this vessel!
Im too cool for ceramics
  • Independent and satisfying lifestyles Eriksons
    Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Retirement
  • Most people will stop working and face challenges
    with that sudden change
  • Redefining of self
  • Marital satisfaction
  • Sexual behavior
  • Research shows that many older couples continue
    to be sexually active
  • It is not until age 75 that half of men and most
    women report a complete loss of interest in sex

Cognitive Changes
Checkmate, Sucka!
  • Research has demonstrated that those who continue
    to exercise their mental abilities can delay
    mental decline
  • Even PHYSICAL exercise seems to have a positive
    impact on cognitive maintenance
  • However, Alzheimers disease afflicts
    approximately 10 of people over 65 and perhaps
    as many as 50 of those over 90

Facing the End of Life
  • Elizabeth Kubler-Rosss stages of grief/death
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance
  • Giraffe Stages of Dying
  • Eriksons Integrity vs. Despair
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