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The High Middle Ages


The High Middle Ages The Crusades-Holy Lands (where Jesus lived and taught) conquered by Saljuq Turks Christian pilgrims attacked & persecuted – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages
The Crusades- Holy Lands (where Jesus lived and
taught) conquered by Saljuq Turks Christian
pilgrims attacked persecuted Turks also
threatened Constantinople Byzantine Emperor
sought help from Pope Urban II in Rome At the
meeting at Clermont Urban calls for a Crusade to
regain the Holy Land Those who died on Crusade
were promised to go to heaven
The 1st Crusade Led by French Norman nobles, it
lasted from 10961099 Passed through
Constantinople then across Asia Minor toward
Palestine Dressed wrong for climate- it was very
hot, they had wool, leather armor Shortage of
food water because they had few pack
animals Fortunately Turks were disunited, unable
to effectively oppose them Conquered several
cities as well as Jerusalem. Crusaders
slaughtered inhabitants (Jews
Muslims) Crusaders occupied Jerusalem for nearly
100 years before Turks recaptured it. This was
the only truly successful Crusade
Chapter 11, Sect. 1
The Crusades
2nd Crusade- Began in 1147 after Turks recaptured
city of Edessa King Louis VII of France the
Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III led their armies No
cooperation, a dismal failure, they returned to
Europe in disgrace after 2 yrs.
  • 3rd Crusade-
  • 1189-1192 after Salah al-Din captured city of
    Jerusalem in 1187
  • Leaders
  • King Richard the Lion Heart of England
  • King Philip II of France (turned back after
  • Emperor Frederick Barbarossa - Holy Roman Empire
    (drowned crossing stream)
  • 3rd Crusade a failure, had a truce which allowed
    Pilgrims access to Jerusalem

Later Crusades- Several later Crusades were
attempted, but none successfully Some Crusades
were disastrous
Chapter 11, Sect. 1
The Crusades
  • Results of the Crusades-
  • Militarily all except 1st were failures
  • Military knowledge increased crossbow, siege
    tactics, use of gunpowder
  • Departure many nobles allowed kings to
    consolidate power, weaken feudalism
  • EXCHANGE OF IDEAS re-introduction of classical
  • Rice, sugar, citrus fruit, melons, cotton, many
    point in history)

Chapter 11, Sect. 1
The Revival of Trade
Trade had nearly died out after the Fall of Roman
Empire Manor system had develop great
Trade Routes- Trade began to revive in Italy,
Towns had not declined as much as
elsewhere Favorable location in middle of
Mediterranean Its ports were often used by
crusaders to leave or re-enter Europe Trade also
began to revive in northern Europe via the
Vikings Around 1100 large cities became trading
centers in Europe European trade routes went from
city to city where manufacturing had begun People
moved from the manors to the cities
Chapter 11, Sect. 2
The Revival of Trade
  • Articles of Trade -
  • Crusades had created increase in demand for
    exotic goods from the East
  • spices, medicines, perfumes, dyes, precious
  • silk, cotton, linen textile products
  • gold, silver, ivory art objects
  • And much more
  • Europe offered the following for trade
  • fur, timber, fish, grain
  • wine, oil, leather, weapons armor
  • metal goods, glassware, fine woolen cloth

Markets Fairs- Village market days, religious
festivals evolved into fairs exclusively for
trade Local rulers offered protection to
encourage trade at fairs Used Barter Economy
(goods services exchanged for other goods
services) At large fairs (Champagne, France)
money began to be used to make trade easier They
also served as a means of sharing news
information (cultural diffusion)
Chapter 11, Sect. 2
The Revival of Trade
  • Manufacturing, Banking, Investment -
  • Manufacturing systems
  • Domestic System- manufacturing the takes place in
    the workers homes
  • Banking -
  • Bank from old Italian word banca means money
    changers bench
  • Exchanged currency, developed notes for
    transfer, lent money
  • Jews were money lenders - Christians forbade
    charging interest (usury)
  • Investment
  • Capital- wealth earned, saved, invested to
    produce profits
  • Partnerships formed to pool capital
  • Laid foundation for emergence of Market Economy,
  • where land, labor, capital are controlled by
  • Formed basis of modern capitalist system

Chapter 11, Sect. 2
The Growth of Towns
  • The Rights of Townspeople
  • Towns sought their own government
  • Some lords allowed charters governments
  • Some refused and rights were won by force
  • Helped destroy feudalism
  • Four Basic Rights -
  • Freedom no longer bound to the land if
    officials did not challenge
  • them for a year and a day
  • Exempt status residents of towns not required
    to work on manor
  • Town Justice had own courts to try residents
  • Commercial privileges right to sell goods free
    at town market and
  • charge outsiders tolls to trade there

Chapter 11, Sect. 3
The Growth of Towns
  • Guilds -
  • Medieval merchants united in associations
  • Merchant Guilds
  • Gained monopoly on trade in a given area or town
  • Charged others a fee to trade in their area
  • Helped members families
  • Craft Guilds -
  • Includes all people in a particular manufacturing
  • Helped regulate wages working conditions
  • Set standards of quality
  • Developed training system
  • Apprentice -1st stage of craft training, overseen
    by master
  • Journeyman Skilled artisan, worked for daily
    wages from a master
  • Masters may open own shop train other

Chapter 11, Sect. 3
The Growth of Towns
  • Rise of the Middle Class -
  • A new class including merchants, master workers,
    and skilled workers
  • They were called
  • burgesses in England,
  • bourgeoisie in France,
  • burghers in Germany
  • All from word burg or borough, meaning town
  • They supported strong central governments as
    opposed to feudal system
  • Life in a Medieval Town -
  • 9 of 10 were smaller than 2,000
  • Usually located in a defensible position
    (hilltops, bend of river, etc.)
  • Close packed buildings, 5-6 stories high
  • Narrow garbage sewage filled streets
  • Sickness epidemics common
  • Still a very busy, interesting place

Chapter 11, Sect. 3
Life Culture in the Middle Ages
  • Language Literature -
  • Educated people contd speaking writing in
    Latin after fall of roman Empire
  • The common people spoke a variety of local
    languages (vernacular)
  • Eventually writers began writing in the
  • Troubadours (traveling singers) wrote sang
    ballads of
  • Chivalry love in the vernacular
  • Drama was also written performed in the
  • Two of greatest authors who wrote in the
    vernacular, were
  • Dante Alighieri Italian, wrote in native tongue
    of Tuscany, which
  • became basis for Italian greatest work
    Divine Comedy
  • Geoffrey Chaucer English, wrote The Canterbury
    Tales, series of stories
  • Based on pilgrims traveling to the shrine of
    Thomas Beckett
  • Education -
  • Very few people were educated (usually come
    clergy a few nobility)
  • Eventually schools were established for higher
  • Students teachers formed a guild called a
    universitas (later became universities)

Chapter 11, Sect. 4
Life Culture in the Middle Ages
  • Philosophy -
  • Roman Greek Classics introduced to Europe via
    Muslims in Spain.
  • Scholars attempt to reconcile classical ideas
    with Church doctrine (Scholasticism)
  • Peter Abelard scholastic philosopher
    questioned conflicting doctrines
  • Thomas Aquinas Dominican Friar, greatest
    Medieval philosopher,
  • wrote Summa Theologiae a summary of Christian
  • Science -
  • Attempted to justify Church doctrines.
  • Only two subjects received serious attention,
    math optics
  • Studied practical application of mechanical
  • Some experimentation done in monasteries
    )Mendelssohn - genetics

Chapter 11, Sect. 4
Life Culture in the Middle Ages
  • Art Architecture -
  • Most art dedicated to glorifying God.
  • Most architects stayed with Roman (Romanesque)
  • Heavy thick walls small windows rounded
    arches very dark interiors
  • Mid 1100s different style emerged Gothic
  • Thinner walls large windows pointed arches
    flying buttresses light inside
  • Exemplified change (hinted of the coming
  • The poor still lived in wood with mud covered
    huts with thatched roofs.

Chapter 11, Sect. 4
Wars the Growth of Nations
  • England
  • Patriotism feeling of loyalty or belonging to a
    country as a whole
  • Power of the king increased even though limited
    by Parliament
  • Professional army eliminated dependence on
  • Villages grew as power of the Lords declined
  • fewer serfs, more free peasants
  • A single court system developed, giving legal
    control to monarchy
  • Parliament grew stronger by controlling any
    extraordinary taxes
  • The Hundred Years War
  • Series of conflicts with France from 1337 - 1453
  • Edward III because he held Aquitaine Gascony,
    was vassal to French King
  • When last male heir Capetian Dynasty passed,
    Edward claimed French throne
  • HUNDRED YEARS war harder on France because it was
    fought in France

Chapter 11, Sect. 5
Chapter 11, Sect. 5
Wars the Growth of Nations
  • New Weapons
  • Longbow English. 200 yd effective range, ended
    effective use of
  • mounted knights
  • Gunpowder was used increasingly as an explosive
    and propellant
  • Use of cannons used to batter down castles
    during sieges.
  • Castles no longer effective protection
  • The War of the Roses (1455-1485)
  • Struggle for throne- between Lancasters Yorks
  • Henry Tudor emerged victorious (become Henry VII)
  • Henry established a strong monarchy

Wars the Growth of Nations
  • France
  • Joan of Arc 16yr old peasant girl had vision
    from saints told her to help
  • defend city of Orleans. Inspired army to save
    city. Church tried her as a heretic,
  • burned her at stake. Considered a martyr church
    later made her a saint.
  • The Estates General-
  • 1302 established by Philip IV
  • First Estate Clergy
  • Second Estate Nobles
  • Third Estate Common people
  • During 100 years wars controlled finances

Chapter 11, Sect. 5
Wars the Growth of Nations
  • Spain
  • Ferdinand Isabella married joined their
    separate kingdoms
  • (Aragon Castile) against the Moors (Muslims).
    Captured Navarre
  • Granada to create a unified county Spain.
    Ordered all Jews to become
  • Christians or leave Spain.
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • Germanic Area Peninsula initially loose group
    of smaller states,
  • elected Holy Roman Emperor who had little real
    power. Over time Habsburg
  • Family consolidated power by a clever use of
    political intermarriage between
  • member countries. Countries of Germany Italy
    did not surface as unified
  • states until the 1800s.

Chapter 11, Sect. 5
Innocent III Height of power of the papacy . .
. After his reign Power of papacy
declined Europe was changing- strong national
governments, patriotism, church law Thought to
hinder growth in industry trade Introduction of
Greco-Roman thought- introduced by Muslims in
Spain from the Crusades conflicted with
church teachings.
Boniface VIII- felt that church didnt have to
pay taxes, declared supremacy over temporal
rulers. Died shortly after altercation with
Philip. Power of Papacy decreased. Philip IV-
clergy should either pay taxes or obey national
laws, Summoned Estates General, accused pope of
simony heresy. Demanded trial of Boniface.
Sent envoy to Italy to imprison pope, released
  • Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377) After
    Bonifaces death, Philip IV
  • had his advisor Elected pope, Clement V
  • Next six popes were French
  • Avignon, France becomes home of the papacy for
    six popes
  • The Great Schism (1378-1417)
  • Several popes claiming power each having
    supporters including national rulers
  • Council of Constance- agreed to one new pope
    need for reforms
  • Still great differences of opinion by various
    parties regarding reforms.

Criticisms continue Some from within the
Church John Wycliffe- member of the clergy,
teacher at Oxford Univ. Criticized wealth of
church and popes claim to absolute
authority Translated Bible from Latin to
English Jan Hus- Rector at University of
Prague Denounced abuses in church, angered clergy
was excommunicated Tried for heresy , convicted
him and had him burned at the stake
Churchs prestige and power had been
substantially reduced
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