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Eman Shaker


Treatment of polluted soil with lead by Bio-phytoremediation technique The objectives are to discuss the potential of phytoremediation technique on treating heavy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Eman Shaker

Eman Shaker
  • Treatment of polluted soil with lead by
    Bio-phytoremediation technique

  • Dr. Mohammed Elanwar Osman
  • Professor of Plant Physiology, Botany
    Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University
  • Dr. Mohammed Ismail Elshahawy
  • Professor of Soil, Water and Environment,
    Research Department, Agricultural Research Sakha
  • Dr. Soad El-Feky
  • A. Professor of Plant Physiology, Botany
    Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University

The objectives of this study are
  • studying the effect of different pb levels on
    growth and some stress markers and metabolic
    activities in flax tissues.
  • Studying the ability of flax plant to accumulate
    and tolerate high concentrations of pb which are
    often associated in polluted areas.
  • Studying the ameliorative effect of some
    biofeltilizers on growth, metabolic activities
    and yield of flax grown under high
    concentrations of pb.

  • The objectives are to discuss the potential of
    phytoremediation technique on treating heavy
    metal-contaminated side, to provide a brief view
    about heavy metals uptake mechanisms by plant, to
    give some description about the performance of
    several types of plants to uptake heavy metals
    and to describe the fate of absorbed pb metal in
    plant tissue.

The Proplem
  • Since the dawn of the Industrial revolution,
    mankind has been introducing numerous hazardous
    compounds into the environment at an exponential
  • These hazardous pollutants consist of a variety
    of organic compounds and heavy metals, which pose
    serious risks to human health.
  • Heavy metals are primarily a concern because they
    cannot be destroyed by degradation. Frequently,
    the remediation of contaminated soils,
    groundwater, and surface water requires the
    removal of toxic metals from contaminated areas .

  • Heavy metals
  • In an ecological research, any metal or metalloid
    that causes environmental problem which cannot be
    biologically degraded should be considered as a
    heavy metal. several HMs has reached toxic levels
    due to consequence of anthropogenic activities.
    (Padmavathiamma and Loretta,
  • Fifty three elements fall into the category of
    heavy metal till date and defined as the group of
    elements whose densities are higher than 5 g cm3
    and recognized as ubiquitous environmental
    contaminants in industrialized societies .
    (Padmavathiamma and Loretta, 2007)
  • The most common heavy metal contaminants are
    Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu) Mercury
    (Hg), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn).
    (Lasat et al., 2001)

  • Lead
  • lead represent one of the most frequently
    distributed heavy metal pollutants on
    agriculturally exploited soils.
    ( Miroslav, et al., 2005)
  • Among heavy metals, lead is considered one of the
    dangerous environmental pollutants in soil,
    sediments, air and water and considered one of
    the most difficult pollutants to control. Over
    recent decades, the annual worldwide release of
    lead 783,000 t . (Abdul Ghani, 2010)

  • Sources of Lead
  • Frequent use in many industrial processes is the
    main reason for lead contamination of the
    environment such as mining, smelting, manufacture
    of pesticides and fertilizers, dumping of
    municipal sewage and the burning of fossil fuels
    that contain a lead additive.
  • Many commercial products and materials also
    contain lead including paints, ceramic glazes,
    television glass, batteries, medical and
    electrical equipment .
  • The uses of lead for roofing and the production
    of ammunition has increased from previous years .
  • Total annual emission of lead by motor vehicles
    industrial plants alone throughout the world
    amounts more than half a million ton.
  • (Sharma and Dubey, 2005).

  • Health Effects
  • Lead is not only a toxic element but also can be
    accumulated in plant organs and agricultural
    products. (El-Beltagy, 1998)
  • Also, introduction of this metal to man and
    animals through drinking water or food will help
    in occurring many diseases to them such as renal
    failure, brain and liver damage. (Abdul Ghani,

  • The effect of pb on plants has been studied by
    several workers-
  • Soils contaminated with Pb cause sharp decreases
    in crop productivity thereby posing a serious
    problem for agriculture. (Johnson and
  • At a high Pb content in soil, photosynthesis can
    also be reduced due to both a lower carboxylase
    activity and the effects on metabolites of the
    carbon reduction cycle. (Carlson et al., 1995)

  • Enhanced level of lead in soil caused significant
    reduction in plant height, root-shoot ratio, dry
    weight, nodule per plant, chlorophyll content in
    Vigna radiata. (Bekiaroglou
    and Karatagli, 2002)
  • Pb toxicity leads to decreases germination
    percent, length and dry mass of root and shoots,
    disturbed mineral nutrition and reduction in cell
    division. (Paivoke, 2002)
  • Exposure of maize varieties to excess Pb resulted
    in a significant root growth inhibition though
    shoot growth remained less affected. (Abdul
    Ghani, 2010)

  • Several methods are already being used to clean
    up the environment from contaminants such as
    heavy metals, but most of them are costly and far
    away from their optimum performance such as
    chemical and thermal methods. Both technically
    difficult and expensive that all of these methods
    can also degrade the valuable component of soils
  • In recent years, scientists and engineers have
    started to generate cost effective technologies
    which includes use of microorganisms/ biomass or
    live plants for cleaning of polluted areas called
  • (Qui et al., 2006)

  • Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up
    a contamination from soils, sediments, and water.
    Plants with exceptional metal-accumulating
    capacity are known as hyperaccumulator plants.
    (Tangahu, 2011)
  • The hyperaccumulators
  • Hyperaccumulators are model plants for
    phytoremediation as they are tolerant to heavy
    metals. Metals hyperaccumulation and tolerance
    are genetically inherited traits. Plants possess
    a range of potential cellular mechanisms that may
    be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals
    and thus tolerance to metal stress. (Sarma ,

  • Types of phytoremediation technology
  • Each having a different mechanism of action
    for remediating metal-polluted soil, sediment or
  • Phytoextraction Plants absorb metals from soil
    through the root system and translocate them to
    harvestable shoots where they accumulate.
    Pollutants accumulated in stems and leaves are
    harvested with accumulating plants and removed
    from the site.
  • Phytovolatilization In this process, the soluble
    contaminants are taken up with water by the
    roots, transported to the leaves, and volatized
    into the atmosphere through the stomata.

  • Phytostabilization In this process, the plant
    roots and microbial interactions can immobilized
    organic and some inorganic contaminants by
    binding them to soil particles and as a result
    reduce migration of contaminants to grown water.
  • Phytofiltration Phytofiltration is the use of
    plants roots (rhizofiltration) or seedlings
    (blastofiltration) to absorb or adsorb
    pollutants, mainly metals, from water and aqueous
    waste Streams.
  • Phytodegradation contaminants are taken up from
    soil/water, metabolized in plant tissues and
    broken up to less toxic or non-toxic compounds
    within the plant by several metabolic processes
    via the action of compounds produced by the
  • (Sarma , 2011 )

The mechanisms of heavy metals uptake by plant
through phytoremediation technology. (Tangahu,
Advantages of phytoremediation technology.
(Tangahu, 2011)
The limitation of phytoremediation technology.
(Tangahu, 2011)
  • The presented project is focused on
    utilization of some industrial crops as models
    for phytoremediation problems
  • Fiber crops are suitable for phytoremediation
    studies because they easily accumulate heavy
    metals, and, in addition, they need not
    necessarily to be processed in food chain, but
    they can be used for production of textile,
    paper, paints or as a substitute of synthetic
    materials in car and aviation industry as well as
    for non-woven textile production. There is a
    possibility to use these plants as a fuel for
    energy production. (Bjelkova, 1999)
  • Fiber crops represent a promising group of plant
    species in phytoremediation of heavy metals due
    to the possibility of the use of contaminated
    biomass for a plethora of industrial products.
    (Bjelkova, 2003)

(Linum usitatissimum)
Flax (also known as common flax or
linseed) Botanicalname Linumu sitatissimu
Family Linaceae (Linseed family)
  • Flax is suitable for growing in industrially
    polluted regions. They remove considerable
    quantities of heavy metals from the soil with
    their root system and can be used as potential
    crops for cleaning the soil from heavy metals.
    (Angelova, et al., 2004)
  • Flax as an industrial crop utilized mainly for
    technical purposes is a good candidate for heavy
    metal phytoextraction from polluted soils.
    (Griga, et al., 2009)
  • Flax which is a culture plant, is grown in order
    to benefit from fiber and fat . Flax production
    is done approximately 5-6 million hectares in
    the world .70 of this production is to produce
    oil and the rest is to produce fiber.
    (Tulukcu and Akay, 2010)

  • Flax as hyperaccumulator are represented by
    several reserches
  • In the uptake and accumulation of Cd and Pb. both
    fiber flax and linseed well tolerated elevated
    heavy metal soil concentrations without dramatic
    effect on the plant growth and development. (
    Miroslav, et al., 2005)
  • Significant differences in Cd accumulation and
    tolerance were found among commercial flax
    cultivars as phytoremediation potential.
    (Hradilova, et al., 2010)

  • Even high soil Cd concentrations
    (1000 mg Cd kg-1 soil) had not dramatic negative
    effect on plant growth and development in flax.
    (Bjelkova, et al., 2011)
  • Flax and linseed varieties variously accumulated
    particular metallic elements, the highest
    concentrations were recorded for Zn,
    followed by the Pb and Cd.
  • ( Bjelkova, et al., 2011)

  • Biofertilizers
  • Biofertilizers are compounds that enrich the
    nutrient quality of soil by the use of
    microorganisms which have a symbiotic
    relationship with the plants. The main sources of
    biofertilizers are bacteria, fungi, and
    cynobacteria (blue-green algae).
  • Biofertilizers are cost effective and renewable
    source of plant nutrients to supplement the
    chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture.
  • (Mishra and Dadhich, 2010)

  • Compost
  • Composting is a biological process in which
    organic biodegradable wastes are converted into
    hygienic, hums rich product (compost) for use as
    a soil conditioner and an organic fertilizer.
    (Popkin, 1995)
  • The addition of municipal solid waste compost to
    agricultural soils has beneficial effects on crop
    development and yields by improving soil physical
    and biological properties. (Zheljazkov and
    Warman, 2004)
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