Immune/Lymphatic System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 59
About This Presentation
Title:

Immune/Lymphatic System

Description:

Immune/Lymphatic System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:154
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: EveV153
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Immune/Lymphatic System


1
Immune/Lymphatic System
2
I. Brief history of disease
  • A. Disease any change, other than injury, that
    disrupts the normal functions of the body.
  • 1. Inherited
  • 2. Environmental
  • 3. Infectious agents (pathogens- sickness maker)

3
B. Spread the Fight Against
  • 1. Fight a disease by avoiding it?
  • 2. Understand disease so you are better able to
    prevent it.
  • 3. Remove vectors organisms that carry disease
    causing agents.
  • a. Ex mosquito spray insecticides
  • 4. New Drug Treatments Antibiotics-work by
    killing bacteria BUT not the host cells.

4
  • C. For thousands of years people did not know
    what caused illness
  • 1. Curses, evil spirits, etc
  • 2. Mid 19th century Louis Pasteur Robert Koch
    concluded that disease was caused by
    microorganisms or germs called Germ Theory of
    Disease

5
II. Body Defenses
  • A. The body is constantly in contact with
    bacteria, fungi, and viruses
  • B. Because of our two defense systems
  • 1. Nonspecific defense system
  • 2. Specific defense system

6
(No Transcript)
7
C. Nonspecific Body Defenses
  • 1. 1st line of defense
  • a. Intact skin production of sweat, body oils
    Mucous
  • b. Chemicals produced by the body (very low pH in
    the stomach, slightly lower pH in urine and
    female reproductive tract.)

8
  • 2. 2nd line of defense
  • a. Defensive Cells- cells that roam the body
    engulfing (phagocytosis) intruder cells
  • Neutrophils
  • Phagocytes-gt macrophages
  • b. Natural Killer Cells
  • i. can recognize invader cells based on chemicals
    on cell membrane (cancer and viral cells) before
    specific defense kicks in.
  • Use perforin, not phagocytosis

Figure 12.7a
9
  • c. Inflammatory Response
  • i. Triggered when body tissues are injured
  • ii. Produces 4 cardinal signs
  • Redness
  • Heat
  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • iii. chain of events which lead to protection and
    healing

10
Steps in the Inflammatory Response
  • histamine
  • Allow Blood vessels to dilate, become more
    permeable allow more Defense cells to the wound
    area
  • 3 parts of the inflammation responses?
  • 1. Blood Vessels dilate
  • heat
  • 2. leaky capillaries
  • Pain Swelling (aka edema)
  • 3. NEUTROPHILS ENTER BLOOD FROM BONE MARROW AND
    GO TOWARDS CHEMICAL SCENT
  • SQUEEZE THROUGH THE CAPILLARY WALL (DIAPEDESIS)
  • NEUTROPHILS GATHER AT SPOT OF TISSUE INJURY. EAT
    FOREIGN MATERIALS
  • PHAGOCYTES COME LATER- turn into MACROPHAGES
    (eating machines)
  • Pus indicates a possible problem.

Figure 12.8
11
Complement proteins
  • ENHANCE THE INNATE DEFENSES EITHER BY
  • ATTACKING MICROORGANISMS
  • OR HINDER THEIR ABILITY TO REPRODUCE.
  • COMPLEMENT FLOAT AROUND INNATE UNTIL ACTIVATED BY
    FOREIGN MATERIAL THROUGH COMPLEMENT FIXATION
    (THEY ATTACH TO MATERIAL).
  • ALSO ACTIVATE INFLAMMATION.
  • Interferon. CHEMICAL RELEASED BY INFECTED CELLS
    TO TELL HEALTHY CELLS INCREASE DEFENSE
    PROTEINS.

12
Fever
  • Caused by pyrogens activating the hypothalamus.
  • ? Allows the liver and spleen to pull in iron
    zinc, taking it away form invaders use.
  • ? Increases metabolism.
  • ? if too high it can be detrimentaldenatures
    proteins and can kill you if too high.

13
Understanding Specific Immune
  • 1800s scientists determined
  • Antigen specific- acts against particular
    pathogens/foreign substances
  • Systemic- full body not just sight of initial
    infection
  • Memory- amounts a stronger attack upon 2nd
    exposure

14
Specific defense system
  • Humoral-makes the antibodies (memory)
  • Cellular immunity- lymphocytes (white blood
    cells) defend directly with lysing or indirect
    with chemicals
  • a. A.K.A. immune system

15
Types of Immunity
  • 1. Antibody-mediated immunity (HUMMORAL)
  • a. Cells (lymphocytes) produce chemicals
    (anti-bodies) to mark antigens for disposal.
  • 2. Cell-mediated immunity
  • a. Cells target virus infected cells directly

16
Antigens (Nonself)
  • 1. Any substance capable of activating the immune
    system and provoking an immune response
  • 2. Examples of common antigens
  • a. Foreign proteins
  • b. Pollen grains
  • c. Microorganisms

17
Self-Antigens
  • 1. Our cells have many surface proteins thus our
    system can recognize itself
  • 2. Our immune cells typically do not attack our
    own cells (If it did that would be a homeostatic
    imbalance!)
  • 3. BUT each persons surface proteins are unique
    so, our cells in another persons body can
    trigger an immune response because they are
    foreign
  • a. Restricts donors for transplants
  • b. Can cause miscarriage

18
Cells of the Immune System
  • 1. Lymphocytes
  • a. from stem cells in the red bone marrow
  • b. B lymphocytes create antibodies memory cells
    (hummoral)
  • c. T lymphocytes specialized in the thymus gland
    (cell Mediated)
  • 2. Macrophages (cell mediated)
  • a. Large cells that eat other invader cells
  • b. Become widely distributed in lymphoid organs

19
Immunocompetance
  • All of your immune cells need to mature before
    they can do their job. Being immunocompetant
    means that the immune cell is able to bind to its
    specific antigen.
  • B cells in bone marrow
  • T cells in thymus
  • 1 receptor for 1 antigen so each immune cell is
    immunocompetent is for 1 specific antigen!

20
Self-Tolerance
  • The immune system need to be trained to go after
    antigens and avoid self cells.
  • T cells go through this in the thymus.
  • The T cells with the best ability to identify
    antigens survive.
  • T cells that strongly identify with SELF antigens
    are destroyed!
  • B cells go through this in the bone marrow but
    little is known about that
  • Autoimmune diseases are an issue with this
    process

21
(No Transcript)
22
  • Your GENES determine what specific foreign
    substances our immune system will be able to
    recognize and resist.
  • Ebola is new to our immune system so it does
    not have a receptor for it in our bodies.

23
antigen-presenting cells
  • Engulf antigens and present fragments of them on
    the outside of their cell. So they can activate T
    cells.
  • A big part of activating the immune system
  • Dendritic cells
  • Macrophages- stay in the lymph nodes
  • B lymphocytes

24
Antibody-Mediated Immune Response (HUMMORAL)
  • 1. B lymphocytes with specific receptors bind to
    a specific antigen
  • 2. activates the lymphocyte to clone itself
  • A large number of clones are produced with same
    receptor.
  • 3. most clones become plasma cells
  • Make antibodies at 2000 per minute!!!

Other B cells become Memory cells
25
Secondary Response to an invader
  • 1. Memory cells are long-lived
  • 2. A second exposure causes a rapid response
  • 3. The secondary response is stronger (w/i hours)
    and longer lasting (weeks to months)
  • Gives you life-long immunity

Figure 12.13
26
Immunity
  • 1. Active
  • a. Your B cells actively encountered antigens and
    produce antibodies
  • b. usually life-long immunity
  • 2. Passive
  • a. Antibodies are obtained from other source.
  • b. B cell memory does not occur because your body
    did not create the antibodies

27
(No Transcript)
28
Antibodies (Immunoglobulins)
  • 1. proteins secreted by cloned plasma cells
  • 2. Carried in blood
  • 3. Bind to specific antigens to inactivate them

29
(No Transcript)
30
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
  • 1. Antigen presenting cells directly attack
    invaders.
  • 2. eat invaders displayed bits of antigen on
    surface.
  • APC Essential in activating T cells!
  • 3. Helper T ( the managers)cells bind to these
    macrophages antigens and release cytokines
    (attract more lymphocytes)

31
T cell activation and interactions with other
cells of the immune response.
Antigen
Presented antigen
Cell-mediated immunity (attack on infected cells)
Cytotoxic (killer) T cell
T cell antigen receptor
Helper T cell
Dendritic cell
Cytokines
Humoral immunity (secretion of antibodies
by plasma cells)
Self- protein
Antigen processing
B cell
Cytokines
32
  • 4. Cytokines attract Killer T, B cells other
    phagocytic WBC.
  • A. B cells are activated by Helper T cells.
  • B. Killer T Cells (cytotoxic T) are very
    effective in killing. Because they actively seek
    out the specific invader.
  • a. Killer T makes organ transplant difficult?

33
Other T Cells
  • 1. Regulatory T cells
  • a. Once the invader has been removed chemicals
    are released to suppress the activity of T and B
    cells
  • b. Stop the immune response to prevent
    uncontrolled activity ?
  • 2. Memory T
  • Again, respond quickly to later invasions.

34
Figure 12.19 A summary of the adaptive immune
responses.
35
  • Immune game log onto a desktop and go to the HW
    website for the link. Play the game reading all
    of the information as you go? Take notes on any
    NEW information
  • http//biomanbio.com/GamesandLabs/Physiogames/conf
    lictimmunity.html
  • If there is time well watch the flu video.
  • HW wp 4 review worksheets

36
Transplant
  • 4 types of grafts
  • Auto- self to self, like a skin graft for a burn.
  • Iso- twin to self grafts, this would be bestbut
    if doesnt exist
  • Allo- other person to self, family member
    possible or donor list. This is the most common
    transplant from a donor who has recently died.
  • Xeno- animal to self, mostly pig heart valves

37
Allograft Success
  • Check ABO, other blood group antigens and
    membrane antigens.
  • minimal 75 match of above
  • Difficult to find
  • Immunosuppressive therapy
  • Reduce rejection
  • Drugs and therapy kill rapidly dividing cells
    like WBC
  • All have severe side effects
  • Biggest issue is body not protected from
    infection as well
  • 50 rejection of organ by 10 years?
  • New look at teaching the body tolerance vs
    current drugs.

38
Disorders of Immunity
  • Autoimmune Diseases T cells attack its own
    tissues
  • Example Juvenile diabetes destroys pancreatic
    beta cells that produce insulin
  • Self-Tolerance Breakdown?
  • New self antigens appear
  • hidden in sperm, eye lens, thyroid
  • New mutations that change the structure of
    self-proteins
  • Bacterial or viral damage
  • Foreign antigens look like self
  • Antibodies produced during rheumatic fever
    cross-react with heart antigens causing damage to
    the heart muscle, valves, joints and kidneys.

39
Allergies (Hypersensitivity) a. Abnormal,
vigorous immune responses
40
hypersensitivity
  • Immediate/Acute
  • Triggered by histamine from mast cells (a type of
    WBC)
  • Anaphylactic shock
  • Rare!
  • Allergen directly enters the blood and circulates
    rapidly or some foods (peanuts)
  • Same as regular allergy attack but whole body
    involved.
  • Delayed
  • Takes 1-3 days
  • Cytokines cause
  • Ex poison ivy, heavy metals, cosmetics,
    deodorants

41
Immunodeficencies
  • Severe combined immunodificiencie disease (SCID)
    have all or some of their immune system missing

42
AIDS
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • Caused by HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus)
  • Virus attacks helper T.
  • People die of other infections.
  • NEWS 2015 HIV has been reclassified as a chronic
    life long illness vs. a death sentence.

43
Unique
  • Incurable but treatable.
  • Before the development of anti-virals it had
  • high mortality
  • quickly spread
  • no vaccine.
  • This combination was RARE in this technological
    age.
  • Spread through intimate contact w/ an infected
    person
  • THIS is a limiting factor!
  • UNFORTUNATLY a person can carry and transmit HIV
    for years before symptoms arise

44
How its contracted
  • Unprotected sex (of any kind) is the most common.
    You can also be exposed
  • Sharing needles
  • Blood transfusion (rare if blood is tested)
  • Mother/baby
  • Breastfeeding

45
Not transmitted through
  • Sweat, saliva, tears
  • Insects
  • Environment HIV is fragile and dies quickly
    outside of the body.
  • Same toilet use
  • Touching, hugging, hand shaking
  • Sitting next to or where someone has been sitting

46
Life Cycle
  • HIV attacks the helper T cell which reduces the
    number of helper T (hT) cells until the person
    has AIDS
  • Usual amount 1million hT cells in 1 ml pf blood
  • AIDS gt 200,000 hT cells per 1 ml blood
  • Takes 2-15 years
  • HIV is really good at mutating
  • No one dies from HIV/AIDS
  • They die from infections that their body can no
    longer fight off. Can be the common cold to a
    minor infection.

47
Lymphatic System Anatomy
  • Consists of two semi-independent parts
  • Lymphatic vessels
  • Lymphoid tissues and organs
  • Lymphatic system functions
  • Transport fluids back to the blood
  • Play essential roles in body defense and
    resistance to disease

48
Organs of the Immune System
  • outside
  • Skin-
  • Mucose Membranes-

49
Inside
  • Lymph System
  • When the Dr. checks your neck they are feeling
    for swollen lymph nodes.
  • Lymph system follows the pattern of the
    circulatory system BUT it is not pressurized, it
    is passive.
  • Fluid diffuses into the lymph system and is
    pushed by normal body and muscle motion to the
    nodes.

50
(No Transcript)
51
Lymph Fluid?
  • Clear fluid that bathes the cells in nutrients.
  • interstitial fluid blood plasma are similar
  • Also carries away waste and proteins and random
    bacteria through the lymph vessels to the lymph
    Nodes.

52
Lymphatic Vessels
Figure 12.2
53
Lymph Nodes
  • Filter lymph before it is returned to the blood
  • Defense cells within lymph nodes
  • Macrophages present to B T cells here
  • These nodes swell during some infections due to
    filtration (full of dead invaders and defense
    cells)

54
Lymph Node Structure
Most are kidney-shaped, less than 1 inch long
Figure 12.4
55
Other Lymphoid Organs
  • Several other organs contribute to lymphatic
    function
  • Spleen
  • Thymus
  • Tonsils
  • Peyers patches

Figure 12.5
56
The Spleen
  • Filters blood Destroys worn out blood cells
  • Forms blood cells in the fetus
  • An adult can live w/o the spleen, but youll be
    sick more often

57
The Thymus
  • Located low in the throat, overlying the heart
  • Functions at peak levels only during childhood to
    produce/mature t-cells.

58
Tonsils
  • Small masses of lymphoid tissue around the back
    of the throat
  • Trap/remove bacteria and other foreign materials
    give immune system a heads up.
  • Tonsillitis is caused by congestion with bacteria
  • They are no longer removed because we now
    understand their purpose is to become infected
    (rather than the whole person)

59
Peyers Patches
  • Found in the wall of the small intestine
  • Resemble tonsils in structure
  • Capture and destroy bacteria in the intestine
    (same idea as tonsils)
  • Appendix?
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com