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Life Span Development


Life Span Development Chapter 5: Development – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life Span Development

Life Span Development
  • Chapter 5
  • Development

Defining Terms
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Branch of psychology that specifically examines
    the physiological, cognitive, and emotional
    changes in an organism from conception to death.
  • Developmental Psychologists utilize a number of
    different methods of inquiry to gather this

Developmental Research Methods
  • Cross-Sectional Study
  • Study people of different ages at the same point
    in time
  • Advantages?
  • Disadvantages?
  • Longitudinal Study
  • Study the same group of people over time
  • Advantages?
  • Disadvantages?
  • Biographical or Retrospective Study
  • Participants past is reconstructed through
    interviews and other research about their life
  • Advantages?
  • Disadvantages?

Prenatal Development Terms
  • Prenatal period
  • Zygote
  • Embryo
  • Fetus
  • Placenta
  • Teratogens
  • Definition
  • Examples
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome?

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Prenatal Development
  • Critical periods?

The Newborn Babyaka NEONATE
The Competent Newborn Reflexes
  • Rooting
  • Sucking
  • Swallowing
  • Grasping
  • Stepping
  • Babinski
  • Moro
  • Crawling

The Competent Newborn Temperament
  • Temperament refers to characteristic patterns of
    emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation
  • Thomas and Chess identified three basic types of
    babies (1977) Kagan (1988) added a fourth
  • Easy
  • Difficult
  • Slow-to-warm-up
  • Shy Child
  • Temperament may predict later disposition

The Competent Newborn Sensory Learning
  • In addition to reflexes present at birth,
    neonates also have the ability to learn
  • Habituation - basic type of learning involving
    decreased response to a stimulus judged to be of
    no importance/novelty
  • Visual learning focus on FACES
  • Olfactory learning fully functioning smell of
  • Auditory learning response to mothers voice
  • Taste Fully functioning preference for sweets!

The Competent NewbornVisual Perception
Dude. Im not going that way!
  • Clear for 8-10 inches
  • Good vision by 6 months
  • Depth perception
  • Visual cliff research
  • Mother beckons infant to cross cliff infant
  • Most infants 6 to 14 months of age were reluctant
    to crawl over the cliff
  • Nature AND Nurture?

The Visual Cliff
Perception of Scale
Perception of Scale
Infancy and Childhood
Stop touching me.
Ooh. How did you get your hair so silky soft?
Physical Development Body and
  • Children grow about 10 inches and gain about 15
    pounds in first year
  • Growth occurs in spurts, as much as 1 inch
  • Growth slows during second year
  • Neural pruning and paving

Motor and Memory Development
  • Developmental norms
  • Milestones
  • Occurs in a proximodistal and cephalocaudal
  • Back to Sleep movement to reduce SIDS may delay
  • Maturation
  • Automatic biological unfolding of development in
    an organism as a function of passage of time
  • Relatively uninfluenced by experience
  • Memory not solidified until after 3rd birthday
  • Infantile amnesia
  • Development of hippocampus?

Cognitive Development
  • Cognition all mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
  • Jean Piaget
  • Studied intellectual development in children
  • Stage-based theory of cognitive development
  • Intellectual growth as a process of adaptation
    (adjustment) to the world. This happens through
  • Formation of schemas
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation
  • Adjusting schemas (equilibration) when new
    information doesnt fit existing ones

Piagets Stages of Development
  • Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years)
  • Take in world through senses
  • Object permanence and the A not B error
  • Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
  • Egocentrism intuitive over logical reasoning
  • Development of a theory of mind
  • The Mountain problem
  • Concrete Operations (7-11 years)
  • Logical reasoning about concrete events
  • Principles of conservation
  • Formal Operations (12 through adulthood)
  • Hypothetical problems solving
  • Understand abstract ideas

Piagets Stages - Summary
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
  • Many developmental theorists such as Vygotsky
    questioned the assumption that there are distinct
    stages in cognitive development
  • Criticism of notion that infants do not
    understand world
  • Piaget may have underestimated influence of
    social interaction in cognitive development

Lev Vygotsky believed development was a function
of social interaction
Social Development Attachment
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • Appears around 8 months coincides with mobility
  • Protective mechanism
  • Attachment through Contact
  • Humans form a bond with those who care for them
    in infancy
  • Based upon interaction with caregiver
  • Harry Harlows work on attachment
  • Attachment through Familiarity
  • Imprinting (Lorenz)
  • Occurs in many species of animals in a critical

Top Harlows experiment Bottom Lorenz and
Social Development Attachment
  • Attachment Differences
  • Mary Ainsworths Strange Situation
  • Secure attachment
  • Anxious-ambivalent insecure attachment
  • Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment
  • Eriksons Basic Trust
  • Deprivation of Attachment
  • Impact of denying infant monkeys physical comfort
    from their mother
  • Cases of Genie and Victor
  • Daycare does it matter?

Self Concept and Parenting Styles
  • Self Concept understanding of who we are
  • Mirror Test
  • By 18 months, children know THEY are the image in
    the mirror, and that it is not another person
  • Children with a positive self concept are more
    confident, assertive, optimistic, and sociable,
    but how is this achieved?
  • Diana Baumrinds 4 Parenting Styles may help
  • Authoritarian
  • Permissive
  • Neglectful
  • Authoritative
  • Impact of parenting styles on children?
  • Authoritative appears to be best, but
  • Correlational NOT causational research!

Mirror Test
Baumrinds Parenting Styles Comparison
Relationships With Other Children
  • Solitary play
  • Parallel play
  • Cooperative play
  • Peer group
  • A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances
  • give one another emotional and social support
  • When children start school, peers begin to have
    greater influence

Parallel Play vs. Cooperative Play
Sex-Role Development
  • Gender identity
  • Gender constancy
  • Gender-role awareness
  • Gender stereotypes
  • Sex-typed behavior

The Nature of Adolescence
  • A Carefree Time vs. G. Stanley Halls Storm
    and Stress
  • The American experience?
  • Trends today?
  • Cultural differences?

Physical Changes
  • Growth spurt
  • Begins about age 10½ in girls and about 12½ in
  • Sexual development
  • Primary (reproductive) vs. Secondary
    (non-reproductive) sexual characteristics
  • Puberty
  • Onset of sexual maturation
  • Menarche
  • First menstrual period for girls
  • Neurological changes frontal lobe maturation

Physical Changes Sexual Activity
  • Early and late developers Implications?
  • Adolescent sexual activity
  • Approximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between
    15 and 19 have had intercourse
  • Average age for first intercourse is 16 for boys
    and 17 for girls
  • Teenage pregnancy
  • Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50
  • Highest in U.S. of all industrialized nations

Cognitive Changes
  • David Elkinds Theories
  • Imaginary audience delusion that everyone else
    is always focused on them
  • Personal fable delusion that they are unique and
    very important
  • Invulnerability
  • Nothing can harm them
  • Reckless behavior

Moral Development Kohlberg vs. Gilligan
  • Kohlbergs Theory
  • Preconventional (preadolescence)
  • Good behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or
    seek reward
  • Conventional (adolescence)
  • Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later
    adolescence, becoming a good citizen
  • Postconventional (adulthood...maybe)
  • Emphasis is on abstract principles such as
    justice, equality, and liberty

Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • The Heinz Dilemma
  • A woman was near death from a special kind of
    cancer. There was one drug that the doctors
    thought might save her. The drug was expensive to
    make, but the druggist was charging ten times
    what the drug cost him to produce. The sick
    woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew
    to borrow the money, but he could only get
    together about 1,000 which is half of what it
    cost. He told the druggist that his wife was
    dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him
    pay later. But the druggist said "No, I
    discovered the drug and I'm going to make money
    from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into
    the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
  • Should Heinz have broken into the store to steal
    the drug for his wife? Why or why not?
  • The response is not as important as the reasoning
    WHY in determining which stage of moral reasoning
    a person is in

Criticisms of Kohlbergs Theory
  • Research shows that many people never progress
    past the conventional level
  • Theory maintains that our rationale remains
    consistent does it?
  • Theory does not take cultural differences into
  • Theory is considered by some to be sexist in that
    girls often scored lower on tests of morality

Personality and Social Development
  • Major task in adolescence is identity formation
  • Forming an identity (James Marcia, 1980)
  • Achievement
  • Successfully find identity
  • Foreclosure
  • Settle for identity others wish for them
  • Moratorium
  • Explore various identities, but unable to commit
  • Diffusion
  • Unable to find themselves refusal to deal
    with the task escapist techniques
  • Eriksons 8 Psychosocial Stages
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens to early 20s)
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation (early 20s to early 40s)

Personality and Social Development
  • Relationships with peers
  • Adolescents often form cliques, or groups with
    similar interests and strong mutual attachment
  • Relationships with parents
  • Adolescents test and question every rule and
    guideline from parents
  • Can be a difficult time for parents AND children

Some Issues of Adolescence
  • Declines in self-esteem
  • Related to appearance
  • Satisfaction in appearance is related to higher
  • Depression and suicide
  • Rate of suicide among adolescents has increased
    600 since 1950, but has leveled off since 90s
  • Suicide often related to depression, drug abuse,
    disruptive behaviors, or child abuse
  • Youth Violence
  • Emerging Adulthood trends in lengthening this

Love, Partnerships, and Parenting
  • Forming partnerships
  • First major event of adulthood is forming and
    maintaining close relationships
  • Eriksons Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Parenthood
  • Having children alters dynamics of relationships
  • Marital satisfaction often declines after birth
    of child

Marital Satisfaction
Other Issues
  • The World of Work
  • Balancing career and family obligations is a
  • Many adults define who they are by what they do
  • Cognitive Changes
  • Fluid intelligence declines with old age
  • Crystallized intelligence does NOT decline, and
    even can increase as learning continues
    throughout life
  • Personality Changes
  • Less self-centered, better coping skills
  • Some men and women have a midlife crisis (or
    midlife transition)
  • Empty Nest Myth

Many parents report feeling a sense of relief
when their children move out!
Late Adulthood
Physical Changes
  • In late adulthood, physical deterioration is
  • As early as the twenties, strength, reaction
    times, sensory abilities and cardiac capacity
    decline, though in late adulthood we may finally
  • Menopause and the end of fertility

Social Development
I cant wait to swill my whiskey from this vessel!
Im too cool for ceramics
  • Independent and satisfying lifestyles Eriksons
    Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Retirement
  • Most people will stop working and face challenges
    with that sudden change
  • Redefining of self
  • Marital satisfaction
  • Sexual behavior
  • Research shows that many older couples continue
    to be sexually active
  • It is not until age 75 that half of men and most
    women report a complete loss of interest in sex

Cognitive Changes
Checkmate, Sucka!
  • Research has demonstrated that those who continue
    to exercise their mental abilities can delay
    mental decline
  • Even PHYSICAL exercise seems to have a positive
    impact on cognitive maintenance
  • However, Alzheimers disease afflicts
    approximately 10 of people over 65 and perhaps
    as many as 50 of those over 90

Facing the End of Life
  • Elizabeth Kubler-Rosss stages of grief/death
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance
  • Giraffe Stages of Dying
  • Eriksons Integrity vs. Despair
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