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Part 1: Greece Part 2: Alexander the Great


Part 1: Greece Part 2: Alexander the Great Lesson 20 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part 1: Greece Part 2: Alexander the Great

Part 1 GreecePart 2 Alexander the Great
  • Lesson 20

Part 1 GreeceTheme The Decline of the
  • Lesson 20

  • Delian League, Marathon, Peloponnesian War,
    Persian Wars, Thermopylae

Persian Wars
  • Greek colonization brought the city states in
    conflict with the Persian Empire
  • Remember from Lesson 6
  • Result was the Persian Wars (500-479 B.C.)

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Ionian Rebellion
  • As Persian emperors Cyrus and Darius tightened
    their grip on Anatolia, the Greek cities on the
    Ionian coast became increasingly restless
  • In 500 B.C., they revolted and expelled the
    Achaemenid administrators
  • Athens sent a fleet in support of their fellow
    Greeks and commercial partners
  • In 493, Darius repressed the rebellion

Cyclades Islands
Persian Wars
  • To punish the Athenians and discourage future
    interference, Darius attacked Athens in 490
  • The Athenians repelled the invasion
  • Marathon

Battle of Marathon
  • The Persians landed at the Plains of Marathon on
    September 9, 490
  • For eight days, the two armies faced each other
  • On the ninth day, the Persians started to
    advance, forcing Miltiades, the commander in
    chief of the Athenian army, to deploy his army of
    10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans for battle

Battle of Marathon
  • The Athenians surrounded the Persians in a double
  • Although the Athenians were outnumbered, their
    spears were superior to the Persians bows and
    short lances
  • The Persians fled to their ships
  • Persians lost 6,400 men and seven ships
  • Athenians lost 192

Battle of Marathon
  • However, Miltiades realized that the Persian
    fleet could sail and attack the undefended city
    of Athens
  • According to legend, he called upon Phidippides
    to run to Athens to tell them of the victory and
    warn them of the approaching Persian ships
  • Phidippides ran the 26 miles from Marathon to
    Athens in about three hours, successfully warning
    the Athenians who repelled the Persian invasion
  • Phidippides was exhausted from the fight at
    Marathon and the 26 mile run and died upon
    announcing the warning

Olympic Marathons
  • The marathon was part of the 1896 Olympics
  • The course was from Marathon to Athens (24.85
    miles or 40 km)
  • At the London Olympics in 1908, the Olympic
    marathon course was set at 26 miles, 385 yards
    (42.195 km) to accommodate the Royal Familys
  • In 1921 the International Amateur Athletic
    Foundation made 42.195 km the official distance
    of a marathon

  • Dariuss successor Xerxes tried to avenge the
    Persian losses by launching another attack in 480
  • Thermopylae

  • The Greeks sent an allied army under the Spartan
    king Leonidas to Thermopylae, a narrow mountain
    pass in northeastern Greece 
  • The point was to stall the Persians long enough
    that the city states could prepare for later
    major battles after the Persians broke through

Persians attempting to force the pass at
  • Twice the Greeks repelled the Persians
  • Then Ephialtes, a local farmer, traitorously led
    a force of Persian infantry through a mountain
    passage and the next morning they appeared behind
    the Greek lines
  • Leonidas ordered the rest of the army to withdraw
    and held the passage with just 300 Spartans
  • As true Spartans, they chose death over retreat
  • Remember Lesson 17
  • All died but they did hold off the Persians long
    enough to ensure the safe withdrawal of the rest
    of the Greek army.

  • Stranger, go tell the Spartans that we lie here
    in obedience to their laws.
  • (Inscription carved on the tomb of Leonidass
    Three Hundred)

Leonidas at Thermopylae by David
After Thermopylae
  • The Persians captured and burned Athens but were
    defeated by the Athenian navy at Salamis
  • In 479 the Persians were defeated at Plataea and
    forced back to Anatolia

Delian League
  • After the Persian threat subsided, the Greek
    poleis had conflicts among themselves
  • The poleis formed an alliance called the Delian
  • Athens supplied most of the military force and
    the other poleis provided financial support
  • Sparta did not join the league
  • In the absence of the Persian threat, eventually
    the other poleis came to resent financing
    Athenss bureaucracy and construction projects
  • The resulting tensions led to the Peloponnesian
    War (431-404) in which the poleis divided up into
    two sides led by Athens and Sparta

The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)
  • The war went back and forth until 404 when the
    Spartans and their allies forced Athens to
  • Conflicts continued however and the world of the
    poleis steadily lost power
  • Alexander the Great is going to step into this
    power vacuum (next lesson)

Failure of the Nerve
  • Xenophon lamented that up to this point, the
    City-state, the Polis, had concentrated upon
    itself all the loyalty and the aspiration of the
    Greek mind. It gave security to life. It gave
    meaning to religion.
  • Then, however, it was not now ruled by the best
    citizens. The best had turned away from
  • Intellectual and imaginative life of 4th Century
    Greece gave way to an atmosphere of defeat
  • Gilbert Murray explains it as a failure of nerve

Part 2 Alexander the GreatTheme Advances in
  • Lesson 20

  • Alexander the Great, Darius, Gaugamela (Arbela),
    phalanx, Philip, siege, Tyre

Philip II
  • Ruled Macedonia from 359-336 B.C. and transformed
    it into a powerful military machine
  • Moved into northern Greece and met little
    resistance due to residual effects of
    Peloponnesian War
  • By 338 he had Greece under his control

Alexander the Great
  • Philip intended to use Greece as a launching pad
    to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before
    he could begin his plan
  • Instead the invasion of Persia would be left for
    Philips son Alexander who was just 20 when
    Philip was assassinated
  • Alexander inherited from his father the most
    perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army
    of ancient times.
  • J.F.C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the

Conquests of Alexander
  • Ionia and Anatolia 333
  • Syria, Palestine, Egypt 332
  • Mesopotamia 331
  • Persepolis 331
  • King of Persia 330
  • India 327
  • Returns to Susa 324
  • Dies (age 33) 323

Warfare in the Age of Alexander
  • Phalanx A formation of infantry carrying
    overlapping shields and long spears, developed by
    Philip II and used by Alexander the Great

Warfare in the Age of Alexander
  • Hoplite
  • The main melee warrior of the Macedonian army.
  • Worked mainly in the tight phalanx formation,
    creating impregnable lines that often left the
    enemy demoralized.

Hoplites in Action
Warfare in the Age of Alexander
  • Sieges involved the surrounding and blockading of
    a town or fortress by an army trying to capture
  • A variety of weapons were built to hurl
    projectiles over city walls, scale or batter the
    walls, and transport soldiers over them.

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  • if Alexander deserves permanent commemoration
    as a general, then it is above all in his
    capacity as a besieger, and of all his sieges
    Tyre was his masterpiece.
  • Paul Cartledge, Alexander the Great, 147

Tyrian Fire Ship Burns the Towers
Alexander and the Principles of War
  • Maneuver
  • Mass
  • Surprise
  • Security
  • Objective
  • Economy of Force
  • Offensive
  • Unity of Command
  • Simplicity

Alexander and the Principles of War
  • Maneuver
  • Created a gap by causing Darius to shift forces
    to meet the initial attack on the right
  • Mass
  • Used the wedge formation at the gap in Darius
    line (decisive place and time)
  • Surprise
  • Kept Darius up all night expecting an attack and
    then attacked the next day when Darius was tired
  • Objective
  • Capture Darius in order to replace him as king

Alexander and the Principles of War
  • Economy of force
  • Accepted risk on his left in order to launch a
    strong attack on his right
  • Offensive
  • Attacked even though grossly outnumbered
  • Unity of command
  • Alexander personally led the Companion cavalry in
    the attack on the right
  • Simplicity
  • Much of what Alexander was able to do was based
    on the discipline his soldiers had gained from

After Gaugamela
  • Dariuss escape frustrated Alexander because it
    prevented him from full claim to being king of
  • Eventually Dariuss followers assassinated him
  • As Alexander became king of Persia and continued
    to advance east, he took on an increasingly
    Eastern attitude

The End of the Empire
  • Alexander
  • Married Roxanna and had his men also intermarry
  • Adopted Eastern dress and habits
  • Publicly insisted upon his descent from the gods
  • Began giving key positions to Persians
  • The Macedonians were tired of campaigning and
    resented the changes in Alexanders behavior and
    become mutinous
  • Alexander died in June 323, perhaps as a result
    of poisoning

"The Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxanna"
by Ishmail Parbury
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After Alexander
  • After Alexander died, his generals jockeyed for
    power and by 275 they had divided up his kingdom
    into three large states
  • Antigonus took Greece and Macedon
  • Ptolemy took Egypt
  • Seleuces took the former Achaemenid empire
  • The period of Alexander and his successors is
    called the Hellenistic period to reflect the
    broad influence of Greek culture beyond Greeces

  • Aztecs and Mongols
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