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Title: The%20Forgotten%20Minority:%20Third%20Culture%20Kids

The Forgotten Minority Third Culture Kids
  • Lucinda West
  • Regent University

Amanda J. Rockinson-Szapkiw Old Dominion
University VCA Convention November 2007
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Define Third Culture Kids

I am part of all that I have met, says
Tennyson. You live that line a lot if youre
exposed to different cultures. You become part of
all of them. Now, Im very much Lebanese and part
Turk. I think of myself as North American. And I
find it almost easier to be an American than a
Define Third Culture Kids
  • A n individual
  • Who has spent a significant part
  • Of his or her developmental years
  • Outside parents culture
  • Develops a sense of relationship to all of the
    cultures while not having full ownership in any.

Pollack, D. Van Reken, R. (2001). Third culture
kids The experience of growing up among
worlds.MaineNicholas Brealey Publishing
Understand the TCK Culture
  • Increased mobility Increased number of TCKs
  • 300,000 U.S. kids are living overseas
  • Five categories
  • Missionary (17)
  • Business (16)
  • Government (23)
  • Military (30)
  • "Other" (14)

Understand The TCK Culture The Case of Lisa
  • What makes Lisa a TCK?
  • What are the benefits and challenges in Lisas
  • If Lisa and her family had come to you for
    counseling when Lisa was eight, what would you
    do? When she is 20?

Adapted from Pollack, D. Van Reken, R. (2001).
Third culture kids The experience of growing up
among worlds.MaineNicholas Brealey Publishing
Understand The TCK Culture The Challenges of
Being a TCK
Adapted from Pollack, D. Van Reken, R. (2001).
Third culture kids The experience of growing up
among worlds. MaineNicholas Brealey
Publishing Cottrell, A.(2002) . Educational and
Occupational Choices of American Adult Third
Culture Kids. In Morton Ender Military Brats and
Other Global Nomads. Cottrell A.B., Useem, R.H.
(1993). TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence.
International Schools Services, 8(1). Cottrell
A.B., Useem, R.H. (1993). ATCKs have problems
relating to their own ethnic groups.
International Schools Services, 8(2). Jordan, K.
(2002). Identity Formation and the Adult Third
Culture Kid . In Morton Ender, Military Brats
and Other Global Nomads.
Understand The TCK Culture The Benefits of Being
The Five Cs that Every TCK Needs to be
Adapted from McCluskey, K.C. (1994). Notes form
a traveling childhood Readings for
internationally mobile parents and families.
Washington D.C. Foreign Service Youth
Teaching Methods Introducing TCKS in the
Multicultural Classroom
  • Case Study (i.e. Lisa)
  • Recorded Interview (i.e. Steve)
  • Web 2.0 Technology
  • Podcast or Vodcast
  • Guest Interview on DB or Synchronous Conferencing
  • Virtual Field Trip (TCK Blog or YouTube)
  • Wikki or File Exchange for Intervention Exchange
  • http//

The trick with higher learning at this point
is catching up with students that are already
so tech-savvy its been part of their life always.
These are very savvy people
and they want to learn the way they think.1
  • Overview
  • Define Community, Collaboration and Interactivity
  • Define Web 2.0 Technologies,
  • Discuss Web 2.0 Technologies currently available
  • Usages, Benefits and Links

1 Emphasis added. Jennifer Reeves was the
executive producer KOMU-TV News and assistant
professor, journalism at the time of this
podcasting conference.
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Fostering Interactivity with Web 2.0 Technologies
Web 2.0 Technologies Where Web 1.0 technologies
use push-pull methods of resourcing, Web 2.0
technologies utilize collective intelligence.
Web 2.0 uses the Web as a platform and includes
services offered rather than packaged software,
individual and collaborative contribution and
participation, transformation of data, the usage
of multiple connected components, and cost
effective collaboration (OReilly, 2005).
Weblogs and Wikkis
  • Definitions
  • A weblog (Web-log shortened to Blog) is "a
    website that contains an online personal journal
    with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks
    provided by the writer (The Merriam-Webster
    Collegiate Dictionary, 2004).
  • A weblog is a "frequently modified web pages in
    which dated entries are listed in reverse
    chronological sequence" (Herring, Scheidt, Bonus,
    Wright, 2004, p. 1).
  • A weblog is a web-based, multimedia publishing
    system, that is low-cost (often free), very easy
    to use, customizable in terms of look and feel,
    content, target audience and hyperlinked to other
    content spread across the internet (Cameron
    Anderson, 2006, p. 2).
  • Weblogs are personal pages, whereas wikis are
    communally created.
  • A Wiki is a web site in which any individual can
    add and edit information without needing special
    administrative access rights.

Weblogs and Wikkis
  • Links
  • The Educational Bloggers Network
  • Edublogs (http// Weblog-Ed
    (http// )
  • Blogger (http//
  • Usage
  • Weekly discussion on a specific area of study
  • Personal reflections and journals
  • Learning and research portfolios
  • Post class announcements, handouts, and reminders
    to learners about assignments
  • Peer coaching and peer review
  • Small group cooperative learning
  • Incorporating links and references can extend
    learning beyond the discussion topic
  • Upload videos, podcasts, and vodcasts for public
    or small group viewing

Weblogs and Wikkis
  • Benefits
  • Access anytime, anywhere (Turnbull, 2002)
  • Promote collaboration, knowledge building, and
    reflection(Sorensen, 2004).
  • Decrease learners perceptions of isolation
    (Dickey, 2004)
  • Foster a sense of connection and linking (Rourke
    Anderson, 2002).
  • Peer relationships are established on blogs in
    the online environment and mimic the peer
    interaction that occurs in the traditional
  • Increases learner self-confidence, writing
    ability, sense of involvement, sense of
    interdependence, and development of social and
    teamwork skills (Wang Fang, 2005).
  • Promote learner autonomy and a means of
    representing and expressing the self and forming
    identity (Cameron Anderson, 2006)
  • Encourages ownership and responsibility for
    learning learners may be more thoughtful abut
    the content that they write due to their
    awareness of the large internet audience
    (Godwin-Jones, 2003).

Collaborative Synchronous Conferencing Software
  • Definitions
  • Referred to as Group Support Systems or
    Electronic Meeting Systems
  • Provides tools to assist with synchronous
  • Collaborative software enables users in remote
    geographical locations to share ideas and work
    together using real-time chats, threaded
    discussion boards, shared whiteboards, file
    transfers, live video images, and audio chats
    (Taran, 2004 Rupley, 2004).
  • Enabling multiple users to connect on the screen
    at the same time, online conferencing has
    provided a convenient option for communication
    and connection (Page et. al., 2003).

Chats with Stats Click on the video below for a
brief sample of how much fun conferencing
software can be when collaborating on homework
assignments. (Using Skype and Skype Recorder)
Collaborative Synchronous Conferencing Software
  • Links
  • Skype
  • Google Talk
  • Horizon Wimba
  • Elluminate http//
  • Additionally, Elluminate offers a free three-seat
    vRoom edition. You can register for the free
    three-seat Elluminate vRoom at http//www.ellumina
  • Usage
  • Interactive lectures and presentations
  • Collaborative projects
  • Presentation of real-life problems for group
  • Small group discussions
  • Live Supervision
  • Practice skills sessions
  • Benefits
  • Enables active participation (Marjanovic, 1999).
  • Provides collaborative learning environment
    (Marjanovic, 1999).
  • Allows for the exchange ideas (Page, et al.,
  • Builds a scholarly online community (Page, et
    al., 2003)
  • Encourages knowledge construction, deeper
    understanding of concepts, and increased skill
    development (Marjanovic, 1999).
  • Increases the ability to feel connected to group
  • Enables participant to hear vocal tones and view
    nonverbal cues.
  • Contains password protection, user
    authentication, and data encryption, conferencing
    software can provide robust security and
    administrative control (Taran, 2004).

Course Management Systems/Learning Management
  • Links
  • opensource CMS http//
  • Moodle http//
  • Sakai http//
  • Seul/Edu Educational Application Index
  • MIT OpenCourseWare http//
  • Usage
  • Deliver material (the course syllabi, notes,
    PowerPoints slide shows, pod casts, learning
    units, flash activities, and assignments)
  • Threaded text-based and pod-based discussions
  • Assignment submission
  • Quiz, test, and survey
  • Gradebook
  • Keep a roster
  • Track participation
  • Definitions
  • Blackboard, WebCT, eCollege, Angel, Prometheus,
    Moodle, and Sakai
  • Course management systems (CMS), also known as
    learner management systems (LMS), are computer
    software programs developed for the delivery of
    online training and course content.
  • A CMS is Internet-based software used by academic
    institutions and organizations for the
    organization, management, distribution of course
    materials, and communication with students.
  • Benefits
  • Management
  • Organization
  • Anytime, Anyplace Access
  • Familiar Territory for many

  • Definitions
  • WebQuests, designed by Bernie Dodges and Tom
    March, are web-based, inquiry-oriented lesson
    design that engage students in completing a
    doable task (Starr, 2005).
  • WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in
    which some or all of the information that
    learners interact with comes from resources on
    the internet (Dodges, 1997, p.1).
  • WebQuests are based on a template with five
    components (a) an introduction for introducing a
    scenario, (b) a task to assign the task that the
    learner is to complete, (c) a resource to list
    needed or suggested resources, (d) an evaluation
    to provide the learner with the evaluation
    criteria, and (e) a conclusion for learners to
    provide a reflection on the activity (Dodge,

  • Benefits
  • Encourage active learning (Burchum et al., 2007).
  • Emphasize time on task (Burchum et al., 2007).
  • Develop cooperation among students (Burchum et
    al., 2007).
  • Communicate high expectations (Burchum et al.).
  • Requires the utilization of higher level
    thinking skills (Starr, 2005).
  • Create collaborative learning environments (when
    written effectively Dodge, 2001).
  • Positively influence academic success and quality
    of relationship (Fielder, 2002).
  • Links
  • http//
  • http//,
  • http//
  • http//, http//www.instantp,
  • Usages
  • Provide a framework for constructing online
    lessons and modules especially useful to faculty
    new to teaching in the online environment
    (Burchum et al., 2007).
  • Research ethical issues (i.e. confidentiality,
    dual relationships).
  • Research multicultural competence in counseling.
  • Role play or become an expert in a specified area
    or population.

Podcasts and Vodcasts
  • Definitions
  • The process of capturing an audio event, song,
    speech, or mix of sounds and then posting that
    digital sound object to a Web site or a blog
    (Meng, 2005, p. 1).
  • The name podcast started as a combination of
    Apples iPod and broadcasting, although one
    need not own an iPod any MP3 player or computer
    will do.
  • Vodcasting (Video-On-Demand) is in essence the
    same as podcasting, only with the addition of
    video in the digital object. Syndication feeds
    (eg. RSS) allow podcasts and vodcasts to be
    automatically downloaded and then played back on
    portable devises and/or computers.

This 2 minute podcast is an interview of a 16
year old TCK, who spent 3 years living overseas.
Podcasts can be used to bring multiple cultures
into the classroom. (Recorded in Quicktime.)
Podcasts and Vodcasts
  • Usages
  • Imagine you post a mini-lecture or excerpt from
    the class discussion after an evening class, and
    your ESL student downloads it to his MP3 player
    the next morning. He then listens to the lecture
    while he is getting dressed, driving to work, or
    exercising on the treadmill, practicing his
    English and reviewing notes.
  • Reinforces important lecture points, and is
    helpful for the auditory learner.
  • The visually impaired or dyslexic student who
    cannot take class notes.
  • Other possible usages of podcasts and vodcasts
    include syllabus reviews, recording textbooks in
    whole chapters, sharing study sessions for comps,
    communicating course announcements, recording
    interviews of guest speakers or pioneers in the
    field, expanding traditional assignments
    (students include voice recordings and sound
    effects or submit a recorded presentation),
    delivering course content, presenting case
    studies in dramatic form, quiz reviews, etc.
  • Benefits
  • Portability
  • Relatively easy to produce
  • Audio podcasts are downloaded by students more
    frequently than Powerpoint with audio or video
    with audio (University of Michigan, 2005).
  • Links
  • http//
  • Podagogy. http// Education
    Podcast Network. http//
  • Introduction to Podcastinghttp//digitalmedia.ore

Podcasts and Vodcasts
  • Podcasting/Vodcasting Software Services
  • The following services are used for
    videoconferencing between computers
    (video/audio), computers and regular telephones
    (audio only), and for recording conversations to
    be converted into a podcast form for online
  • Skype. http//
  • Gabcast. http//
  • Audacity. http//
  • Switchpod is a podcast hosting service which
    offers unmetered bandwidth, the fastest speeds,
    the most detailed statistics and the best
    promotional opportunities. When you create an
    account at Switchpod, you get your own folder
    hosted on our servers to manage your podcasts -
  • Universities are negotiating contracts with
    iTunes to provide podcasting services for their
    faculty and students

Simulations and Virtual Worlds
  • Definitions
  • Teaching and learning methods in which
    participants are directly involved in making
    decisions and learning from the outcomes of
    these. Their active, student centred nature means
    that they are memorable and highly motivating.
    They enable the exploration of the complex nature
    of the real world and interdisciplinary,
    interacting subjects as well as the more basic
    need of understanding, doing and skills practice
    (Society for the Advancement of Games and
    Simulations in Education and Training, SAGSET,
  • Distinct from video games in that they replicate
    real-life situations (Conrad Donaldson, 2004,
    p. 93).
  • The goal is instruction through active
    involvement (p. 94) utilizing role-playing,
    providing perspective that is not possible within
    the current learning environment.

Simulations and Virtual Worlds
  • Usages
  • Second Life - Universities are utilizing one of
    the fastest growing three-dimentional virtual
    worlds where users are known as residents vs.
    players. With the use of a customized avatar
    residents make purchases with the use of Linden
    Dollars. They can buy land (server space), own
    homes, develop property, conduct business,
    participate in social activities, take classes,
    dissect a frog, practice architecture, and attend
    counseling sessions to name a few (Hof, 2006).
    Entire university campuses (i.e Ohio State
    University, Duke and others) are recreated in the
    virtual world of Second Life.
  • Interact with various cultures in their
  • Experience DSM IV-TR diagnoses (Peter Yellowlees
    Virtual Psychiatric Ward, based on Sacramento
    County Mental Health Treatment Center and
    schizophrenic patients)
  • Practice counseling skills
  • Develop scenarios where students can analyze and
    make decisions in real-time format (Joekel
    McNultr, 2003).

Simulations and Virtual Worlds
  • Benefits
  • Simulations have been used for training in a
    variety of settings with success.
  • Cheaper for multicultural experiences
  • Allows you to perform what if scenarios without
    the risk of harming clients
  • Simulations teach persistence, creativity,
    appropriate help seeking, and cooperative
    teamwork (Cairns, 1995).
  • Use of innovative technology.
  • Links and Resources
  • -
    conference proceeding paper, Second Life
    Education Workshop 2007, part of the Second Life
    Community Convention, Chicago.
  • Ohio State University Second Life campus tour
  • Aldrich, C. Simulations and the Future of
    Learning An Innovative (and perhaps
    revolutionary) approach to e-Learning. San
    Francisco Pfeiffer, 2003.

Additional Technology (Web 1.0)
  • TechSmith SnagIt - http//
  • A screen capture program. Select anything (an
    image, an article, a Web page, and more) on your
    commuter screen and capture it. Use for media
    rich presentations.
  • Camtasia Studio - http//
  • A screen recorder program combined with a video
    editor. Create training, demonstrations,
    presentations, etc.. you are only limited by your
    imagination. Connect with your students by
    including screen recordings, audio, voice
    narration, PowerPoint, Picture-in-Picture and
    webcam video. Edit and enhance your video with
    callouts, titles, credits, zooming, panning,
    quizzes and additional audio tracks.
  • Adobe Captivate - http//
  • Automatically records onscreen actions. Easily
    add mouse movements text captions to create an
    interactive demonstration . Adobe Captivate 2
    software enables the creation of interactive
    quizzes, presentations, and tutorials.
  • PowerPoint
  • A tutorial on getting more out of your PowerPoint
    presentations http//
  • PowerPoint narration http//
  • Additional programs that can be used to enrich
    and enhance your PowerPoint http//www.articulate
    .com/products/presenter.php, http//www.spresent.c
    om, http// ,

Teaching Methods Intervention Exchange
  1. RAFT
  2. MM activity- great ice breaker!
  3. Symbolic Object- Ask each member of the group to
    bring an object symbolic/ important to them. Have
    each member share about the object.
  4. Making Headlines -Global Identity
  5. Who Am I Collage- Personal Identity
  6. Shopping List Values Value clarification rank
    a list of values and describe ranking of values.
  • Parker, E. Teece, K. (2001). Here today there
    tomorrow. Washington Foreign Service Youth
    Foundation Publication

Teaching Methods Intervention Exchange
  • Who Are We Bingo- bingo cards that identify
    characteristics/values of group(i.e. speaks three
    languages has experienced grief at leaving
    behind a friend)
  • The Cost Benefit Columns- make three columns
    advantages, disadvantages, and characteristics of
    people living overseas
  • I Pledge Allegiance What do I stand for?
  • A Collage of American Values
  • Roots
  • Family Interventions

  • Bell, L. (1997). Hidden immigrants Legacies of
    growing up abroad. Notre Dame,
  • Indiana Crosscultural Publications.
  • Bridges, W. (1980). Transitions Making sense of
    life's changes. Addison-Wesley Publishing
  • Cockburn, L. (2002). Children and young people
    living in changing worlds the process
  • of assessing and understanding the third
    culture kid. School Psychology
  • International, 23(4), 475-485. Retrieved
    February 16, 2007, from
  • http//
  • Drake, M. (2004). Resilient dependency Military
    family support program as a work/family conflict
    strategy. Paper presented at the annual meeting
    of the American Sociological Association, Hilton
    San Francisco Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San
    Francisco, CA, Online Retrieved February 19,2007
    from http//
  • Eidse, F. Sichel, N. (2004). Unrooted
    childhoods Memoirs of growing up global. London
    Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
  • Ender, Morton. (2002). Military brats and other
    global nomads Growing up in organization
    families. Westpoint, CT Praeger.
  • Fail, H., Thompson, J., Walker, G. (2004).
    Belonging, identity and third culture kids
  • Life histories of former international
    school students. Journal of Research in
  • International Education, 3(3), 319-338.
    Retrieved February 16, 2007, from
  • http//
  • fhj7ip27nf20serverwwwmd1.csa.comcheck07fe
  • 6e61dbsageduc-set-can10.11772F1475240904
  • 1475-24092C32C32C3192C2004
  • Parker, E. Teece, K. (2001). Here today there
    tomorrow. Washington Foreign Service Youth
    Foundation Publication.
  • Pollack, D. Van Reken, R. (2001). Third culture
    kids The experience of growing up among worlds.
    MaineNicholas Brealey Publishing.
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