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Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Australia


... Rivers and Coastlines Mainland has several large rivers that run north through the valleys between mountain ranges Mekong River Flows from ... have coal, minerals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Australia

Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Australia
  • Coach Martinez

Physical Geography of Southeast Asia,
Oceania, and Antarctica
Southeast Asia
  • Peninsulas and Islands
  • Two peninsulas
  • Indochinese Peninsula
  • Large rectangular section of southeast Asia
  • Malay Peninsula
  • Serves as a bridge between the mainland and
  • Most of the islands are found in archipelagos
  • set of closely grouped islands which are
    sometimes curved in an arc
  • The Philippines and the islands like Borneo are
    high points of submerged section of the Eurasian

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Mountains and Volcanoes
  • Mainland Southeast Asia has several mountain
  • Annamese Cordillera
  • Islands
  • most mountains are volcanic
  • High
  • Islands
  • Low
  • Islands

Rivers and Coastlines
  • Mainland has several large rivers that run north
    through the valleys between mountain ranges
  • Mekong River
  • Flows from China to Vietnam
  • River spreads out into fertile deltas
  • Coastline is long and irregular so there are many

  • Fertile soil
  • from volcanic activity
  • flooding rivers
  • Access to large numbers of fish
  • Mineral resources petroleum, tin and gems

Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica
  • Pacific has an estimated 20,000 islands
  • Oceanias many islands
  • Erosion causes some islands in Oceania to vanish,
    while others are created by volcanic activity
  • High islands
  • islands created by volcanic actions
  • Low islands
  • islands made of coral reefs
  • The islands of Oceania are not rich in resources

Majestic New Zealand
  • New Zealand is made up of two main islands
  • North Island
  • Very hilly and has a volcanic plateau
  • Has fertile farmland and forest that supports the
    lumber industry, also has natural harbors for
  • South Island
  • Is very mountainous
  • New Zealand has few mineral resources, but can
    make electricity using dams at fast moving rivers

New Zealand
Flat Australia
  • Smallest and flattest continent on earth
  • Main mountain range is the Great Dividing Range
    near the east coast
  • To the west of the range is a vast expanse of
  • Very few rivers in Australia
  • Country is rich in minerals
  • Great Barrier Reef- 1250 mile chain of 2500 reefs
    and islands

Australia and Great Barrier Reef
Icy Antarctica
  • 5th largest continent
  • Circular in shape, centered on the South Pole
  • Topography is hidden by thick ice sheet
  • The Transantarctic Mountains divide continent in
  • East Antarctica- plateau surrounded by mountains
    and valleys
  • West Antarctica- group of separate islands linked
    by ice
  • Resources
  • Largest supply of fresh water in world
  • May have coal, minerals, and petroleum
  • 1991- 26 nations agreed not to mine Antarctica
    for 50 years

Climate and Vegetation
  • Most of Southeast Asia and Oceania is tropical
  • Year-round rains
  • Tropical wet
  • High temperatures
  • 100-200 inches of rain per year

Wet and Dry Seasons
  • Monsoons shape weather
  • Dry monsoons bring less rain
  • Wet monsoons bring lots of rain
  • Hot temperatures
  • Rainfall varies
  • Tropical Plants
  • Diverse plant species in Southeast Asia
  • Oceania does not have diverse vegetation

Moderate Climate
  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Hot summers, mild winters
  • Northern Australia has a humid subtropical
  • Mild summers, cool winters
  • Southern Australia and New Zealand has a marine
    west coast climate
  • Mountains
  • In Australia forces moisture-bearing winds to
    rise and shed their rain before moving inland
  • Central Australia is desert.

Hot and Cold Deserts
  • Arid Australia
  • 1/3 of Australia is desert in center of continent
  • Semiarid climate surrounds desert and crops can
    graze there with irrigation
  • Outback- unpopular inland region where few people
  • White Desert
  • Antarctica
  • Coldest and driest continent
  • Receives little precipitation
  • Only plants are lichens and mosses

Human-Environment Interaction
  • Traveling the Pacific
  • Navigation Charts
  • People who settled Pacific Islands most likely
    came from Southeast Asia
  • Used land bridges and small rafts/canoes to
    travel the Pacific
  • Relied on star navigation and also charts made
    out of sticks and shells
  • Sticks showed the pattern of waves commonly found
    in a region
  • Shells showed positions of islands

Special Canoes
  • Voyaging canoes
  • double hulled canoes for voyaging, stable, and
    could carry lots of weight
  • Also had sails and cabins
  • Outrigger canoes
  • used for lagoons
  • has a frame with float extending from canoes for

Invasion of the Rabbits
  • Europeans brought rabbits to Australia.
  • This almost ruined Australian landscape
  • In 1859, Thomas Austin released 24 rabbits into
    Australia so he could hunt them
  • A single pair of rabbits can have up to 184
    descendants in 18 months
  • Rabbits have few natural enemies such as foxes in
  • By 1900, Australia had more than 1 billion
  • Rabbits wiped out native plants and destroyed

Control Measures
  • Imported foxes to prey on rabbits
  • Foxes caused almost as much damage as rabbits
  • In 1900s, the government built a 2000 mile fence
    to keep rabbits from spreading to the Southwest
  • This failed to control the population of rabbits
  • In 1950s, the government infected the rabbits
    with a disease called myxomatosis.
  • More than 90 of rabbits died
  • Rabbits became immune to the disease and their
    numbers boomed again to 300 million by the 1990s
  • Now trying poison, new diseases, erecting fences,
    and destroying the burrows where rabbits live

Nuclear Testing
  • Tests in Bikini Atoll
  • After World War II the United States tested
    atomic weapons in the Pacific
  • Bikini Atoll was the site of the U.S. atomic
    weapons tests
  • In 1946, the government moved 167 islanders to
    another atoll and conducted two tests
  • 1951- 1958, the U.S. government held about 60
    more tests
  • Explosion of the Hydrogen bomb, Bravo, vaporized
    islands and contaminated area with radiation
  • Long term effects
  • Bikini Atoll may never be suitable for human life

Southeast Asia
  • Human geography

A long history of Diversity
  • Early History
  • China and India influenced ancient southeast Asia
  • China ruled Vietnam from 111 BC to AD 939 and
    influenced their art, technology, ideas, etc.
  • Hinduism and Buddhism spread through southeast
    Asia from India
  • Early southeast Asias states had mandalas-
    states organized as rings of power around a
    central court
  • Khmer Empire mandala that lasted from 9th to
    15th centuries

Powerful States
  • 1300s thru 1800, five powerful states existed
    that were similar to mandalas, but larger and
    more complex
  • The Burmese, the Vietnamese, the Thai, and the
    Javanese began to shape their national identities

Colonialism and its Aftermath
  • Southeast Asia traded with merchants from Arabia
    and India who brought Islam to southeast Asia
  • European Control
  • When Europeans arrived in 1509, they just wanted
    to make money
  • The regions wealth flowed from southeast Asia to
  • By 20th century , only Siam (Thailand) was not a
  • Affects of colonization
  • Europeans set up bureaucratic governments
  • Forced them to make goods that were good for the
    European economy
  • Included rubber, sugar, rice, tea, and coffee
  • Colonialism sparked nationalism as southeast
    Asian states united to rebel against European rule

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  • Japan occupied southeast Asia during World War II
  • After the war, Southeast Asian countries sought
  • Indonesia fought to win independence from the
  • Vietnam a French colony suffered decades of
    turmoil until they finally received their
    independence in 1954
  • Vietnam war
  • the U.S. became involved in keeping Communist
    North Vietnam from taking South Vietnam which
    ended in 1975.

Vietnam War
An uneven economy
  • Traditional economies (farming)
  • Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam
  • Ex rice and teak (yellowish-brown wood)
  • Lack of industry caused by
  • Vietnam War destroyed factories and roads
  • Thousands of refugees fled after the war
  • Political turmoil in Cambodia and Myanmar

Industry and Finance
  • Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines,
    Singapore, and Thailand have more highly
    developed economies
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  • promotes economic growth
  • Industries include
  • processing agricultural products
  • Textiles,
  • Electronic products
  • Finance
  • Singapore is a center of finance

A Rich Mosaic of Culture
  • Religious Diversity
  • Buddhism throughout Southeast Asia
  • Philippines is Catholic
  • Indonesia and Brunei are Muslim
  • Some areas practice Hinduism and other
    traditional local beliefs

Rich Artistic Legacy
  • Angkor Wat
  • ancient temple complex in Cambodia
  • Buddhism and Hinduism have influenced the
    regions sculpture and architecture

Changing Lifestyles
  • Most Southeast Asians live in rural villages and
    follow traditional ways
  • People live on wood houses built on stilts
  • Roofs are usually made of thatch
  • Most villages have Buddhist temples that serves
    as the center of social life
  • Most villagers wear traditional clothing, such
    as longyi a long, tightly wrapped skirt worn in
    Southeast Asia

The Cities
  • Many people are moving to the cities such as
    Kuala Lumpur and Singapore
  • In Southeast Asia, people mostly live in
  • Shortage of housing, some set up shacks

  • A History of the Islands
  • First Islanders
  • Prehistoric people journeyed from mainland of
    southeast Asia to nearby Pacific islands using
    small rafts and canoes and land bridges that have
    since disappeared
  • They migrated to as far as Hawaii, New Zealand,
    and Madagascar
  • 3 regions of Oceania
  • Micronesia- tiny islands
  • Melanesia- black islands
  • Polynesia- many islands

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Contact with the West
  • In the 1500s Europeans like began exploring the
  • In the 1800s Christian missionaries arrived
  • Convert the natives to Christianity
  • Hunted whales
  • Started plantations
  • Coconut, coffee, pineapples, and sugar
  • Brought disease
  • Western ways replaced traditional ways

Recent History
  • Suffered during the last half of the 20th century
  • World War II was fought in the Pacific
  • US fought Japan in fierce battles there to gain
    control of Pacific
  • Some islands were used as nuclear test sites by
    the US and other countries
  • Since 1962, 12 nations have gained independence

Battles in the Pacific
A Traditional Economy
  • Most islands economies are based on subsistence
  • Agriculture
  • Islands in the Pacific are not good for
  • Grow bananas, sugar, cocoa, coffee and copra
    (dried meat of coconuts)
  • Fishing
  • Other economic Activities
  • Tourism
  • Good because it brings in money
  • Bad because it threatens environment and
    traditional ways of life

Culture of the Islands
  • Language and Religion
  • There over 1,100 different languages spoken in
  • Papua New Guinea speak 823 languages
  • Many Pacific Islanders speak European languages
  • Spanish, English, French
  • Christianity is most widely spread religion
  • Some Pacific islanders still practice their
    traditional religions.

Island Life
  • Traditional Life
  • In Polynesia most people lived in villages led by
    a chief
  • Economies centered on fishing and farming
  • Taro- crop with a starchy root that can be eaten
    boiled or made into breads, pudding or a paste
    called poi
  • Polynesians were warlike
  • Micronesians tended to exist peacefully and lived
    in extended families
  • Polynesians fished and farmed
  • In Melanesia, people lived on coast so they could

Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica
  • Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctic made up the
    last region to be explored by Europeans
  • 1788, Great Britain founded Sydney, Australia as
    a penal colony (a place to send prisoners)
  • Sydney is located on a deep, beautiful harbor
    that allows for a port and also provides an arena
    for sailing and swimming
  • Mild climate
  • Diverse population

History Distant European Outposts
  • The original inhabitants
  • Australia
  • Aboriginal people migrated to Australia from Asia
    40,000 years ago, made 500 groups, speaking 200
  • Complex religious belief and social structures
    but simple economy based on hunting and gathering
  • New Zealand
  • Maori migrated from Polynesia more than 1000
    years ago

Early Explorers
  • Captain James Cook of Britain was the first to
    explore New Zealand in 1769 and Australia in 1770

European Settlement
  • Australia
  • 1788 Britain colonized Australia
  • Place for prisoners
  • Pacific navel bases
  • In Australia, Europeans had violent conflicts
    with native people and killed many and gave them
    deadly diseases
  • New Zealand
  • Colonized by hunter and whalers from Europe,
    America, and Australia
  • Treaty of Waitangi
  • Gave Britain control over New Zealand .
    Disagreement over treaty caused war between the
    Maori and British
  • Tens of thousands of Maoris died from diseases
  • Antarctica
  • Was not colonized because of its cold climate
  • Gold
  • Discovered in 1851 in Australia and 1861 in New
  • Hundreds of thousands of people moved here to
    strike it rich
  • Most never left

Modern Nations
  • Both Australia and New Zealand are both
    independent but remain part of the British
  • New Zealand became the first country to grant
    women the right to vote in 1893.
  • Both countries are attempting to improve the
    lives of the Aboriginal people and Maori by
    returning their former lands.

  • Antarctica is unsettled
  • 12 countries drafted treaty preserving continent
    for research
  • In 2000, 18 countries have sent scientists there
    for research

Economy Meat, Wool and Butter
  • Agriculture
  • Major exporter of farm products
  • Butter, cheese, meat, and wool
  • Ranching is big in New Zealand
  • Sheep ranching in Australia

Mining and Manufacturing
  • Mining
  • Australia- diamonds, lead, zinc, and opals,
    bauxite, coal, copper, gold and iron ore
  • Mining in Australia is tough because most of the
    minerals are in the outback
  • Manufacturing and Service
  • Major industry in Australia and New Zealand is
    processing food products
  • New Zealand- wood and paper industry
  • Nearly 65 of Australias jobs are in the service

Economic Future
  • Nations want to diversify economy and not rely on
  • Hard to develop industry with nearby Asia with
    cheap labor costs

Distinctive Culture
  • Australias Culture
  • Most Australians are of British descent but
    Australia has high rates of immigration
  • 20 of Australians come from Greece, Italy and
    Southeast Asia
  • Christianity is main religion
  • English is main language
  • Drink tea and play rugby
  • 1 of people are
  • Aboriginal people

New Zealands Culture
  • The majority of New Zealanders are of European,
    mostly British, descent.
  • 15 of New Zealands people are Maori
  • English and Maori are official languages
  • Christianity is main religion

Modern Life
  • City and Country
  • In both countries about 85 of people live in
    cities or towns
  • Both countries are modern with good roads,
    sanitation, and infrastructure
  • In Australia, many wealthy ranchers own private
    airplanes to keep them cross country
  • Recreation
  • Good climate for outdoor activities

Southeast Asia, Oceania, Australia and Antarctica
  • Todays issues

Aboriginal Land Claims
  • In 1976, the Australian government denied claims
    of Aboriginal people for their land back
  • In protest Aboriginal people erected a tent on
    the lawn of Old Parliament House in the
    Australian capital to symbolize how they were
    foreigners in their own land
  • Australian government tried to get rid of it but

Aboriginal People Lose Land
  • Aboriginal people were hunters and gatherers so
    they depended on nature completely
  • British policy
  • Since they didnt farm, mine, or build on land,
    the British felt they had no claims to the land.
    British called it Terra Nullius Latin for empty
  • So British decided they could take the land away
    from the Aboriginal people

Stolen Land and Stolen Children
  • Stolen Land
  • Europeans began to settle Australia in 1788 and
    chose most fertile land
  • Aboriginal people fought back but were defeated
  • Some Aboriginal people got put on reservations
  • Some blended into European ways of life
  • Stolen Children
  • Between 1909 and 1969, the Australian government
    took about 100,000 Aboriginal children and gave
    them to white families
  • Assimilation- minority adopts majoritys culture
  • Aboriginal people call those children the Stolen
  • Many Aboriginal people are fighting assimilation
    by passing their culture on to their children

Land Claims
  • Aboriginal people were not recognized as full
    citizens until 1967
  • Land Rights Act of 1976
  • Gave Aboriginal people the right to claim land in
    taken away from them in the Northern Territory
  • The Mabo Case
  • In 1992 the courts ruled that Aboriginal people
    had owned land before the British arrived
  • The Wik Case
  • In 1996 the courts ruled that Aboriginal people
    could claim land owned by the government and used
    as pastoral lease
  • Many white ranchers feared that their way of life
    was threatened (ranching)by this and sued
  • Issue is still not resolved today.

Industrial Sparks Change
  • For many people struggling to escape poverty, any
    job, even one with long hours, low pay, and abuse
    is better than none
  • Moving to find Jobs
  • Across southeast Asia, people are moving from
    farms to cities to work in factories
  • They may work 16 hours a day, 7 days a week
  • Industrialization (growth of industry) has caused
    cities to grow

Push Factors
  • Push Factors in East Asia
  • Lost resources
  • soil erosion
  • Deforestation
  • water overuse
  • Scarcity of land
  • 60 of rural families dont have enough land to
    earn a living by farming
  • Population growth
  • as population grows , land shortage became worse

Pull Factors
  • Pull Factors in East Asia
  • Industry
  • find a job in a factory
  • Education
  • Government services
  • Impact on cities
  • Low availability of housing
  • More pollution, traffic has increased
  • Disposal of human waste is a problem no sewage
    treatment facilities

Other Results of Industrialization
  • Economic Effects
  • Rapid industrial growth since the 1960s
  • Increase in trade and exports
  • Higher income for some citizens, income gap is
  • Social unrest and crime
  • Environmental Effects
  • Factories can pollute the air by burning fossil
    fuels, carelessly disposing of toxic materials
  • Industry has harmed the environment by using up
    valuable resources such as water and trees
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