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Mr. White


FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE COLD WAR MR. WHITE S US HISTORY 2 MAIN IDEA AND OBJECTIVES Main Idea: The end of the Cold War, marked by the breakup of the Soviet Union in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mr. White

Foreign Policy After the Cold War
  • Mr. Whites US History 2

Main Idea and Objectives
  • Main Idea The end of the Cold War, marked by the
    breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, led to a
    redirection of many U.S. goals and policies.
  • After this section, we should be able to
  • Identify changes in the communist world that
    ended the Cold War
  • Summarize U.S. actions taken to influence Central
    American and Caribbean affairs
  • Describe the events leading up to the Iran-Contra
  • Analyze U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War

Part I The cold War Ends
  • The Soviet Union collapsed, and many other
    communist regimes declined.

Mikhail Gorbachev
  • In March of 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the
    general secretary of the Communist Party in the
    Soviet Union
  • Gorbachev inherited a Soviet economy that was
    struggling to keep up with the United States
  • Reagan had increased defense spending to put a
    further strain that the Soviets couldnt keep up
  • Economy was close to collapse

  • Gorbachev adopted a policy of glasnost (Russian
    for openness)
  • Allowed open criticisms of the Soviet government,
    worked to give freedom of the press
  • Gorbachev also introduced perestroika, his plan
    for restructuring Soviet society
  • Less government control of the economy, more
    private enterprise, steps toward democracy
  • Gorbachev also realized that better relations
    with the U.S. would allow Soviet Union to reduce
    military expenses
  • INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces
    Treaty) signed on December 8, 1987 eliminated
    two classes of nuclear weapons and allowed both
    sides to make on-site inspections of each others
    nuclear facilities

The Soviet Union Collapses
  • The reforms that Gorbachev had introduced
    encouraged nationalism and independence movements
    in the non-Russian Soviet states
  • In December, 1991, 14 non-Russian republics
    declared independence from the Soviet Union
  • Criticized by reformers who thought he was
    working too slowly, Gorbachev resigned as Soviet
  • The Soviet Union dissolved, almost overnight

The Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Many of the nations that had been a part of the
    Soviet Union formed the Commonwealth of
    Independent States
  • This was a loose collection of nations that would
    share certain interests like economics, politics,
    and security
  • Russias new president, Boris Yeltsin, soon
    signed the START II Treaty with President George
    H. W. Bush
  • This treaty was designed to cut both nations
    nuclear arsenals by two-thirds

The Berlin Wall
  • Before he resigned, Gorbachev had encouraged the
    people of East Germany and Eastern Europe to go
    their own ways
  • He reduced the number of Soviet troops in Eastern
    Europe, and allowed non-communist parties to
    organize in Soviet satellite nations, such as
    Poland and East Germany
  • At the Berlin Wall in 1987, President Reagan had
    encouraged Gorbachev to, tear down this wall.

Germany Re-unified
  • In October, 1989, East Germany gave up its
    communist government
  • November 9, 1989 East Germany opened the Berlin
    Wall, re-uniting the eastern and western parts of
    the city
  • In early 1990, East Germany held its first free
  • October 3, 1990 East and West Germany reunited
    into the nation of Germany

New Reforms, New Issues
  • Other European nations also adopted new reforms
  • Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania declared their
    independence from the Soviet Union
  • Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania gave up communism
  • Yugoslavia collapsed four of its republics
  • Ethnic rivalries took over in a war between
    Muslims, Orthodox Serbs, and Roman Catholic
    Croats each claimed part of Yugoslavia

Chinese Reform
  • Economic reform had also begun in in China, which
    was still communist
  • China loosened its grip on business and
    eliminated some price controls
  • Free-market reforms when command economies
    introduce measures to bring freedom to the market
  • Chinese students began to demand more freedoms
    with this growing economic freedom

Student Protests
  • April, 1989 Chinese university students led
    marches that quickly grew into large
    demonstrations in Beijings Tiananmen Square and
    other cities
  • In Tiananmen Square, students constructed a
    replica of the Statue of Liberty to symbolize
    their struggle for democracy
  • Chinas premier, Li Peng, had the military crush
    the protesters

Tiananmen Square
  • Chinas army stormed into the square and fired
    into the crowds, killing many unarmed students
  • Some civilians had earlier had attacked soldiers
    in armored-personnel carriers and tanks
  • While the protest was ended, some Chinese
    officials and civilians believed that this event
    made many people lose faith in the government

Part II Central American and Caribbean Policy
  • The United States used its economic, political,
    and military power to intervene and influence
    nations in Central America and the Caribbean.

  • The U.S. had been in Nicaragua since 1912
    helped the dictator Anastasio Somoza come to
  • The Somozas ruled Nicaragua for 42 years
  • Rigged elections
  • Assassinated political rivals
  • Between 1977 and 1979, Nicaragua underwent a
    civil war between the Somoza government and
    Sandinista rebels who opposed the government

Reagan Supports the Contras
  • The Sandinistas toppled the government
  • Jimmy Carter recognized the new government and
    sent economic aid
  • The Soviet Union and Cuba sent aid, as well
  • When Reagan took power, he charged that Nicaragua
    was a Soviet satellite, and that it was
    exporting revolution to other Central American
  • Threw his support behind guerilla forces opposing
    the Sandinistas known as Contras
  • Military aid and CIA advisers were sent to the
    Contras, without Congressional approval
  • Congress responded by banning any military aid to
    the Contras, but Reagans administration found
    ways around this
  • Free elections in 1990 elected Violeta de
    Chamorro, a Contra supporter, but his coalition
    wasnt able to solve the problems of Nicaragua

  • In Grenada, an island near Cuba, the government
    was developing ties to communist Cuba
  • Ronald Reagan sent around 2,000 U.S. troops to
    the island in 1983
  • The troops overthrew the pro-Cuban government and
    replaced it with one friendlier to the U.S.
  • Eighteen U.S. soldiers died, but Reagan defended
    this as important to the interests of the United

  • In 1989, President Bush sent around 20,000 U.S.
    troops into Panama to apprehend General Manuel
  • Noriega had been receiving money from the CIA, as
    he opposed communist governments, but was also
    involved in the international drug trade
  • Noriega was brought to the United States to stand
    trial, and was sentence to 40 years in prison
  • Some Latin American governments criticized this
    Yankee imperialism, but many were happy that
    Noriega had been removed from power

Part III Middle East Trouble Spots
  • As the Cold War ended, the United States began to
    shift its political attention to the Middle East.

  • In 1983, terrorist groups loyal to Iran took
    Americans hostage in Lebanon
  • Reagan denounced Iran and urged U.S. allies not
    to sell arms to Iran (which was at war with Iraq)
  • 1985 America will never make concessions to

Iran-Contra Affair
  • Later, however, Americans learned
  • Reagan had approved the sale of weapons to Iran
    in return, Iran promised to get seven American
    hostages released in Lebanon
  • Members of Reagans staff had sent profits from
    the weapons sales to the Contras in Nicaragua,
    which was in violation of the Boland Amendment,
    which made this against the law
  • Reagan defended his actions as necessary, and was
    shocked at the negative reaction
  • Reagan administration staff members went on
    trial, and many, such as Lieutenant General
    Oliver North, received penalties for their roles

Iran and Iraq
  • During the 1980s, Iran and Iraq had fought a long
  • Iraqi President Saddam Hussein had huge war debts
  • Hussein had often claimed that Kuwait was
    actually part of Iraq
  • August 2, 1990 Iraqi troops invaded a disputed
    area claimed by Kuwait, then turned toward Saudi
    Arabia and its oil fields
  • If Iraq took Saudi Arabia, it would control
    one-half of the worlds known oil reserves

Operation Desert Storm
  • For several months, President Bush and Secretary
    of State James Baker organized an international
    coalition against Iraqi aggression
  • With the support of the United Nations and
    Congress, Bush launched Operation Desert Storm to
    liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation
  • January 16, 1991 U.S. launched a massive air
    assault against Iraq
  • February 23, 1991 Coalition forces launched a
    ground offensive from Saudi Arabia into Kuwait
  • February 28, 1991 Cease-fire was announced
  • Kuwait had been liberated from Iraqi occupation

  • Americans turned out in large numbers for the
    victory parades that followed this successful war
  • This war had a different outcome from the U.S.s
    last major war, Vietnam
  • Only 400 coalition force casualties
  • Iraq suffered an estimated 100,000 military and
    civilian deaths
  • A trade embargo following the war resulted in the
    deaths of many Iraqis from preventable diseases
    such as cholera, typhoid, and others

Election of 1992
  • Although Bush was very successful on the
    international stage, he was not as successful at
  • Rising government deficits and a recession
    starting in 1990 made re-election difficult
  • Bush raised taxes, and broke his original
    campaign pledge of no new taxes.
  • The weak economy, plus the tax hike, made Bushs
    re-election very difficult

Main Idea and Objectives
  • Main Idea The end of the Cold War, marked by the
    breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, led to a
    redirection of many U.S. goals and policies.
  • After this section, we should be able to
  • Identify changes in the communist world that
    ended the Cold War
  • Summarize U.S. actions taken to influence Central
    American and Caribbean affairs
  • Describe the events leading up to the Iran-Contra
  • Analyze U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War

  • So
  • One of the changes that occurred with the end of
    the Cold War was
  • One of the ways that the United States tried to
    influence Central America and the Caribbean was
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