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AP Human Geography Test Review


AP Human Geography Test Review Political Geography Countries whose attempts to Balkanize that have failed include: Bosnia, Kashmir, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Kurdistan ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP Human Geography Test Review

AP Human Geography Test Review
  • Political Geography

  • State any area with a defined territory that
    exercises its sovereign control over areas both
    inside and outside its borders
  • Earth is divided into about 200 countries
  • In past 100 years, number of states has increased
    by over 100
  • Territorial Organization states organized into
    a geographically based hierarchy of local
    government agencies
  • Serve the functions of (1) efficiently delegating
    administrative function in what may otherwise be
    large and unwieldy area, (2) can allocate
    resources through local agencies that may be more
    in touch with the needs of the people in their
    jurisdiction, and (3) usually give their local
    territory some degree of autonomy (ability to
    enact laws, police their lands, and tax local
  • Commonwealth territory that has established a
    mutual agreement with another state for the
    benefit of both parties
  • Colony territory that is legally tied to a
    sovereign state rather than being completely
  • Control of the colony varies
  • Colonialism effort by one country to establish
    settlements and to impose its political,
    economic, and cultural principles on a territory

States - Colonies
  • European states established colonies for 3
  • European missionaries established colonies to
    promote Christianity
  • Colonies provided resources that helped the
    economy of European states
  • European states considered the number of colonies
    to be an indicator of relative power
  • Summarized as God, gold, and glory
  • Imperialism control of territory already
    occupied and organized by an indigenous society
  • United Kingdom had largest empire
  • Sun never set on the British Empire
  • Colonial practices of European states varied
  • France attempted to assimilate colonies into
    French culture not so successful
  • Britain created different government structures
    and policies depending on the territory
  • Decentralized approach helped to protect diverse
    cultures, local customs, and educational systems
  • Most colonies made peaceful transition to
  • Nearly all in Pacific Ocean or Caribbean Sea
  • Puerto Rico is most populous remaining colony
  • Commonwealth of the United States
  • 4 million residents
  • Frances French Polynesia, Mayotte, and New
    Caledonia the Netherlands Netherlands Antilles
    and the United States Guam and U.S. Virgin
    Islands are colonies with population between
    100,000 and 300,000
  • Least populated colony Pitcairn Island (United
    Kingdom) 47 people

States - Colonies
  • Colonialism practice of establishing political
    dominance over a people for economic, political,
    and territorial gain
  • Organic Theory created by political geographer
    Friedrich Ratzel
  • State was like a living entity that constantly
    needed to grow to thrive states constantly need
    new territory to meet the demands of their
    ever-growing population
  • Religious Colonialism conducted by numerous
  • Christianity and Islam
  • Economic Colonialism- quest for wealth
  • European colonists sought wealth (gold, furs,
  • Colonies expected to provide resources for the
    home country needed to sustain itself
  • Self-Determinism power of a people to establish
    their own government the way that they see it
  • Former colonies would rather see chaotic
    conditions ruled by member so their own country
    than peaceful conditions ruled by colonial power

Types of Empires
  • The Land Empire involves conquest by force
  • Armies attack, pillage, and plunder their way
    through another land, taking resources by force
  • Ex. Spanish employed empire tactics in Mexico
  • The Sea Empire used sea power to control area
  • Settlements established along coast, and
    excursions into the interior brought loot back to
    these settlement, where ship would be waiting to
    take resources back to home country
  • The Settlement Empire intended to stay long
  • Once settlement established, colonists sent
    resources back to home country
  • Colony expected to become independent and
    eventually pay back home country
  • Primarily used by the British and French

States - Government
  • Types of Government
  • Unitary State places most power in the hands of
    central government officials
  • Unitary government systems works best (in theory)
    in nation-states with few internal cultural
  • In reality, multinational states use unitary
    systems so the values of on nationality can be
    imposed on others
  • Some African countries (Rwanda, Ghana, and Kenya)
    have done so on ethnic group could dominate
  • Eastern European countries used unitary systems
    go promote the diffusion of Communist values
  • Federal State allocates strong power to units
    of local government within the country
  • Governments bestow autonomous powers upon their
    local territories
  • Local governments posses more authority to adopt
    their own laws
  • Ability to empower different nationalities
    especially if they live in different regions
  • Boundaries can be drawn by regional ethnicities
  • More suitable for larger states national
    capital may too remote to effectively govern
  • Size of federal states varies
  • Larger states include Russia, Canada, India, and
  • Belgium is federal state two cultural groups
  • How to delegate authority in a federalist country
    has crucial implications for everything from tax
    collection , to the use of natural resources

Electoral Geography
  • Reapportionment (redistricting) Boundaries
    separating legislative districts redrawn
    periodically to ensure each district has
    approximately same population
  • Boundaries of U.S. House of Representatives
    redrawn every 10 years following the census
  • Most European countries use independent
    commissions to redraw district boundaries
  • Most U.S. states use the state legislature
    giving the political party in power to redraw
  • Gerrymandering process of redrawing legislative
    boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the
    party in power
  • Three types of gerrymandering
  • Wasted Vote spreads opposition supporters
    across many districts, but in the minority
  • Excess Vote concentrates opposition
    supporters into a few districts
  • Stacked Vote links distant areas of
    like-minded voters through oddly shaped

Gerrymandering Florida Georgia
Fig. 8-11 State legislature boundaries were
drawn to maximize the number of legislators for
Republicans in Florida and Democrats in Georgia.
  • Gerrymandering drawing voting districts to
    benefit one group over another.

Majority-Minority districts drawn so that the
majority of the population in the district is
from the minority.
Nation and Nation-State
  • Nation Term encompassing all the citizens of a
    state refer to tightly knit group of people
    possessing bonds of language, ethnicity,
    religion, and other shared cultural
  • Many people becoming more loyal to their nation,
    rather than their state
  • Ex. Al-Qaeda left behind loyalty to the states
    in which they are citizens, pledging their
    allegiance to Al-Qaeda forming a nation
  • Usually nations are located within the borders of
    a state
  • Examples Koreans, Hmong, Kurds, Basques,
    Flemish, Walloons, and Zulus
  • Many want their own state, but conflict can arise
    with two nations competing a geographic area
  • Nation-State recognized political unit wherein
    territorial state coincides with the area settled
    by a certain group of people corresponds with
    particular ethnicity that has been transformed
    into a nationality
  • Examples Japan and Denmark

  • Sovereignty ability of a state to regulate
    their own internal and external affairs
  • Some continue to struggle with sovereignty
  • Kurds one of largest nationalities in the world
    without a state
  • Located in Turkey, northern Iran, and northern
    Iraq with some in Armenia and Azerbaijan
  • Most Kurds have own language and practice Islam
  • Basques independent group in Pyrenees Mountains
  • Majority live in Spain with some in Andorra and
    southwestern France
  • Basques have their own language (Euskara) and
    desire to have their own nation-state called
    Euskal Herria
  • Flemish live in the north of Belgium
  • Official language is Flemish (Common Dutch) and
    religion (Roman Catholic)
  • Distinct from Walloons in language (French) and
    religion (Protestant)
  • Desire own nation-state called Flanders
  • Zulu live in eastern South Africa
  • Apartheid white minority ruled South Africa,
    Zulus forced to occupy low status suffering
    discrimination in all aspects of life
  • Zulus have their own language (isiZulu) desire to
    have own homeland (KwaNdeebele)
  • Palestinians live in the West Bank, Gaza Strip,
    and Golan Heights of Israel
  • Palestinians fled to other countries after Israel
    created in 1948
  • Most practice Islam, speak Arabic desire to
    create state called Palestine

Antarctica National Claims
Fig. 8-2 Antarctica is the only large land mass
that is not part of a state, but several
countries claim portions of it.
Political Organization of Space
  • Governments usually create organizations to
    assist with their interactions with other
  • Embassies offices represent U.S. interests to
    the leadership of other countries
  • Ambassadors lead officials representing the
    U.S. in other countries
  • Consulates secondary offices that usually deal
    with economic issues as well as the granting of
    visas to enter their home countries
  • Other political geography terms
  • Satellite states under the control of the
    Soviet Union created a cultural wall (Iron
  • Iron Curtain divided democratic, capitalist
    Western Europe from totalitarian, communist
    Eastern Europe
  • Shatterbelt regions regions caught up in the
    conflict between two superpowers
  • Boundaries often changed Vietnam and Korea
  • Buffer state country that lies between two
    other states, but remains neutral in the conflict
    between them
  • Mongolia between China and Soviet Union
  • Supranational Organization separate entity
    composed of three or more states that forge an
    association and form an administrative structure
    for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals

Geopolitical Theories
  • Heartland Theory Halford MacKinder wrote The
    Geographical Pivot of History
  • Suggests that whoever owns Eastern Europe and
    Western Asia has the political power and capital
    to rule the world
  • Eastern Europe contained one of the richest
    agricultural regions in the world sustain a
    large population
  • Also contained abundant raw materials (coal)
    needed to develop strong military and industrial
  • Adolph Hitler believed in this theory which is
    why he attempted to invade/conquer Eastern Europe
  • Rimland Theory Nicholas Spykman wrote in The
    Geography of Peace was known as the godfather
    of containment
  • Believed in forming alliances is necessary to
    keep Heartland in check (no individual country
    could contain by itself
  • Rimland theory would control the sea
  • Domino Theory adopted by U.S. in 1960s 1970s
  • When one country experiences rebellion or
    political disunity, other countries around it
    will also experience turmoil as a result, leading
    to a domino effect of political instability
  • Established in response to the communist
    incursions that had been occurring around the
  • Irredentism the attempt by one country to
    provoke coups or separatist movements in another

Rimland Theory
Heartland Theory - Heartland is also known as
the pivot area
Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces
  • Centripetal Forces forces that tend to unite a
  • Includes strong national institutions, sense of
    common history, and a reliance on strong central
  • Examples include flags, anthem, other acts of
  • Centripetal forces can be positive and negative
  • Positive when supporting or pulling a nation
  • Negative when nationalistic ideas place
    individual nations above all others (usually with
    militaristic regimes, power hungry leaders, and
    racist ideologies)
  • Centrifugal Forces forces that pull a state
  • Include ideas of regionalism, ethnic strife, and
    territorial disputes
  • Include language, religion, ethnicity, and

Political forces and Ideologies
  • Balkanization political process by which a
    state may break up into smaller countries
  • Occurs when enclaves develop with their own
    ethnic identities, or when central governments
    increasingly devolve administrative authority to
    their constituent territories
  • Former Soviet Union, former Yugoslavia
  • Devolution Giving up of power by the central or
    federal government to the different regions of
    the country
  • The process whereby regions within a state demand
    and gain political strength and growing autonomy
    at the expense of the central government
  • Devolutionary pressures result in increased
    autonomy for a region. If strong enough, these
    devolutionary pressures may result in complete
  • Supranationalism method of extending state
    borders through the assistance and/or
    establishment of other organizations to further
    economic and/or political cooperation
  • Ex. European Union (EU)
  • United into one organized unit for the purpose of
    increasing individual strength through collective
  • Democratization transition to a more democratic
    political government
  • Existence of competitive election that are free,
    regular, and fair
  • Three waves of democratization

Ethnocultural Devolutionary Movements
  • Eastern Europe -
  • Devolutionary forces since the fall of communism

Immanuel Wallersteins World-Systems Theory
  • The world economy has one market and a global
    division of labor.
  • Although the world has multiple states, almost
    everything takes place within the context of the
    world economy.
  • The world economy has a three-tier structure.
  • Construction of the World Economy
  • Capitalism people, corporations, and states
    produce goods and services and exchange them in
    the world market, with the goal of achieving
  • Commodification the process of placing a price
    on a good and then buying, selling, and trading
    the good.
  • Colonialism brought the world into the world
    economy, setting up an interdependent global

Three Tier Structure
Core Processes that incorporate higher levels of
education, higher salaries, and more technology
Generate more wealth in the world economy
Periphery Processes that incorporate lower
levels of education, lower salaries, and less
technology Generate less wealth in the world
Semi-periphery Places where core and periphery
processes are both occurring. Places that are
exploited by the core but then exploit the
periphery. Serves as a buffer between core and
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