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5.1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea


5.1 5.1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 5.1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea

5.1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea
  • The roots of Greek culture are based on
    interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian

Geography Shapes Greek Life
  • Ancient Greece
  • Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking
    people live
  • Includes mainland and about 2000 islands
  • The Sea
  • The sea shapes Greek civilization
  • Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea
    travel and trade

Geography Shapes Greek Life
  • The Land
  • Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions
  • Lack of fertile land leads to small populations,
    need for colonies
  • The Climate
  • Moderate climate promotes outdoor life
  • Greek men, especially, spend much of their time

Mycenaean Civilization Develops
  • The Trojan War
  • Trojan War fought by Mycenaeans against city of
    Troy in 1200s BC
  • Once thought to be fictional, archaeological
    evidence has been found

Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
  • Dorians Replace Mycenaeans
  • Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 BC

Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
  • Epics of Homer
  • Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer
    blind storyteller
  • Epic a narrative poem about heroic deeds
  • Homers Epic the Illiad, about Trojan War, shows
    Greek heroic ideal

Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
  • Greeks Create Myths
  • Greeks develop their own myths traditional
    stories about gods
  • Greeks attribute human qualities love, hate,
    jealousy to their gods
  • Zeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with
    his wife, Hera

Warring City-States
  • Chapter 5, Section 2

Section Opener
  • The growth of city states in Greece lead to the
    development of several political systems,
    including democracy.

Rule and Order in Greek City-States
  • By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is
    the formal government.
  • A polis is a city and its surrounding villages
    50-500 square miles.
  • Population of a city-state is often less than
  • Citizens gather in the marketplace and
    acropolisa fortified hilltop

Rule and Order in Greek City-States
  • Greek Political Structures
  • City-states have different forms of government.
  • Monarchy-rule by a king
  • Aristocracy-rule by nobility
  • Oligarchy-rule by a small group of powerful
    merchants and artisans

Rule and Order in Greek City-States
  • Tyrants Seize Power
  • Rulers and common people clash in many
  • Tyrantsnobles and wealthy citizens win support
    of common people.
  • They seize control and rule in the interests of
    ordinary people.

Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
  • Building Democracy
  • About 621 B.C., democracyrule by the
    peopledevelops in Athens.
  • Nobleman, Draco, develops legal code based on
    equality of citizens.
  • Only native-born, property-owning males are

Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
  • Athenian Education
  • Schooling only for sons of wealthy families.
  • Girls learn from mothers and other female members
    of the household.

Sparta Builds a Military State
  • Spartas Government and Society
  • Sparta government has four branches citizens
    elect officials
  • Three social classes
  • Citizens
  • Free non-citizens
  • Helots--slaves

Sparta Builds a Military State
  • Spartan Daily Life
  • Spartan values duty, strength, individuality,
    discipline over freedom.
  • Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece
  • Males move into barracks at age 7, train until
    30, serve until 60.
  • Girls receive some military training and live
    hard lives

The Persian Wars
  • A New Kind of Army Emerges
  • Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and
    armor cheaper
  • Leads to new kind of army includes soldiers from
    all classes
  • Phalanxfeared by all, formation of soldiers with
    spears, shields

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The Persian Wars
  • Battle of Marathon
  • Persian Warsbetween Greece and the Persian
    Empirebegin in Ionia
  • Persian Army attacks Athens, is defeated at
    Marathon in 490 B.C.
  • -announce Greek victory.

The Persian Wars
  • Thermopylae and Salamis
  • Persians launch a new invasion of Greece.
  • Greek forces hold Thermopylae for three days
    before retreating.
  • Athenians defeat Persians at sea, near island of
  • Victories at Salamis and Plataea force Persian

The Persian Wars
  • Consequences of the Persian Wars
  • New self-confidence in Greece due to victory.
  • Athens emerges as leader of Delian League.
  • League members essentially become provinces of
    Athenian empire.
  • Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity
    in Athens.

Democracy and Greeces Golden Age
  • Chapter 5, Section 3
  • Democratic principles and classical
    cultureflourish during Greeces golden age.

Pericles Plan for Athens
  • Pericles as Leader
  • Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, respected
  • Dominates life in Athens from 461 to 429 B.C.

Pericles Plan for Athens
  • Stronger Democracy
  • Direct democracycitizens rule directly, not
    through representatives

Pericles Plan for Athens
  • Athenian Empire
  • Takes over the Delian League uses money to
    strengthen Athenian fleet.
  • Sparta and other cities resent Athenian power.

Glorious Art and Architecture
  • Architecture and Sculpture
  • Pericles builds the Parthenona large temple to
    honor the goddess Athena.
  • Classical artvalues harmony, order, balance,
    proportion, beauty

The Parthenon from the south.
Drama and History
  • Tragedy and Comedy
  • Greeks invent drama as an art form includes
    chorus, dance, poetry
  • Two forms of drama tragedy and comedy
  • Tragedytells story of heroes downfall themes
    of love, hate, and war
  • Comedymakes fun of politics and respected
    people slapstick humor
  • Greek dramatists include Aeschylus, Euripides,
    Aristophanes, Sophicles
  • Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record and
    study past events

A Greek theater
Athenians and Spartans Go to War
  • War Begins
  • 431 B.C. Sparta declares war on Athensthe
    beginning of the Peloponnesian War.
  • Peloponnesian War
  • Sparta has a better army.
  • Athens has a better navy.
  • Plague strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills
    manyincluding Pericles.
  • Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 B.C.

4th Century B.C. Hoplite
Athenians and Spartans Go to War
  • Sparta Gains Victory
  • 415 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on
    the island of Sicily.
  • Athens is defeated in 413 B.C.
  • Athens and its allies surrender to Sparta in 404

Philosophers Search for Truth
  • Socrates
  • He believes in questioning and teaches through
    the method of questioning.
  • He is believed to have said The unexamined life
    is not worth living.
  • He is convicted of corrupting the youth of
    Athens and sentenced to death in 399 B.C.
  • He dies by drinking hemlock, a slow acting poison.

Philosophers Search for Truth
  • Plato
  • He is a student of Socrates.
  • He writes The Republic, about an ideal society
    ruled by Philosopher-Kings
  • His writings dominate European philosophy for
    1,500 years.

Philosophers Search for Truth
  • Aristotle
  • He was a student of Plato.
  • He uses rules of logic for argument.
  • His work provides the basis for scientific
    method, still used today.
  • He tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes
    Alexander the Great

Alexanders Empire
  • Chapter 5, Section 4

Philip Builds Macedonian Power
  • Macedonia
  • MacedoniaKingdom of mountain villages north of
  • Macedonians call themselves Greek rest of Greece
    does not
  • Philips Army
  • King Philip II creates well-trained professional
    army plans to invade Greece

Philip Builds Macedonian Power
  • Conquest of Greece
  • Some Greek cities invited Philip to invade
  • Athens asked Sparta for help against invasion,
    but Sparta declined
  • 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece

Philip Builds Macedonian Power (cont.)
  • After the Battle of Chaeronea, Philip changes his
    strategy and treats Athens with great respect,
    releasing Athenian prisoners of war.
  • The Corinthian League is formed, led by King
    Philip, with the intent of attacking the Persians.

Murder of Philip
  • Philip married again, for a fifth time, a
    Macedonian woman.
  • His son Alexander was legitimate, but half Greek.
  • .

Alexander Defeats Persia
  • Alexanders Early Life
  • Tutored by Aristotle
  • Inspired by the Iliad
  • Military training
  • Becomes king when 20 years old
  • Destroys Thebes to curb rebellion

Alexander Defeats Persia
  • Invasion of Persia
  • 334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia with a quick
    victory at Granicus River.
  • Darius III, King of Persia, assembles an army of
    50,000-75,000 men.
  • Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of
    Persia to flee.

Alexanders Other Conquests
  • Alexander in India
  • Alexander fights his way across the deserts of
    Central Asia to India
  • Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C.
  • Reluctantly returns to Babylon and dies in 323

Alexanders Legacy
  • Alexander melds Greek and Persian cultures.
    (Hellenistic Age)
  • He takes a Persian wife.
  • Empire becomes three kingdoms
  • Macedonia, Greek city-states
  • Egypt
  • Old Persia, also known as the Seleucid kingdom

The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
  • Chapter 5, Section 5

Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
  • Cultural Blending
  • Result of Alexanders Policiesa new vibrant
  • Hellenistic cultureGreek blended with Egyptian,
    Persian, Indian culture
  • Trade and Cultural Diversity
  • AlexandriaEgyptian city become the center of
    Hellenistic civilization

Science and Technology
  • Alexandrias Scholars
  • Scholars preserve Greek and Egyptian learning in
    the sciences
  • Astronomy
  • Astronomer Aristarchus proves sun is larger than
  • Proposes planets revolve around sun not accepted
    for 14 centuries
  • Eratosthenes uses geometry to calculate Earths

Science and Technology
  • Mathematics and Physics
  • Euclidmathematician his work Elements is the
    basis for courses in geometry.
  • Archimedesscientist and mathematician
  • He accurately estimated the value of pi (p).
  • He explained the law of the lever.
  • He invented the Archimedes screwa pump which
    raised water from one level to another.
  • He invented the compound pulley for lifting
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