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Ch. 5 Ancient Egypt and Kush 5000 BC

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Title: Ch. 5 Ancient Egypt and Kush 5000 BC


1
Ch. 5 Ancient Egypt and Kush5000 BC AD 350
  • While the empires are rising and falling in
    Mesopotamia, two other civilizations developed
    along the Nile river in northeastern Africa.
  • Egypt
  • Kush
  • P.99 Map
  • Draw this map under your title
  • Include major landforms from Mesopotamia, Egypt,
    and Kush

2
5.1 The Nile River Valley
  • EQ How does geography influence the way people
    live?
  • With an astounding length of 4,145 miles, the
    Nile River is the longest river in the world, and
    the only major river that flows south to north.
  • The Nile River is often called the lifeblood or
    The Gift of Egypt.

3
Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Ancient Egypt includes two regions, upper
    (southern) and lower (Northern) Egypt

4
Blue and White Nile
  • At its source, The Nile is 2 separate rivers the
    Blue Nile flows out of the mountains and meets
    with the White Nile.

5
Cataracts
  • Along the Nile there are locations called
    cataracts. Steep cliffs and large boulders form
    these dangerous, fast-moving waters. The
    cataracts prevented invasions from the South
    along the Nile River. The rushing and swirling
    water was too difficult to travel along.
  • The Nile River is divided into parts based on
    each cataract ( 1st cataract, 2nd cataract, 3rd
    cataract, and 4th cataract

6
Geography of Egypt
  • Harsh deserts surrounded the Nile river. The
    Sahara and Western and Eastern deserts acted as a
    natural barrier against invasions.
  • The Nile River flooded each year to create a long
    narrow corridor about 12 miles wide of very
    fertile soil.
  • Every year in the Summer the River Nile rose and
    all the land along its banks was covered with
    water for three months. When the water eventually
    went down everywhere it had been was covered with
    a thick layer of black mud.
  • The Ancient Egyptians farmed this very fertile
    strip of mud-covered land, which they called
    Kemmet, translated into English as Black Land.
    Beyond the Black Land was the Red Land which was
    not flooded every year, so nothing could grow in
    it this was where the people built their houses.
  • The Black Land was so called because of its
    color. Similarly for the Red Land the Egyptian
    word we translate as Red Land is Desert - one of
    the very few words of Ancient Egyptian which has
    passed into other languages.
  • To Sum up
  • When the land was covered in silt ,it looked
    black. They called this the black land or
    Kemmet.
  • The dry area or desert area looked red so they
    called it the red land.
  • http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/geography/home.html

7
Delta
  • Before the Nile reaches the Mediterranean Sea, it
    splits into many branches. These waterways form a
    fan-shaped area of fertile land called a delta.

8
Flood season
  • The Inundation was the time from June to
    September. This was the time of the flood. During
    this time, Egyptians were paid to work for the
    Pharaoh on building projects.

9
Flood season
  • The Emergence of the land from the water
    covering was from October to February. During
    this time, Egyptians planted and captured as much
    water as possible in irrigation ditches.
  • The last of the three seasons was the drought
    season. During the drought, the harvest took
    place.

10
A protected land
  • To the west and east of the Nile were large
    desert area not suitable for humans or animals
  • Far south , the Niles dangerous cataracts
    prevented enemy ships from attacking
  • In the north delta marshes stopped ins who sailed
    from the Mediterranean Sea.
  • These physical features gave the Egyptians
    advantages that Mesopotamians lacked.
  • Assignment Lesson 1 The Nile River Worksheet
  • Due Wednesday, Oct. 1

11
Papyrus
  • Papyrus was one of the most versatile plants
    growing along the Nile. The plant was used to
    make paper, sandals, boats, ropes, and even
    paintbrushes.

12
Hieroglyphics
  • The Egyptians came up with a writing system
    called hieroglyphics. It was a combination of
    pictures and sound symbols.
  • The ancient Egyptians called their script mdju
    netjer, or "words of the gods.
  • Hieroglyphs were the earliest form of Egyptian
    script, and also the longest-lived. It is the
    most familiar to the modern observer, when
    staring in awe at the columned halls at Karnak,
    the beautiful tomb paintings in the Valley of the
    Kings and Queens, and on sarcophagi and coffins.
  • Scribes wrote on papyrus.
  • Horrible Histories Hieroglyphics video

13
Everyday Egyptian Life
  • The Ancient Egyptians grew cereals such as wheat
    and barley and many sorts of trees and other
    plants, and kept cattle, sheep, goats, ducks,
    geese and pigs.
  • They also kept bees, fished in the River Nile and
    hunted the wild animals living in the delta and
    desert.
  • The only trees and plants they needed but could
    not grow along the River Nile were those which
    produced spices and incense. Spices were used for
    flavoring their food and many other purposes, and
    incense was used in the Temples. These had to be
    imported from other countries.
  • Much if not most of what we know about Ancient
    Egyptian farming, food and drink comes from
    wall-paintings and models in tombs, many of which
    show everyday people doing everyday things like
    fishing, hunting, and drinking.

14
Hunters, Fishers, and Farmers
  • Bread The Ancient Egyptians, both rich and poor,
    ate so much bread that the people who lived in
    the lands around Egypt called them bread
    eaters.
  • The bread was usually made from emmer wheat,
    although they also grew and used two other types
    of wheat, einkorn and spelt. Bread is made from
    flour, obtained by grinding the wheat to a fine
    powder. The Egyptians did not have windmills or
    watermills to do this, so the grinding was done
    by hand, using special grinding stones called
    querns, and the way it was done allowed some of
    the stone worn away from the querns to become
    mixed with the flour. This meant that the bread
    was very gritty and chewing it gradually wore
    away your teeth, so many older Egyptians had very
    poor teeth and lots of dental problems.
  • Pharaoh himself controlled the production of
    wheat and barley. In years when the harvest was
    very good the surplus grain was stored in huge
    mud-brick containers called granaries, and then
    in years when the harvest was poor the stored
    grain was distributed to prevent the people from
    starving. This is why cats were so important in
    Ancient Egypt they were needed to control the
    rats and mice who would otherwise eat the grain
    in the granaries.
  • Meat Rich people ate mainly beef, with some sheep
    and goat. They would not usually eat pig if other
    meat was available. They also hunted and ate many
    of the wild animals that lived in the delta and
    Red Land (desert), including deer and antelope.
    The poor people ate less beef and more goat and
    sheep and they also kept and ate pigs. People
    working on building projects were provided with
    food and beer, and those working on Royal
    projects, for example the pyramids or the tombs
    in the Valley of the Kings, seem to have had a
    meat allowance containing a much higher
    proportion of beef than other workers.
  • Poultry There were no chickens or turkeys in
    Ancient Egypt, but the Egyptians kept geese and
    ducks and these were eaten by both rich and poor.
    They also hunted and ate wild ducks and geese and
    many other birds such as quails and cranes. The
    only birds they did not eat were those they
    considered sacred, such as the ibis.

15
Hunters, Fishers, and Farmers
  • Fish There were many different sorts of fish in
    the River Nile, but rich people did not eat a lot
    of fish (except salted fish) if meat was
    available. Poor people ate more fish, and they
    also preserved it by drying it in the sun or
    salting it. Salted fish was a great delicacy with
    both rich and poor, and was also one of Ancient
    Egypt's main exports. They ate most sorts of fish
    except one species, which was sacred because it
    was associated with the god Osiris.
  • Vegetables grew peas and beans, lentils, onions,
    garlic, radishes, turnips, peppers, leeks,
    lettuces and cucumbers, and also many herbs such
    as aniseed, fennel, mustard, thyme, coriander,
    cumin and dill. They could not grow spices as
    most spices need much hotter conditions.
  • Fruit grew grapes, figs, water melons, dates,
    pomegranates, pumpkins, plums and many other
    fruits, and also walnuts and almonds and other
    nuts. Grapes could be eaten as they were, made
    into wine or sun-dried to make raisins, and
    dates, figs and plums could also be eaten fresh
    or dried in the sun. Poor people also used dates
    and other fruits to sweeten their food - we now
    think that the hieroglyph for date could also
    mean any sort of sweetener except honey. Rich
    people sweetened their food with honey but this
    was very expensive.
  • Eggs There were no chickens as we know them in
    Ancient Egypt, but the Ancient Egyptians kept
    ducks and geese and ate their eggs - we know this
    because there are wall-paintings showing baskets
    of eggs. But we do not know much about how they
    cooked them because we have not found very many
    recipes containing eggs.

16
  • Butter and cheese milked cows, goats and sheep.
    They drank some of the milk and turned some of it
    into butter and cheese.
  • Honey kept bees for honey and beeswax and also
    collected wild honey. Sugar, like the potato, was
    unknown in Egypt and the Near East and Europe
    until the discovery of the Americas, so rich
    people used honey to sweeten their food and to
    make cakes and puddings. Honey keeps almost for
    ever and provided the jars have not been broken
    honey put into tombs is still eatable more than
    three thousand years later. However honey is also
    a very good preservative and the Ancient
    Egyptians used it for preserving small pets etc
    as a less expensive alternative to mummification.
    So if you happen to come across a jar of Ancient
    Egyptian honey it is always advisable to check
    what else is in the jar before you start to eat
    it!
  • Fats and oils in food and cooking, for skin care
    and in perfumes and cosmetics, in medicines, and
    to burn in lamps to provide light at night and
    inside the temples and tombs. Solid fats were
    usually animal fat or butter liquid vegetable
    oils were obtained from the seeds of plants such
    as castor, sesame and flax. Olive trees did not
    grow in Ancient Egypt although an attempt was
    made to introduce them during the 18th Dynasty,
    about the time of Tutankhamen. Fragrances can be
    captured in waxes and fats, which is why candles
    and soaps can be scented. In wall paintings
    Egyptian ladies are shown with wax cones on their
    wigs and it is thought that these were scented
    and that the wax would melt and run down over the
    wig releasing the fragrance.

17
  • Salt
  • Salt is not a food but we cannot live without it
    if we were to go completely without any salt at
    all for more than three or four days we would die
    (in considerable pain). Also, most foods taste
    horrible if cooked without any salt whatever. But
    too much salt is bad for you, particularly for
    very young and very old people and people who are
    very fat or have heart disease.
  • Today most take-away and prepared foods
    (beefburgers and fries etc, pizzas and hot-dogs,
    pre-cooked foods and foods in packets, jars, tins
    etc ) contain so much added salt that many people
    living in towns in Europe and North America are
    taking in far too much salt.
  • But in Ancient Egypt, mediaeval Europe and even
    many poor countries today, it was far from easy
    for most people to obtain enough salt. We lose
    salt when we sweat, and the Ancient Egyptians
    workers, laboring out of doors all day under the
    hot Egyptian Sun, would have needed much more
    salt than we do. Most workers (not only in Egypt
    but also in many other countries) received a
    daily salt allowance as a part of their wages.
    (Hence of course the expression not worth his
    salt for a worker who is not pulling his
    weight.)
  • If you lived near the sea you could make salt by
    collecting sea water in shallow pots and then
    leaving the pots in the Sun so the water
    evaporated leaving the salt behind, but if you
    lived a long way from the sea you needed to
    obtain your salt from a salt mine, and sometimes
    the nearest salt mine might be hundreds of
    kilometres away.
  • Most of Egypt's salt had to be brought from a
    place called Siwa, involving a journey of more
    than two hundred kilometres across the Western
    (Sahara) Desert. Not only in Ancient Egypt but
    throughout the whole of the ancient and mediaeval
    world the people who controlled the salt mines
    and the merchants who transported and sold the
    salt were often very rich and powerful.

18
Pharaoh Food
  • Egyptian people ate fish from the river, but the
    Pharaoh never ate fish because it was considered
    unclean and bad luck from the Nile waters.
  • There were many types of food a pharaoh could
    eat. Some of them are onion, sycamore fig,
    coconuts, grapes, beef, olives, dates, milk,
    apple, pomegranates, leek, honey, beer, duck,
    meat, fish and bread.
  • Most Egyptians were farmers. They lived in
    mud-brick one story houses on small rented plots
    of land.

19
Advances in farming
  • Canals were dug from the Nile to the farms for
    irrigation.
  • Egyptians also used a shadoof (bucket attached to
    a long pole) to get water from the river.
  • Draw a diagram of the shaddof, how the shadoof
    works and label its parts

20
Uniting Egypt
  • At first Upper and Lower Egypt were not united.
  • Upper Egypt was symbolized by a white cone-shaped
    crown.
  • Lower Egypt was symbolized by a red crown.
  • Around 3100BC, Narmer (Menes) from Upper Egypt
    conquered Lower Egypt and married one of their
    princesses, uniting both kingdoms.

21
Pharaoh comes from the words that mean great
house
  • Menes is the first ruler of Ancient Egypt to
    leave a written record.
  • The people of ancient Egypt believed their kings
    were also gods.
  • Modern people refer to ancient Egyptian rulers as
    pharaohs, but pharaoh originally referred to the
    palace where the king lived.
  • Pharaoh was not used as a title for the Egyptian
    ruler until the later part of ancient Egyptian
    history, but today we use the term to describe
    all of the rulers of ancient Egypt.
  • They were believed to be descended from the sun
    god Re and held absolute power

22
Fact and Fiction
  • Menes wore a double crown of red and white that
    symbolized the unification of Upper Egypt and
    Lower Egypt.
  • The Egyptians believed the crown had magic
    powers it was the single item an Egyptian ruler
    could not take with him to the afterlife.
  • A historian named Manetho reported that Menes
    ruled Egypt for 62 years and was killed by a
    hippopotamus.
  • We cannot be certain of Manethos account because
    he lived almost 2,000 years after Menes.

23
Dynasties
  • Menes is considered Egypts first Pharaoh.
  • He also created the first dynasty (line of rulers
    from the same family) in Egypt.
  • He also built a new capital city that was later
    called Memphis.
  • Ancient Egyptian History is divided into time
    periods known as the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom,
    and New Kingdom.
  • Within these time periods, from 3100 BC to 332
    BC, a series of 32 dynasties ruled Egypt.

24
To sum up3 2 - 1
  • Write What are 3 ways geography influenced the
    way Egyptians lived?
  • Tell your shoulder partner 2 of those things your
    learned today.
  • Raise your hand What is 1 thing you didnt
    understand from todays lesson?

25
History Mystery
Monday, September 29, 2014 You are a time
traveler. Frustrated, you shove your hands in
your pocket where you find a crumpled piece of
paper. It looks like a map. The map is similar
to the one on p. 101. You realize you might be in
the city of Thebes in Ancient Egypt. You inquire
with a man that is walking in the city as to
where you are. He replies, in upper Egypt, dah!
As you walk down the street taking in the
beauty that is surrounding you, you realize with
sudden alarm that something isnt right. The
river seems to be flowing backwards. You check
your compass rose and realize that the Nile River
is indeed flowing backwards. Solve this
mystery. How can the Nile River be flowing
backwards? Explain with details.
Assignment Lesson 1 The Nile River Worksheet
Due Wednesday, Oct. 1
26
History Mystery
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