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Public Relations (1)


Public Relations (1) History Definitions Understandings Global Contexts Programme Presentation Practical and didactical remarks Learning objectives Profile ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Public Relations (1)

Public Relations (1)
  • History
  • Definitions
  • Understandings
  • Global Contexts

  • Presentation
  • Practical and didactical remarks
  • Learning objectives
  • Profile International Market Communication and
    Public Relations
  • Course Public Relations
  • History of Public Relations
  • Definitions of Public Relations
  • Understandings of Public Relations
  • Publics in Public Relations
  • Public Relations in a Global Context
  • Summing up

Some practical remarks
  • PowerPoint slides on CampusNet Sunday before
  • Reference list (literature) on CampusNet after
  • Hard copies in C100 or in lecture

Some didactical remarks
  • No 100 match between readings and lectures
  • PowerPoint slides in English
  • Lectures in English
  • unless complete audience understands Danish

Learning objectives
  • After this lecture
  • You
  • should be able to
  • Place the course in the study programme
  • Know the requirements for the course
  • Know definitions of PR
  • Know Grunig Hunts four models and the criticism
    of them
  • Be able to identify PR approaches and types of
  • Know global/intercultural implications of PR

MA in International Business Communication
Profile International Market Communication and
Public Relations
Course description
  • The aim of the course is to enable you to
    produce public relations material in an
    international context on the basic of the
    relevant theories and methods.

Course Description CampusNet
Course description
  • Knowledge about
  • the planning and managing of international public
  • corporate social responsibility and ethics (CSR)
  • crisis communication
  • national identity and tourism communication
  • corporate websites and newsletters
  • Proficiency in
  • analysing a communication situation, using a
    selection of the relevant theoretical constructs
  • applying the analytical results in the production
    of appropriate and targeted public relations
    material in defined international contexts and

Course Description CampusNet
Course description
  • Public Relations will be taught as a combination
    of lectures in English and classes in the chosen
    languages where student initiative and activity
    will be prioritised.

Course Description CampusNet
Course description
  • Written home assignment with oral defence
  • Production of PR material report
  • Text(s)/ genre(s), case/ corporation/organization
    of own choice
  • In the foreign language
  • 22,000 characters (10 pages of 2,200 characters
  • Examination date/ deadline to be set and to be
    announced by the Study Administration
  • 7-point scale
  • External Examiner

History of public relations
  • Historical preconditions emergence of a public
    (18th century) and emergence of a society with
    organisations (Habermas 1962)
  • The term public relations shows up in the
    beginning of the 20th century in the USA
  • Edward The Father of Spin Bernays
  • Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923)

Definitions of PR common language
  • A clever way to get publicity
  • At lave PR for noget/ At lave PR for nogen
  • If a young man gets to know a girl and tells her
    what great guy he is, thats bragging
  • If he tells her how adoring she looks, thats
  • But if the girls chooses him because she heard
    from others that he is a great guy, thats public

Definitions of PR diversity
  • Estimates up to 2,000 definitions of PR
  • Wide-ranging definition combined of 472
  • Public relations is a management discipline
    which analyses, adapts and develops all mutual
    societal relations between an organization and
    its internal and external stakeholders through
    goal oriented communication

(Griswold/Griswold 1948 4 Scharf 1971 166)
(Harlow 1988 9)
(Blach/Højberg 1989 20 translation MN)
Definitions of PR PR organizations
  • Public relations helps our complex, pluralistic
    society to reach decisions and function more
    effectively by contributing to mutual
    understanding among groups and institutions. It
    serves to bring private and public policies into

( gt Official Statement on Public
Definitions of PR PR organizations
  • Public relations is about reputation - the
    result of what you do, what you say and what
    others say about you.
  • Public relations is the discipline which looks
    after reputation, with the aim of earning
    understanding and support and influencing opinion
    and behaviour. It is the planned and sustained
    effort to establish and maintain goodwill and
    mutual understanding between an organisation and
    its publics.

( gt Looking for PR gt What is PR?)
Definitions of PR scientific
  • The management of communication between an
    organization and its publics
  • Basic elements in PR definitions
  • Goal oriented /systematic
  • Through communication
  • Understanding/ trust/ sympathy
  • relations corporation (organizations)
    stakeholders (publics)

(Grunig Hunt 1984 6)
Basic understandings of PR
  • Symmetrical understanding
  • PR communication dialogue
  • Purpose
  • mutual understanding
  • Representative
  • Grunig, James/ Hunt, Todd (1984)
  • Managing Public Relations
  • Asymmetrical understanding
  • PR communication persuasion
  • Purpose
  • persuasion
  • Representative
  • Toth, Elizabeth/Heath, Robert (eds.) (1992)
  • Rhetorical and Critical Approaches to Public

Grunig Hunts 1984 four models
  • Press Agentry/Publicity
  • attention at almost any price, truthfulness
  • Public information
  • precise, true, but usually beneficial information
    about the organization
  • Two-Way Asymmetric
  • Scientific research to find out how public can be
    convinced/persuaded to act according to
    organizations interest
  • Two-Way Symmetric
  • Research and dialogue to create symbiotic change
    in ideas, attitudes and behaviour with both,
    organization and public

Before (cynical)
Now (ethical)
Criticism and development/ evolution of Grunig
Hunt 1984
  • Criticism
  • Utopian/unrealistic/ idealistic to assume
    symmetry between PR parties
  • Two-Way Symmetric is kneeling for interests of
    the public and unconditional giving up of own
  • In reality a combination of more of Grunig/Hunts
    models is used
  • Defence
  • Persuasion etc. and instrumentality is still a
    part of Two-Way Symmetric
  • Misunderstanding it is a mutual
    adaptation/accept and a balancing process
  • agrees

Grunig 2001
Criticism and development/ evolution of Grunig
Hunt 1984
  • Criticism
  • Corporations have greater power than their
    publics and therefore do not have to do
    symmetric PR
  • Perspective normative theory to be used by
    corporations (vs. to be used by publics)
  • Defence
  • Not quite true publics are not entirely without
    influence (organized, litigations, use of media)
  • Development normative theory (5 item action
    plan) to be used by publics
  • Self-criticism Symmetry rather a process than
    a state of affairs or a result

Grunig 2001
The symmetric notion in a nutshell
  • the public should be just as likely to
    persuade the organizations management to change
    attitudes or behavior as the organization is
    likely to change the publics attitudes or
  • communicators must listen as well as argue.
    This does not mean, however, that they do not
    argue or attempt to persuade. Rather, they must
    consistently remind themselves and management
    that they might not be right and, indeed, that
    their organization might be better off if they
    listen to others.

(Grunig Hunt 1984 23)
(Grunig 2001 28)
Stakeholder approach Media relation
Norm and moral stakeholders
Local population
NGOs, grass roots movements
Close economic stakeholders
Law and power stakeholders
Owners, shareholders
Local authorities
European Union
Cooperation partners
Based on Kjær Hansen 2004 82
Publics in Public Relations
  • All-issue publics
  • Apathetic publics
  • Single-issue publics
  • Hot-issue publics
  • Aware public
  • (high knowledge low involvement)
  • Active publics
  • (high knowledge high involvement)
  • Aroused publics
  • (low knowledge high involvement)
  • Inactive publics
  • (low knowledge low involvement)
  • Non-publics
  • (no knowledge no involvement)

(Grunig 1983)
(Hallahan 2000)
Global Public Relations
  • Globalization
  • Liberalization
  • Westernization
  • Universalization
  • Intercultural
  • Cross-cultural
  • NB cultural closeness
  • Close
  • Semi-close/ semi-distant
  • Distant

Fuzzy notions Quasi-synonyms
(Scholte 2000 44ff.)
(Gudykunst Mody 2002, Nielsen 2004)
(Kuada 1996)
Global Public Relations
  • Intercultural/ Cross-cultural dimensions of PR
    only insufficiently studied
  • Necessity to do empirical research on global/
    intercultural/ cross-cultural PR

(Sriramesh Vercic 2003)
Global Public Relations environmental variables
  • Political ideology
  • Economic system
  • Degree of activism
  • Culture
  • Media system
  • Infrastructure
  • Political System
  • Level of Economic Development
  • Activism
  • Legal System
  • Media environment
  • Determinants
  • Dimensions
  • Corporate Culture
  • Societal culture
  • Images of Nations
  • Media Control
  • Media Outreach
  • Media Access

(Vercic et al. 1996)
(Sriramesh Vercic 2003)
Summing up
  • PR has gone from propaganda to two-way symmetric
  • PR definitions comprise goal orientation,
    (mutual) understanding, communication basing,
    relations between organizations and publics
  • A central distinction is symmetric vs. asymmetric
  • Publics may be categorized in different ways,
    giving the PR practitioner the possibility to
    characterize his/her target groups in some detail
  • International PR has not yet been studied
    profoundly, but awareness is recommended when
    using Western/ Anglo-American models on any
    countrys PR
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