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Developmental Psychology


Title: Developmental Psychology Author: Chicago Public Schools Last modified by: Chicago Public Schools Created Date: 12/10/2012 1:44:06 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology
  • Unit 9

Prenatal Development and the Newborn
  • Conception
  • Only takes one sperm to penetrate the eggs outer
    coating and fuse together to form a cell (baby)
  • Zygote conception to 2 weeks
  • Embryo 2 weeks to 8 weeks
  • Fetus 9 weeks to birth

Prenatal development
  • Cell division produces a zygote
  • Fewer than half of all fertilized egss survive
    beyond the first 2 weeks
  • After the zygote attaches to the mothers uterine
    wall (embryo)
  • Over the next 6 weeks organs began to form and

Prenatal development
  • By 9 weeks looks human (fetus)
  • Fetus becomes responsive to sound
  • Mothers voice over any others after birth

Prenatal development
  • Placenta-transfer nutrients and oxygen from
    mother to fetus and screens harmful substances
  • Teratogens harmful agents such as viruses and
  • No safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome physical and cognitive

The newborn
  • Born with coordinated sequence of reflexes
  • Touches cheekgtbabies turngtopen mouthgt
  • Reflexive tonguing, swallowing, sucking, and
  • Habituation overtime decreasing responsiveness
    with repeated stimulation

The Newborn
  • We prefer familiar sights and sounds that
    facilitate social responsiveness
  • We prefer objects 8 to 12 inches away (happens to
    be distance from nursing baby eyes to mothers

Infancy and Childhood
  • Physical Development
  • On the day your were born you had the most brain
    cells you will ever have
  • Neural networks grow more complex as you mature
  • Maturation growth enable changes in behavior
    uninfluenced by experience

Infancy and Childhood
  • Motor development
  • Physical coordination
  • Rolling overgtcrawlinggtwalking (illustrating a
    maturing nervous system)
  • Genes play a role
  • Cerebellum (readiness to walk/balance)

Infancy and Childhood
  • Maturation and infant memory
  • Infantile amnesia
  • Average age of earliest conscious memory is 3.5
  • Memory still processes information before that
  • Conscious mind not know or express in words, the
    nervous systems somehow remembers
  • Sweating example of remembering pre-schoolers

Cognitive Development
  • Mental activities associate with thinking,
    knowing, remembering, and communicating
  • Piagets studies proved that children minds
    develop in stages
  • Piaget make sense of our experiences

Cognitive Development
  • Maturing brain builds schemas, concepts or mental
    molds to our experiences
  • First we assimilate new experiences (interpret)
    and later accommodate (adjust) our original
  • Spurts of change to greater cognitive stability

Piagets theory and current thinking
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • From birth to 2
  • Take in the world through their sense and
    actions-through looking, hearing, touching,
    mouthing, and grasping
  • Object permanence (young infants lack up until
    around 8 months)

Piaget stages
  • Preoperational Stage
  • Until about age 6 or 7
  • Too young to perform mental operations
  • Concept of conservation-that quantity remains the
    same despite changes in shape
  • Egocentrism difficulty perceiving things from
    anothers point of view

Piaget theory of mind
  • Begin to tease, empathize, and persuade
  • Ability to take anothers perspective develops
  • Children with autism have difficulty
    understanding other states of mind, reflecting on
    their own mental states, and less likely to use
    personal pronouns
  • Gradually develop

Concrete Operational Stage
  • Around 6 or 7 till 12
  • Comprehend mathematical transformations and

Formal Operational Stage
  • By age 12
  • Concrete reasoning to encompass abstract thinking
  • Children begin to approach hypothetical
    propositions and deducing consequences

Reflecting on Piagets Theory
  • Identified significant cognitive milestones
  • Studies around the globe have confirmed that
    human cognition unfolds as Piaget predicated
  • Today researchers see development as more
    continuous that Piaget did

Lev Vygotsky
  • Emphasis on how the mind grows through
    interaction with the social environment
  • Language provides the building blocks for
  • Zone of proximal development-what they could
    learn with and without help
  • Interacting with others

Implications for parents and teachers
  • Positive feedback vs. negative feedback
  • Better to build on what they already known
    engaging them in concrete demonstrations and
    stimulating them to think for themselves
  • Childrens cognitive immaturity is adaptive

Social Development
  • Developing an intense bond with caregivers
  • Stranger Anxiety- By 8 months some infants show a
    fear of STRANGERS
  • Separation Anxiety- crying or otherwise showing
    distress if their mothers leave them (even if
    only for a few moments)

Origins of Attachment
  • Attachment-a powerful survival impulse that keeps
    infants close to their caregivers
  • Infants become attached to those who satified
    their need for nourishment

Origins of Attachment-Body contact
  • Harlow experiment
  • Monkey overwhelmingly preferred the comfy cloth
    mother as opposed to the wire mother who provided
  • Cling to mother (comfy) when anxious
  • Rocking, warmth, and feed made the cloth mother
    even more appealing

Origins of Attachment-Familiarity
  • Form during a critical period-an optimal period
    when certain events must take place to facilitate
    proper development
  • Children become attached during a sensitive
  • Mere exposure to people and things fosters

Origins of Attachment
  • Imprinting-certain animals attached during a
    critical time
  • Goslings, dockings, chicks hours after hatching
  • Konrad Lorenz experiment

Attachment differences Temperament and Parenting
  • Placed in a strange situation the majority of
    infants (60) displayed secure attachment
  • Play comfortably in their mothers presence, when
    she leaves they are distressed, and when se
    returns they seek contact
  • Insecure attachment cling to mom (wont
    explore), upset or indifference toward mother
    leaving and returning (about how they react when
    parents return)

Attachment differences
  • Sensitive mothers and fathers tend to have
    securely attached infants
  • One aspect of personality is temperament
    (reactive, intense, fidgety, easygoing, quiet,
    irritable, unpredictable, cheerful, relaxed)
  • Heredity predisposes temperament differences

Secure vs. Unsecure
  • Secure Mothers who are affectionate and RELIABLE
    gtsecurely attached child
  • Secure children are happier, friendlier, and
    more cooperative. They are also less likely to
    MISBEHAVE and tend to do better in school
  • Insecure Unresponsive or unreliable caregiver
    gtinsecure child

Attachment differences
  • Erik Erikson Securely attached children approach
    life with a sense of basic trusts (early
  • Our early attachment forms the foundation for
    affection and intimacy later in life
  • Affect future relationships with your own
  • Affect motivation

Deprivation of Attachment
  • Harlow monkey cowered in fright or lashed out in
    aggression placed in rooms with other monkeys,
    incapable of mating
  • Most children growing up under adversity are
    resilient and become normal adults
  • However, others dont bounce back so readily
  • Extreme trauma leave footprints on the brain
  • Slow serotonin response in abused children

Disruption of Attachment
  • Courts are reluctant to remove children from
    their homes
  • If placed in a more positive and stable
    environment, most infants recover from separation
  • A series of foster families can be very
  • Deep and longstanding attachments seldom break

Does Daycare affect attachment?
  • New research confirms quality day-care matters
  • Socio-economic status readily determines quality
    of day-care
  • Children ability to thrive under varied types of
    responsive caregivers
  • Consistent/warm relationships, can form trusting

Child abuse and neglect
  • Most parents are kind and LOVING
  • Neglect failure to give a child adequate food,
    shelter, emotional support, or schooling
  • more problems result from neglect than from abuse
  • 3 million children in the US are neglected

Child abuse and neglect
  • Stress, especially unemployment
  • History of ABUSE
  • Acceptance of violence as a way of coping
  • Lack of ATTACHMENT to child
  • Substance abuse
  • Rigid attitudes about child REARING
  • Children often imitate their parents behavior,
    but it is possible to break the CYCLE

  • By the end of childhood about age 12 most
    children have developed a self-concept-understandi
    ng of who they are
  • Mirror images fascinate infants around 6 months
  • About 18 months the child recognizes oneself in
    the mirror

  • By school age, children began to describe
    themselves in terms (gender, traits, comparison)
  • By age 8 or 10, their self-image is quite stable
  • Children who form positive self-concept are more
    confident, independent, optimistic, assertive,
    and sociable

  • Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect
  • Permissive parents submit to their childrens
  • Authoritative both demanding and responsive
  • Children with the highest self-esteem,
    self-reliance, and social comptence-____________

Culture and Child-Rearing
  • Western culture-independence
  • Many Asian and African cultures value emotional
    closeness and encourage a strong sense of family
  • All in all children across place and time have
    thrived under various child-rearing systems

Parents and Early Experiences
  • Experience and brain development
  • Enriched brains are more complex not necessarily
  • Rosenweig and Krech rat study
  • Impoverished vs. enriched activities, weight
  • Exposer to language before adolescences
  • Genie never mastered a language

How much credit or (blame) do parents deserve?
  • Countless genetic influences beyond their control
  • Parents feel enormous satisfaction and guilt over
    their childs successes or failures
  • Freud blamed bad mothers
  • Power of parenting-abusive, neglect, political
    attitudes, religious beliefs, manners

Peer Influence
  • We seek to fit in with groups and are subject to
    their influences
  • Children will adopt the language accent of their
    peers not their parents
  • Parents influenced the culture that shapes peer
    group (neighborhood, schools)

Gender Development
  • The biological and social characteristics by
    which people DEFINE as male or female
  • Gender Similarities among 46 chromosomes 45 are
  • More alike than different!!!

Overall Gender Differences
  • Age of puberty
  • Women live 5 years longer, 70 carry more fat,
    40 less muscle, 5 inches shorter, smell fainter
    odors, express emotions more freely, offered help
    more often, vulnerable to depression and anxiety,
    10 times more likely to develop an eating
  • Men 4 times more likely to commit suicide or
    suffer alcohol dependence, far more diagnosed
    with autism, color-blindness, adhd, antisocial
    personality disorder

Gender and Aggression
  • Men tend to behave more aggressively
  • Gender gap regarding physical aggression
  • Throughout the world
  • Hunting, fighting, (men receive more support to
    go to war)

Gender and Social Power
  • In most societies men are more socially dominant
  • Leadership tends to go to males
  • As leaders men are more autocratic, women tend to
    be more democratic
  • Everyday behavior men are more likely to talking
    assertively, interrupting, initiating touches,
    staring more, and smiling less
  • Such behaviors are sustain due to social power
    inequities pay, political power

Gender and Social Connectedness
  • Surface early in childrens play
  • Girls play in smaller groups, less competitive,
    more imitative, more open and responsive to
  • Boys play in large groups with an activity focus
    and little intimate discussion

Gender and Social Connectedness
  • Females are more interdependent spend more time
    with friends, conversation
  • Men-activities side by side and use conversation
    to communicate solutions
  • Bonds are stronger between females

Gender Differences
  • Gender differences in power, connectedness, and
    other traits peak in late adolescence
  • As teenage girls become less assertive and more
    flirtatious boys become more domineering and
  • By 50, men become more empathic and less
    domineering, women become more assertive and
    self-confident (especially if working)

The nature of Gender
  • Different sex chromosomes and differing
    concentrations of sex hormones
  • Seven weeks determines sex father decides the
  • 4th-5th month sex hormones bathe the fetal brain
    and influence the wiring
  • Women have thicker frontal lobes in the area
    involved in verbal fluency
  • Part of the parietal cortex (space perception) is
    thicker than males
  • Hippocampus, amygala differences

The nature of Gender
  • Hormonal malfunctions (will inject)
  • Genetically female infants are born
  • Hormones wont reverse their gender identity
  • Exhibit tomboyish behavior
  • The effect of early exposure to sex hormones is
    direct (appearance) and indirect influence of
    social experiments)

The nurture of Gender
  • Gender roles
  • Our expectations about the way men and women
    SHOULD behave
  • Can smooth social relations, saving awkward
    decisions, but if we deviate from conventions we
    may feel anxious
  • Employed men spend less time at home (employed
    women spend more)
  • Stayed home with sick child?__________,
  • ________________countries offer the greatest
    gender equity. ___________and _________the least.

The nurture of Gender
  • Gender and Child-rearing
  • Gender identity-sense of being male or female
  • Gender typed-exhibit masculine or feminine traits
  • Social learning theory children learn
    gender-like behaviors by observing and imitating
    and by being rewarded or punished
  • Cognition gender schemas (shape experiences
    based on observation)

  • The years spend morphing from child to adult
    starts at the beginning of sexual maturity and
    ends with achievement of independent adult status
  • G. Stanley Hall A period of storm and stress
  • Negative?
  • Positive?

Physical Development
  • Puberty-mature sexually
  • Beginning for girls around 11 and boys 13
  • Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop
  • Timing for boys early maturation being
    stronger, athletic, gtpopular, self-assured,
  • For girls early maturation may suffer from
    teasing and sexual harrassment

Physical Development
  • As teens mature the frontal lobe continues to
  • Bring improved judgment, impulse control, plan
    for long term
  • However, hormonal surge and un-developed frontal
    lobe explains impulsive, risky teen behaviors
  • Teens are guilty by reason of adolescence
  • Juvenile death penalties unconstitutional

Cognitive Development
  • Developing reasoning power
  • The ability to reason hypothetically and deduce
    consequences also enables them to detect
    inconsistencies in others reasoning and to spot

Developing Morality
  • Discerning right from wrong and developing
  • Kohlberg moral stages of development
  • Preconvetional before age 9 children morality on
  • Conventional by early adolescence, focuses on
    caring for others and uphold laws and rules
  • Postconventional Actions judged as right
    because they flow from people's rights (or from

Moral Feeling
  • Make moral judgments quickly
  • Feel disgust when seeing people engaged in
    degrading acts or feel elated when seeing people
    to what is right
  • Quick-gut feelings
  • Humans are hard-wired for moral feelings
  • Doing the right thing!

Social Development
  • Erik Erikson stages of psychosocial development
  • Infancy (trust vs. mistrust)
  • Adolescence (identity vs. role confusion)

Forming an identity
  • Group identities often form around how we differ
    from those around us
  • Some forge their identity early, simply by
    adopting their parents values and expectations
  • Other adolescents may adopt an identity define in
    opposition to parent but in conformity with a
    peer group

Forming an identity
  • Most young people do develop a sense of
    contentment with their lives
  • A desire to accomplish something personally
  • Identity becomes personalized
  • Developing capacity for intimacy

Parent and Peer Relationships
  • Adolsecents begin to pull away from their parents
    to form their own identities
  • Arguments between parents and kids are over
  • Parent-child conflict tends to be greater with
  • Kids who are close to their parents tend to have
    close relationships with friends, healthy, and do
    good in school
  • Teens look to parents regarding religious views
    and college/career over friends

Emerging adulthood
  • Delayed independence and earlier sexual maturity
    have widened the interlude between biological
    maturity and social independence
  • 18-mid 20s dependent on parents financially and

  • Physical Development
  • Our physical abilities-muscular strength,
    reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac
    output all crest by the mid-twenties
  • Physical changes in Middle Adulthood
  • Physical vigor has less to do with age than with
    a persons health and exercise
  • Women-menopause
  • Men-gradual decline in sperm count, tester one
    level, erection and ejaculation

Physical changes in later life
  • Increasing life expectancy combines with
    decreasing birthrates make older adults and
    larger population segment
  • Women outlive women 5-6 years
  • Body ages (with age peoples chromosome tips wear
    down and aging cells may die without being
    replaced with perfect genetic replicas)
  • Why? Evolutionary theory

Physical Changes
  • Sensory abilities
  • Visual sharpness diminishes
  • Muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina
  • Stairs get steeper, print gets smaller, people
    mumble more

Physical Changes
  • Health
  • Body disease fighting immune system weakens, more
    susceptible to cancer and pneumonia not the
    common cold
  • Slows the neural processing
  • Memory and frontal lobe atrophy during aging
  • Physical exercise stimulates brain cell
    development and neural connections

Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease
  • Substantial loss of brain cells
  • A series of small stroke, a brain tumor, or
    alcohol dependence can progressively damage the
    brain causing dementia
  • Alzheimer's
  • First memory deteriorates then reasoning (
  • After 5 to 20 years the person becomes
    emotionally flat, disoriented and disinherited,
    incontinent, and mentally vacant

Cognitive Development
  • Aging and memory
  • The ability to recall new information decline
    during adulthood, but the ability to recognize
    new info did not
  • Prospective memory (remember to) declines with
  • Teens/young adults are better at time-based tasks
  • Easier to remember if information is meningful

Cognitive Development Intelligence
  • Phase 1 Cross-sectional Evidence for
    Intellectual Decline
  • In time tests fewer correct answer than younger
  • Eventually challenged this idea

Cognitive Development-Intelligence
  • Phase 2 Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual
  • Intelligence remains stable until late in life
  • Other environmental factors at play
  • Never too old to learn

Cognitive Development Intelligence
  • Phase 3 It all depends
  • Multiple intelligences need to measure several
    distinct abilities
  • Those who are around may be bright healthy people
  • Crystallized intelligence-accumulated knowledge
    increases up to old age
  • Fluid intelligence-ability to reason speedily and
    abstractly decreases slowly up to age 75
  • Mental ability strongly correlates with proximity
    to death

Social Development Ages and Stages
  • Forties-middle adulthood
  • Crisis? Not really-unhappiness, divorce, job
    dissatisfaction does not rise
  • Divorce most common in 20s, Suicide most common
  • Social clock-right time
  • Western world-still ticks but people feel freer
    to be out of sync with it
  • Chance events-romantic partner
  • Repeated exposure, similar background, class,
    attractiveness, reciprocates your affections

Social Development Adulthood Commitments
  • Love
  • Adult bonds of love are most satisfying marked by
    similarity of interests and values, sharing of
    emotional and material support, intimate
  • Stronger with couple who marry after 20
  • Why is the divorce rate high? Womens lessened
    economic dependence on men, and rising
  • Enduring bond, equal wage earner, caregiver,
    intimate friend, warm, responsive lover

Social Development Adulthood Commitments
  • Those who cohabit before marriage have had higher
    rates of divorce
  • Less committed to the ideal of enduring marriage
  • Less marriage-supporting while cohabiting
  • Marriage is a predictor of happiness, health,
    sexual satisfaction, and income
  • Marriage that last are not always devoid of
  • Five-to-one ratio of positive to negative
  • Smiling, touching, complimenting, and laughing as
    opposed to criticism, sarcasm, insults

Social Development Adulthood Commitments
  • Work
  • Difficult
  • Not directly tied to your college majors
  • Happiness is key do what makes you happy

Social Development Adulthood Commitments
  • When children begin to absorb time, money, and
    emotional energy, satisfaction
  • Empty nester syndrome sometimes can be difficult
    or launch a second honeymoon

Well-being across the life span
  • From teens to midlife, people experience a
    strengthening sense of identity, later in life
    challenges arise
  • Happiness is higher in older adults
  • Risk of depression tapers off in later life
  • Bad feelings we associate with negative events
    fade faster than do the good feeling we associate
    with positive events

Well-being across the life span
  • As we age (later in life) we find ourselves less
    often feeling excited and provoke less elation
    and criticism
  • Less intense joy but more contentment and
    increased spirituality (especially if social)

Death and Dying
  • Most difficult separation is from a spouse (women
  • Grief is severe when the death of a loved one is
    unexpected and before the social clock
  • Facing death with openness helps people make
    sense of lifes meaningfulness and unity (sense
    of integrity)

Reflections on three major developmental Issues
  • Nature vs. nurture both impact development
  • Continuity and Stages
  • Researchers emphasize experience see development
    as slow continuous process
  • Researchers emphasize biology see development as
    predisposed stages
  • Research cast doubt on the idea that life
    proceeds through neatly defined, age-linked
    stages, the stage concept remains useful

Reflections on development
  • Stability and Change
  • Personality gradually stabilizes with age
  • Life requires both
  • Stability to depend on others
  • Change motives our concerns about present
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