A cultural hearth is a center area where ideas begin and then those ideas spread. They are areas from about 5000BC - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A cultural hearth is a center area where ideas begin and then those ideas spread. They are areas from about 5000BC


A cultural hearth is a center area where ideas begin and then those ideas spread. They are areas from about 5000BC Neolithic / Agricultural revolution about ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A cultural hearth is a center area where ideas begin and then those ideas spread. They are areas from about 5000BC

A cultural hearth is a center area where ideas
begin and then those ideas spread. They are
areas from about 5000BC Neolithic / Agricultural
revolution about 10,000 years ago people
stopped hunting and gathering and began to grow
food. Advances in agriculture lead to increased
crop production and more food. Not everyone needs
grow their own crops - one farmer can produce
enough crops to support more than one family.
This allows people to do things other than crop
raising, animal husbandry, hunting or gathering.
Because they are not farming people can
specialize in new activities - new ideas develop
and lead to advancements in science, astronomy,
mathematics, religion, art, and political
systems. These ideas then are spread to
surrounding areas.
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The white dashed line shows the extent of glacial
later culture hearths
culture hearths
The original humans spread from Africa into the
Middle East. From there, into Central Asia and
then north into Europe and south into India.
Humans then traveled south into the islands and
Australia and north into China and eastern
Russia. Humans then crossed the land bridge into
North America and traveled east to the New
England area and South into Middle and South
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What did culture hearths have in common?
  • Near a river
  • in a temperate climate
  • on arable land
  • abundance of food

Mesopotamia - Present day Iraq
Mesopotamia is a region, not a country. The land
between 2 rivers the Tigris Euphrates.
  • Achievements
  • Code of Laws Hammurabis Code
  • Writing Cuneiform
  • System for calculating time and angles based on
    60 sexagesimal system

Indus River Valley
Indus River Valley - Present day Pakistan
The Indus River Valley spread and merged with the
Ganges River Valley in India.
  • Achievements
  • Town planning grid system for roads
  • sanitation system covered drains
  • water from wells
  • granaries, docks, and warehouses
  • uniform weights and measurements
  • copper, bronze, lead, and tin

Nile River Valley
Nile River Valley present day Egypt
  • Achievements
  • mathematic advances
  • reliable farming with irrigation
  • engineering, mining, and plumbing
  • pyramids
  • medical - cures for diarrhea, burns,
    indigestion, cataracts, surgery, and
  • papyrus paper and hieroglyphics

Yellow River Civilization
Yellow River Civilization - present day China
Shang Dynasty
  • Achievements
  • wheel barrow, horse harness, row cultivation,
    and plow
  • water chain pump (water goes up)
  • metal casting
  • Su Songs mechanical clock water-driven
    astronomical clock
  • crossbow, rudder, gas lamp, block printing,
    abacus, paper, porcelain, silk, kites, playing

Other things that have spread between cultures
(cultural diffusion)
  • Disease
  • Language
  • Food
  • Religion
  • Ideas
  • Inventions
  • culture

Urban Areas
Urban having something to do with cities.
People make a living in ways other than farming.
Urban Areas
In the US cities have a population of 2,500 or
more with a government (mayor usually) cities
are defined differently all over the world.
What is an Urban Areas
Urban Functions Why do we have cities?
  • Manufacturing
  • Government national, state, provincial
  • Transportation
  • Trade/office generally will be located in a
    central area.
  • Other functions
  • - recreation ctrs
  • - educational ctrs
  • - religious ctrs

Started about 6,000 years ago. First cities -
Mesopotamia (SW Asia)
History of Cities
along the Tigris/Euphrates Rivers - 4,000 BCE
Specialization started to develop - artisans -
merchants - farmers - ruling elite (military or
religious leaders)
Running the cities (usually the ruling
elite) - wrote the laws - levied taxes -
supervised public building
Earliest Great City
Rome ctr of Roman Empire - built all over
Europe - roads still used today
- developed the grid system to lay out their
cities (later spread all over Europe) - brought
water from the mountains by aqueducts
Fall of the Roman Empire - invasion of Germanic
after the fall of the Roman Empire Europe
entered the Dark Ages a time when Europes
culture did not advance. After about 700 years
villages and cities started to increase
again. Trade between the villages would develop
into large cities. Two of the largest cities
would be Paris and London.
Middle Ages
Machines began doing the work of humans.
started in the United Kingdom around 1740.
abundance of food people coal iron
ore The Industrial Revolution would spread to N.
America in the late 1700s. When humans have
more spare time they make more humans
Industrial Revolution
Immigration 2nd Agricultural Revolution
  • When new immigrants came to the US they settled
    in cities. Urbanization grew quickly in the 20th
  • New farming techniques combines, tractors, etc.
    Made it easier for smaller numbers of people to
    feed more people.

Exact location
Site -actual physical features (landforms,
waterways, climate, etc.)
Situation -position of a place in relation to all
places around it.
Relative location
These are characteristics of Site.
What factors do we need for a city?
Water (fresh) Abundant food source Fertile
land Good climate Natural protection
These are characteristics of Situation
Near a trade center River for
transportation Located near natural
A central business district (CBD) has areas
around it that supply it with raw materials,
people, and farm products called the
HINTERLAND. The hinterland relies on the CBD for
services and finished products.
Burgess Model
Suburbs areas around a city large central
city Metropolitan Area land of a central city
and all of its suburbs. Megalopolis large urban
areas that run together. (examples Boston to
Washington DC (Boswash) or Kobe, Osaka, and Kyoto
in Japan)
Other vocabulary
  • Upper Class earns or inherits wealth and owns
    a large share of the property in the society.
    They lead a luxurious lifestyle and often serve
    in leadership roles in the society.
  • Middle Class This is the intermediate group of
    educated and mostly successful people managers,
    professionals, shop keepers, and small business
  • Working Class composed of manual workers who
    work in factories, mining, and transportation, or
    who work as independent craftsmen
  • Peasants these are the farm workers or owners
    of small farms mainly engaged in subsistence
    agriculture. Little education and limited
    experience of the world outside the village.
  • Lower Class often uneducated and unskilled.
    They take the least desirable and worst-paying

Social structure
urban areas are warmer than rural areas. Cities
are URBAN HEAT ISLANDS (can be more than 3º
warmer) Buildings change wind patterns.
Urban Climate
Impact of Urban Development
People change the natural landscape to build the
city.- animal/plant habitats are destroyed -
arable land being used for development
Urban Life
Common urban problems - unemployment -
providing services - racial/religious
conflict - environmental pollution - decline of
the CBD
World Patterns of Urban Development
  • 48 of the worlds people live in urban areas.
  • Developed countries 75
  • Developing countries 35 live in cities
  • Last 20 years in developing countries - rapid
    population growth.
  • By 2025 60 of the worlds population will
    live in cities. All but one of the largest
    cities in the world will be in developing

  • Cultures create institutions organizations
    developed by society to make social roles clear
    and to take care of social needs. These
    institutions are centered in cities.
  • Schools teach values of society and prepare for
  • Government protect from outsiders, promote
    social cooperation, and regulate behavior
  • Religious centers teach values of society and
    guide proper behavior

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  • Non-Renewable fossil fuels
  • Coal, natural gas, petroleum
  • Fossil fuels also used for petrochemical products
  • Supplies of fossil fuels is a key factor for a
    countrys economic success.
  • Unfortunately as fossil fuels are burned they
    release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which
    may be a contributing factor to global climate

  • Renewable Energy
  • Water power hydroelectric power derived from
    running water (dams) over 10 of US energy
  • Wind power wind turbines (modern windmill)
    create electricity. However takes many and large
    spaces to produce sufficient amounts.
  • Geothermal power heat from Earths interior.
    Plants are built where volcanoes and hot springs
    are plentiful.
  • Solar power energy from the sun. Special solar
    panels can absorb solar energy and convert it to
    electricity. However, panels are still expensive
    so the use of solar power is usually limited to
    upper class.

Worlds 10 largest urban areas
1. Tokyo, Japan - 32,450,000 2. Seóul, South
Korea - 20,550,000 3. Mexico City, Mexico -
20,450,000 4. New York City, USA - 19,750,000
5. Mumbai, India - 19,200,000 6. Jakarta,
Indonesia - 18,900,000 7. Sáo Paulo, Brazil -
18,850,000 8. Delhi, India - 18,680,000 9.
Õsaka/Kobe, Japan - 17,350,000 10. Shanghai,
China - 16,650,000
Note - Houston has 6.2 million
Tokyo Yokohama population 32,450,000 largest
urban area in the world. Tokyo is home to
Mitsubishi, Fuji, Nissan, and Tokyo Electron
Tokyo, Japan
Seoul - 20,550,000 people very high population
density. Home to LG Group, Samsung, Kia, and
Seoul, South Korea
20,450,000 million largest in Latin America.
Pemex (petroleum) and tourism are major industries
Mexico City, Mexico
New York City USAs largest city 19,750,000
people. Major publishing, textile, insurance,
real estate, retail, media, chemical, securities,
and financial centers make home here
New York City, USA
Mumbai, India
Mumbai 19,200,00 people Indias largest city
Mahim Bay is a tourist destination but others
live in poverty. Home to major tech support
centers, financial services, banking, textile,
and Hindi language film industries.
Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta, Indonesia people. The poor live on
floating houses and houses on stilts. Home to
insurance, government, textiles, and oil and gas
10.6 million largest in Soouth America favela
(slums) population 612,000. Home to
petrochemical, tourism, telecommunications, food
beverage, and auto making companies
Sao Paulo
Delhi, India Indias second largest city
population is18,680,000 India has 1/6th of the
worlds people. Major information,
petrochemical, textile, and pharmaceutical
Delhi, India
Õsaka/Kobe, Japan was once the capital. Now it
is an industrial giant population is 17,350,000.
Japan is very densely populated. Home to
financial services, Hitachi, publishing, and many
other electronic companies.
Osaka/Kobe, Japan
Shanghai, China is Chinas largest city located
on the Yangtze River population 16,650,000.
Major manufacturing area specializing in
electronics and information products, ship
building, chemicals, automobile manufacturing,
petrochemicals, and publishing.
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