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Option A: Caribbean History


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Title: Option A: Caribbean History

Option A Caribbean History
  • Topics
  • The failures of the Apprenticeship scheme
  • The Sugar Revolution
  • The rise of Peasantry in the Caribbean
  • The Use of Immigrant labour 1838 1917
  • The Changing of the Sugar plantation and new ways
    of earning a living
  • The Caribbean since 1960

The Apprenticeship schemeObjective To outline
the details of the Apprenticeship scheme
  • Looking ahead
  • Why did the colonial office think that
    apprenticeship was the first step to creating a
    free society?
  • Because it gave apprentices the opportunity and
    time to learn skills necessary when they were
  • Because it gave the colonies time to develop the
    social necessities that were not in place before.
  • Did the planters feel the same way?
  • No, they saw this as an opportunity to expand
    free labour.
  • How did the planters use apprenticeship
    regulations to serve their own ends?
  • They were able to get more time out of
    apprentices and they could monitor the time spent
    off the plantations.
  • Why did special magistrate have such a difficult
    time doing what was expected of the by the
    colonial office?
  • Because they were paid such low wages that they
    could be easily bribed by the planters.
  • Why did apprenticeship end in 1838?
  • B/c the planters rather to end the scheme than
    adhere to the changes made by Richard Chamberline

  • The Apprenticeship scheme
  • six year transitional period for both slaves and
  • It was made mandatory in Trinidad and British
    Guiana and optional in other colonies
  • Only Antigua did not adopt it.
  • Planters were afraid that slaves would leave the
    plantations so policing laws were passed and
    Special Magistrates where sent to the colonies to
    govern them.
  • Unfortunately the were paid only 40 pounds per
    year and could be easily bribed by planters.
  • The laws were made by the local assemblies and
    usually favored the planters which made it very
    difficult for apprentices to stray from the
    plantations without a required license and

  • The fear remained between the Colonial Office and
    the planters that the mass movement of
    apprentices away from the plantation would led to
    the financial ruin of the colonies.
  • Terms of the Scheme
  • Apprentices worked 40.5 hours per week before
    they were paid.
  • Elders and children were free and still had to be
    taken cared of by the planters
  • The Colonial Office hoped that the six years
    would be enough time to build schools, housing,
    hospitals, roads, etc.

  • Punishment for Apprentices
  • When found guilty for a violation the common
    punishment was the workhouse which were under
    the control of the local parishes in the
  • The usual form of punishment was the treadmill.
  • In the work houses the laborers were required to
    wear chains, not even used in the last years of
  • Females were often forced to shave their heads.
  • On the plantations apprentices could have their
    rations cut or stopped altogether.

Opposition to ApprenticeshipObjective To
identify the groups that opposed to the
Apprenticeship scheme
  • Trinidad
  • As the Governor as he read the Emancipation Act
    slaves jeered and the riot act was called.
  • St Kitts and Montserrat
  • There were many riots
  • Jamaica
  • Many apprentices ran away and had to be rounded
    up by the militias and returned to their
  • British Guiana
  • The Assembly assigned some apprentices as
    constables and used them to convince the others
    to maintain order

causes for the conclusion of the scheme for all
by 1838
  • There were very few honest magistrates, the few
    that existed included Richard Chamberline, who
    was key in ending the period.
  • The magistrates were required to send monthly
    reports which contributed to ending
  • In 1837, when recommendations were made to take
    away the work houses and eliminate flogging and
    the use of the treadmill for females there came a
    consensus that the Apprenticeship scheme should
    end completely in 1838.
  • Rather than comply with the recommendations the
    planters preferred to end the scheme, hinging on
    the fat that they would still be able to control
    the movement of laborers through the licensing
    and ticketing system.

  • The purpose of apprenticeship
  • The ex-slaves opposition to apprenticeship
  • The appointment of special magistrate
  • The new police laws
  • The close ties between the magistrate and
  • The workhouses
  • The control of the apprentice on the plantations
  • Honest magistrates
  • Ending apprenticeship.

Emancipation in Non-British CaribbeanObjective
To describe, Compare and contrast the abolition
of the slavery in the Spanish and French
  • French Colonies
  • Emancipation of slaves the French Caribbean that
    came into effect by way of the French revolution
    was maintained only in Haiti.
  • Slavery was re-implemented in these colonies
  • The country passed laws to end slavery again in
    1818 however, between 1818 and 1831, more than
    100,000 new slaves were shipped to the colonies.
  • The reintroduction was accepted much like the
    Apprenticeship scheme in the British Caribbean
  • Martinique experienced disturbances several times
    between 1822 and 1834.

  • Amelioration was also adopted and by 1833 and
    slaves had to be registered and branding and
    mutilation was outlawed.
  • Victor Schoelcher, a French abolitionist
    travelled to the colonies in 1840 and determined
    that slavery should end.
  • A secular movement, La Societe pour lAbolition
    de lEsclavage was formed in 1834.
  • This group was more effective than any other
    Britain had seen.
  • In 1836, they achieved the emancipation of every
    slave to set foot in France
  • In 1838 a bill was drafted for the emancipation
    of slaves.

  • In 1847, the society called for an immediate
  • In 1848 a national petition was sent out
  • This petition being more successful, led to the
    abolition of slavery in Martinique and Guadeloupe
    as well as Cayenne in South America and Reunion
    in the Indian Ocean at a compensation of about 50
    francs per slave.

Spanish islands
  • In Cuba there became a decline in the tobacco and
    boom in sugar around the 1700s.
  • A rise in demand for the crop lead to demand for
  • In1791, the Spanish slave trade was open and
    persons importing slaves would export any item
    duty free.
  • By 1817, slaves made up more than two thirds of
    the population (224,000).
  • Risks of slave rebellions were greater due to
    emancipation movement in British Caribbean which
    provided safe haven for runaways.
  • Spain, during a 1815 Congress at Vienna,
    promised to end the slave trade in 1817 and
    signed a Reciprocal Search Treaty with Britain.

  • Another agreement was made to abolish slavery in
    1820, but the slaves continued to be imported at
    a rate of 10,000 per year.
  • Anytime Spanish ships carried slaves they would
    carry an American flag to prevent begin searched.
  • The manumission process in Cuba led that could
    prove that he was imported after 1820 could be
  • Fear remained that emancipation would lead to
    all-black republics like Haiti.
  • The pro-slavery groups in Cuba was considering
    joining forces with the United States.
  • The British advocated for the abolition of
    slavery for two basic reasons
  • Spanish sugar had been outselling sugar from the
    British colonies.
  • They wanted to keep Cuba out of the hands of the

  • The American Civil War broke out in 1861 and
    this lessened the concern.
  • The Spanish monarchy was overthrown and replaced
    by an anti-slavery republic.
  • During this same time, Cuba and Puerto Rico were
    also struggling for their independence which
    included plans for the emancipation.
  • In 1865, the Spanish islands achieved
  • Puerto Rico achieved the same in 1873
  • Compensation the planters totaled 35 million
  • Cuba followed in 1886 with no compensation at

Pop Quiz
  1. How long was the Apprenticeship scheme to last
    for field workers?
  2. Which British colony chose not to adopt the
    Apprenticeship scheme?
  3. How many hours were Apprentices required to work
    per week?
  4. Which group of persons were exempted from
  5. List three things the Colonial office hoped to
    achieve during the Apprentice years.
  6. What was the response to the Emancipation act by
    Apprentices in Jamaica and Trinidad?
  7. What was the role of the special magistrate?
  8. Describe two ways in which Apprentices were
  9. Who was Richard Chamberline and what role did he
    play in Apprenticeship?

Theme 2 The Rise of PeasantryFree
VillagesObjective To describe the establishment
and te role of Missionaries on the establishment
of Free Villages
  • To an outsider looking in the British colonies,
    it would have appeared that all of them had the
    same problems.
  • The islands that were large with small free slave
    population faced major labour as well as those
    problems with large free slaves who shunned the
    plantation labour as in the cases with Trinidad
    and Jamaica respectively.
  • Trinidad resolved its problem with immigration
    whereas Jamaica refused to combat the problem the
    same way.

  • During and after the apprenticeship period free
    village spontaneously emerged or through the
    agitation of missionaries.
  • This movement has been credited with the
    development of a working class better know and
    independent peasantry or yeoman farmers which
    became the backbone of the West Indies.
  • These villages were more common in Jamaica and
  • Jamaica
  • The freed villages in Jamaica were modeled after
    the Maroon settlements established before the end
  • They were positioned far away from the

  • Since most of the freed African were not able to
    afford land, however there were a small few who
    were privileged.
  • These persons usually purchased small plots, not
    usually adequate for farming.
  • However, this was a means of keeping the
    plantation workers near the plantations.
  • The majority who utilized the lands purchased
    through the churches in England.
  • Before the end of slavery a Baptist missionary,
    William Knibb, encourage the apprentices to
    establish free villages.
  • His goal was to ensure that ex-slaves to own
    their land as a part of the peasantry movement.

  • He also encourage slaves that could save enough
    money to purchase their own land to settle on
    crown land.
  • As a result of his support, he found little
    favour with the planters.
  • He was not the only missionary to support the
  • The first free villages was built on land
    purchased by James Phillipo in 1835.
  • In this settlement called Sligoville, there were
    100 families.
  • Sturgetown was built in 1838 by William Knibb and
    hosted 75 families.

The New Independent ClassObjective to describe
the development of the new independent class in
Jamaica, Guyana, St Kitts. And Barbados
  • The Africans who were able to purchase lands
    during the Apprenticeship were much more
    fortunate than their counterparts.
  • Not only were they able to gain proof of
    ownership but the lands were already cleared and
    very close to the markets.
  • In Antigua, the establishment of free villages
    did not come until 1842 and this was through the
    lobbying of the governor Sir William Colebrook.
  • His goal, like many others was to keep the freed
    African as agricultural laborers.
  • His idea was first met with resistance from the
    planters who wanted to maintain control of the
    labourers, but was soon accepted after the threat
    of opening the Colony crown land to the freed.

  • The planters also saw a financial opportunity in
    this as the freed men were willing to pay hefty
    prices for poor land.
  • By the end of 1842 more than 27 independent
    villages had been established in Antigua.
  • In Trinidad and Guyana, many of the planters
    compromised by dividing the front of their lands
    and sold them to workers.
  • The desire for land opened up many opportunities
    for the exploitation of African workers.
  • In 1840, the Governor of Jamaica had written the
    Secretary of State to complain about this matter.

  • One example of which was the purchase of 283
    hectares for 500 pounds by one Mr. Drummond of
  • He divided the land and sold it to other
    planters, for five times what he paid.
  • They then divided their plots and sold them to
    Africans for eight times what they paid.
  • Rather than making them rich and happy the
    workers became heavy in debt and miserable.
  • Guyana
  • In Guyana, ex-slaves had the good fortune of
    being able to establish cooperatives.
  • This meant that large groups f them would pool
    their finances and purchase and entire
    plantations, while dividing the work equally, as
    well as the expenses and the profits.
  • This was the case with the North Brook plantation
    were 89 individuals bought one share of the
    property in 1839.

  • In 1852, the planters who had always been in
    opposition to the cooperative scheme convinced
    the governor to pass Ordinance 1which prevented
    the purchase of land by more than 25 persons.
  • This was not a total hindrance, so Ordinance 33
    was put into place which limited common ownership
    to 10 and required cash payment for the upkeep of
    the drainage.
  • This then forced many of the cooperative members
    to leave their plantation in search of work for

Small industryObjective To describe the
development of the small and cottage industry
that rose from farming.
  • Every attempt was made for laborers to leave the
  • By 1861, more than 1/3rd of the Jamaican freed
    population made a living off the plantation with
    sixty-five thousand of them Owning small farms.
  • By 1859, almost half of the Guianese population
    was completely or partly independent.
  • The sugar duties Act was passed by the planters
    in order to make up fro their losses and changed
    the wages from 48 to 32 cents per day.
  • The import duties were lowered and more laborers
    were encouraged to move away from the plantation.

  • Small farmers not only grew food for their own
    consumption but sold some at market.
  • This simple process became one leg in many steps
    that became a trade of higgling.

Theme 3 The Use of Immigrant labour 1838
1917Objective To describe the use and need for
immigrant labour in the West Indies.
  • The planters of the West Indies were more than
    happy for the initiation of the Immigration
    scheme as it came as a resolve to their
    immigration issues.
  • This movement occurred primarily in the Windward
    islands, Barbados, Trinidad and Guyana.
  • The British Government, although not completely
    behind the concept of the immigrant labour, as it
    known as the New Slavery, stood behind the
    planters as the labor issue remained and they had
    to maintain the economy, though sugar.
  • It is not to say that the Government did not
    receive pressure form the Anti-Slavery Society.
  • In order to resolves this matter, in 1838 James
    Stephen was given the role of drafting the
    Immigration Scheme into the emancipation Act.

  • There were at least five groups impacted by the
  • Europeans
  • Madeirans and Maltese
  • Free Africans
  • Chinese and
  • Indians
  • Europeans
  • European labour was primarily imported to
  • During the years of Apprenticeship thousands of
    Scots, Irish and Germans migrated to the islands.
  • Many of whom would not work because the work that
    they were issued they considered the work of the
  • Those that managed to remain died out due to a
    lack of immunity to the tropical diseases on the
  • Another attempt at European labour was initiated
    in 1841.
  • Some of whom also went to St. Kitts with
    practically the same results, death or voluntary

  • Madeirans and Maltese
  • Persons from island European islands of Madeira
    and Malta had been cultivating sugar from the
    Renaissance period.
  • Persons from this area were already experienced
    in sugar cultivation.
  • They were drawn to the islands buy the higher
    wages, four pence per day.
  • The Maltese immigration was very stop and go as
    the scheme had been halted in 1839 and then again
    in 1848 later it was restarted in 1841.
  • During this time the treatment of the Madeirans
    and the Maltese was investigated and although the
    scheme was allowed to commence in 1850, to
    remained on a much smaller scale.

Free African Immigration
  • The importation of free Africans to the Caribbean
    began in 1841.
  • This group of persons came from Sierra Leone,
    the Kru Coast, St. Helen or were rescued from
    slave ships.
  • Some of whom were or were the descendants of the
    Maroons who were deported in 1796.
  • This scheme was short lived some obvious reasons
    1841 -1862.
  • The same private ships that often transported
    slaves transported the emigrants, which gave a
    feeling of slavery.
  • The emigrants from West Africa were lured to the
    area under false pretenses of labour.

Chinese Immigration
  • Chinese Immigration was known to last for a long
    period of time, but had the most problems.
  • Most of these emigrants went to Cuba with a few
    going to the West Indies.
  • Trinidad attempted to import the Chinese at the
    threat of abolition in 1809.
  • When this small group arrived they either refused
    to work or were unsuited for the work required.

  • Some of the problems associated with this scheme
  • The Chinese government opposed it because it was
    said to hurt national pride.
  • Only Chinese men were allowed to immigrate and it
    created a sense of jealousy between the locals
    and the Chinese.
  • It was most expensive to impart them from their
    homes, 25 pounds.

Indian Immigration
  • In 1837, John Gladstone, the owner of British
    Plantation in British Guiana, applied for
    permission to import Indian labourers to the
  • In 1838, almost 400 labourers flowed into the
    colonies, but upon investigation it was found
    that many of them died.
  • By July of 1838, the immigration had been halted.
  • Some of the Indians had been abused while other
    was not paid what they had been promised.
  • Immigration again resumed in 1844 and lasted
    until 1917.

  • The colony of British Guiana had been spending in
    excess of 50,000 pounds per year on the imports.
  • The British government felt compelled to continue
    the scheme as both countries were its colonies.
  • Guianas experienced a close call to bankruptcy
    and the mistreatment of the "East Indians as
    they were called.
  • By the end of the scheme in 1917 more than
    416,000 Indians had arrived in the West Indies.
  • Classwork
  • 1. What similarities and differences existed
    between the different immigration schemes?
  • Make note of the times and reason for the
    immigration, and the conclusion of the various

  1. Describe how Ghana became a successful
    independent nation and how it declined.
  2. Describe how Mali became a successful independent
    nation and how it declined.
  3. Describe how Songhai became a successful
    independent nation and how it declined.
  4. Discuss the similarities of the success and
    failures all three states and give two mutual
    causes of their decline.

The Contract Schemes
  • The initial onset of the immigration required
    only that the labourers arrive to the colony and
  • The planters began paying for the passage and
    then required that they have contracts signed
    upon the arrival.
  • In 1848, The Government gave planters permission
    to have contracts signed at the port of
  • The original contracts were signed for only one
  • In 1848, the contracts were extended to three
    years and finally in 1863, the contracts were
    extended to five years, the period of time which
    the planters had been vying for.
  • Within the contracts were specifics as to the
    hours and days that the labourers were to work.
  • N.B. Research and be prepared to explain the
    labour conditions of the immigrant labourers.

Topic Impact of immigration Policy
  • Objective The economic and social impact of the
    Immigration policy on the West Indies
  • There is much controversy about the actual impact
    of immigrant labour on the sugar industry post
  • For the most part, most of the islands
    experienced a boom in the overall profits and
    production by the end of the 1800s early 1900s,
    however there were other factors that need to be
    taken into consideration.

 British Guiana
  • By 1848, the sugar production of British Guiana
    had fallen to only 40 of the levels they existed
    prior to emancipation.
  • By the end of the 19th century, the levels had
    drastically risen to 250 of what existed before
    slavery was abolished.
  • In Guiana it should have also been taken in to
    consideration that substantial numbers of land
    was sold for the cultivation of sugar had well as
    there had been improvements in the mechanization
    of the process of producing sugar.

  •  Trinidad had practically the same response.
  • Although, there had never been a slump in the
    sugar production because the wages had remained
    high as well as the conditions were good.
  • By the end of the century the levels were four
    times greater than before emancipation.

  • The island colony of Barbados imported no
    immigrants labour faced an increase in the output
    sugar of more than 250 by 1848.
  • To the same effect the levels decreased to 20 of
    the pre-emancipation levels by the end of the
  • It should also be noted that Trinidad suffered
    from the exhaustion of the soil as well as it
    lacked mechanization in the process.

Grenada and St Vincent
  • Both Grenada and St Vincent had substantial
    amount of immigrants labour however, in Grenada,
    the entire industry ended before the end of the
    century while in St Vincent they operated at
    about half of the pre-emancipation numbers.
  • The immigration schemes introduced completely new
    cultures into the West Indies, that for the most
    part remained isolated.
  • Asian were either Hindu or Muslim 86 and 14

  • The Indian were noted for their cultural
    segregation the following are several reasons
  • The Indians were linked by strong kinship
  • The immigration schemes kept them separated.
  • When the Indians were out of indentured
    servitude, they remained in agriculture and
    established isolated Indian village which also
    grew rice, cocoa and sugar cane.
  • The Indian and Africans despised each other. The
    Hindu and Muslim religions were despised by the
    Africans and the Indians hated the lose morals
    and polygamy of the Africans
  • Hindus Indians spoke only Hindi and maintained
    this, while refusing to send their children to
    school for fear of them begin converted to
  • Despite the resistance, the culture remained
    string within the region and today has been
    better integrated.

The factors of success of the Plantations after Emancipation The factors of success of the Plantations after Emancipation The factors of success of the Plantations after Emancipation The factors of success of the Plantations after Emancipation
Island Labour Soil/Topography Mechanization
British Guiana

  • 1. Why did the British West Indian colonies turn
    to immigrant labour schemes after emancipation?
  • 2. What hardships did the indentured labourers
    faces in the British West Indian colonies after

Theme 4 The Changing Sugar Plantation and New
ways of earning a living
  • The Decline of Sugar Production after 1838
  • Objective To describe the cause and impact of
    the decline of sugar in the British West Indies
  • The Napoleonic wars pushed Britain to the
    forefront as a monopoly in the sugar industry
    despite the inflated prices.
  • N.B. What was the cause and outcome of the
    Napoleonic wars? What countries were involved?
  • This was the only period of prosperity as
    competition from the other sugar producing
    countries leveled the playing field.

  • The problems for the English colonies were many
    and included
  • The labour problems as a result of the abolition
    of the slave trade.
  • The price of slaves rose
  • The increasing price of sugar as a result of the
    labour problem.
  • The overall emancipation of slaves made this
    difficult time even more so.
  • The West Indies had now been receiving great
    competition from the colonies on India and
    Mauritius. The West Indies had enjoyed low rates
    on the duty of sugar, but this privilege was also
    extended to Mauritius in1825 and India in 1836.

  • At the emancipation of Slavery, the sugar
    barter-based economy was not converted into a
    cash economy.
  • The Apprenticeship should have been sufficient
    time for this adjustment, however, the challenge
    of the cash exchange proved extremely difficult
    an adjustment.
  • The apprenticeship scheme should have been enough
    time only in theory, but in fact there was very
    little money in circulation and most of the bills
    came out in 1838.
  • The slaves wages had a vast range that could
    mean that planter paid about 20 pounds for the
    labour of 100 slaves in a place like Barbados,
    but may have paid 60 pounds in a place like

  • The wage bill led to the establishment of the
    Planters bank in Jamaica in 1837 and the West
    Indian bank in Barbados in 1840, and both of
    which had branches on the other islands.
  • The capital for the banks was endorsed by
    merchants in Liverpool and London.
  • Based on the strength of their crops, credit was
    extended to the planters.
  • The process appeared to be good business as long
    as the crops were successful.
  • When crop prices began to fall, partially due to
    the Sugar Equalization Act of 1846, it led to the
    collapse of many of the West Indian banks, due to
    the customers inability to pay.

  •  Foreign Countries had cut their production costs
    and were able to produce and sell sugar for
    substantially less than the British English
    sugar 22shillings per cwt, Cuban Sugar
    12shillings per cwt and Louisiana Sugar, 15
    shillings per cwt.
  • To combat the prices, British Guiana, increased
    in acreage for sugar plantations, which increased
  • The best resolution, which British competitors
    had adopted, was the mechanization of the
    production process which would have lead to
    lesser labour costs.
  • This kind of technology would have required
    capital in order to purchase, however, these
    island colonies were finding difficulty find more
    investment in such a risky market.

  • A final challenge of the Planters was the 4.5
    export rate of the sugar that was required to be
    paid, this was ultimately removed during a period
    of desperation in 1838, but ultimately the
    planters still paid more for any imports coming
    to the island.

The Sugar Equalization Act 1846Objective
Discuss the cause and impact of Free trade and
the implementation of the Sugar Equalization Act
in 1846
  • The idea of free trade was only established
    around 1776, with the theory of economist Adam
    Smith, his ideas along with those of David
    Ricardo, the author of "Principles of Political
    Economy and Taxation" and the boom caused by the
    Industrial revolution in Europe motivated the
    British Colonies toward the concept of free
  • Before the system of trade had been organized
    around the barter system with planters receiving
    credit for whatever crops were provided.
  • The free trade system would allow for the cheap
    purchase of raw materials with capitalism
    governing the open market, while duties remained

  • Many British persons lobbied for the free trade
    as the cost of sugar had risen substantially and
    the British Government and people had been
    subsidizing the industry in the West Indies at a
    sum of 2,500,000 to 4,500,000 per year.
  • In 1849 the Navigation acts were repealed and the
    British Empire entered into free trade.
  • Many planters protested and revolted that this
    move would lead to the end of the Sugar Industry
    and in fact the period of 1846 to 1854 was a very
    critical to the industrys survival.

  • The foreign competition caused such threat to the
    British planters that the Act as it was
    implemented gave leeway to the planters and
    allowed them a five year grace period in order to
    adjust their prices before free trade truly
  • 1. What was the function of a special magistrate?
  • 2. How apprenticeship schemes responded to by
    ex-slaves in Jamaica?
  • 3. How many hours were in average work week for
  • 4. When were slaves to be paid for work
  • 5. Who was James Phillipo?
  • 6. What does the term "higgling or haggling"
  • 7. What was the cause of the fall of the
    Planter's Bank
  • 8. List three groups of immigrants imported to
    assist in the labour shortages

Theme 1 Review Questions
  • Define the terms of the apprenticeship scheme.
    When it was set to begin and end?
  • Which colony did not adopt the scheme?
  • What expectations did the Colonial office have of
    the scheme?
  • Note two examples of how the scheme was rejected?
  • Who was considered and architect of freedom.
    What was the role of this person?
  • List three forms of punishment for unruly
  • What recommendations did Richard Chamberline make
    to the Colonial office regarding the punishment
    of apprentices? What was the response of the
  • Explain two ways in which planters were able to
    control the apprentices outside of punishment.
  • Compare the reintroduction of Slavery in the
    French colonies to that of the Apprenticeship
    scheme in the British colonies.
  • Compare the movement of the Society for the
    Abolition of Slaves French to that of Quakers.
  • What compensation did the French crown give to
    the planters for each freed slave?
  • What were the terms of the Reciprocal Search
    Treaty and when was it signed?
  • When was slavery abolished in the Spanish
    colonies, and then Cuba?

Theme 2 The Rise of Peasantry Review Questions
  • Which two British colonies did hire immigrant
  • Generally speaking, free villages were as a
    result of agitation from which group?
  • Who were considered yeoman famers?
  • What became the model for African villages in
  • Why were William Knibb and James Phillipo not
    popular with planters?
  • When was Sturgetown built?
  • When was Sligoville developed?
  • When did free African Villages become popular in
    Antigua, and under whose influence?
  • Which colony was able to develop cooperatives?
  • What were two hindrances to the maintenance of
    these cooperatives?
  • By 1861, what percentage freed Jamaicans lived
    off of the Plantations?
  • What changes in wages did the Sugar duties Act

Theme 3 Immigration Scheme
  1. In which parts of the West Indies was the
    movement of the immigration scheme widely
  2. Why was the immigrants scheme considered new
  3. What role James Stephen play in the Emancipation
  4. What was the result of the immigration of
    Europeans to Jamaica?
  5. What factors drew West Indians planters to import
    Madeirans and Maltese workers and what drew these
    immigrate to West Indies?
  6. From which areas were labourers emigrated?
  7. Why did the use of African labour not continue
    for an extended period?
  8. List the three problems that were faced with
    importation of Chinese labor?
  9. What role did John Gladstone play in the
    emigration of Indians?
  10. What became the fate, of many of the first
  11. What was relationship between Africans and East
    Indians in the West Indies?
  12. Why Indians did chose not to send their children
    to school?
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