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AMERICAN REVOLUTION Unit IIA AP United States History – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Unit IIA
  • AP United States History

Salutary Neglect/Benign Neglect
  • British absenteeism
  • Distance between England and America
  • Political turmoil and relative peace
  • Colonies virtually on their own
  • Developed unique economies based on region
  • Self-government
  • Still considered themselves as British subjects
    entitled to same rights and privileges

Britain Exerts More Control
  • Navigation Acts strengthened
  • Increased concept of mercantilism
  • Vice-admiralty courts
  • Merchant courts, juryless, corrupt judges
  • Board of Trade
  • Develop mercantilist policies over colonies
  • Molasses Act (1733)
  • Tax on non-British import of sugar

French and Indian War (1754-1763)
  • England vs. France
  • Most Natives allied with French
  • Increased British troop activity in America
  • Colonists contributed to effort
  • Albany Plan of Union (1754)
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Results/Consequences
  • British victory
  • Acquisition of French Canada and land east of
  • War debt
  • 72M pounds (1755)
  • 129M pounds (1764)
  • British believed more control necessary
  • Colonial pride

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Proclamation of 1763
  • Pontiacs Rebellion (1763)
  • Extensive Native alliance to deter colonists
  • Purpose
  • Avoid conflicts
  • Colonial Reaction
  • Denial of land

Preliminary Rebellions
  • Paxton Boys (1764)
  • Pennsylvania Scots-Irish upset with Quaker
    government and toleration of natives
  • Massacred Susquehannock
  • Regulators (1764-1771)
  • NC frontiersmen upset with eastern corruption

The Enlightenment
  • The Age of REASON
  • Rationalism
  • Laws of Nature applied to society
  • Deism
  • the clockmaker
  • Absent of human affairs
  • Inspired by John Locke
  • Second Treatise on Government
  • Philosophes
  • Voltaire
  • Individual liberties
  • Freedom of expression
  • Montesquieu
  • Separation of powers
  • Rousseau
  • Social Contract
  • General welfare
  • Wollstonecraft

British Prime Ministers
Believed colonies should foot the bill for wars
and defense
Encouraged unrestricted development of colonies
Robert Walpole 1721-1742
George Grenville 1763-1765
Charles Townshend Chancellor of
Exchequer 1766-1767
Enforced Parliaments power but defended
colonies and desire for representation
Supported taxation of the colonies and ran
Parliament during Revolution
William Pitt 1766-1768
Frederick North 1770-1782
Timeline of Parliamentary Acts
  • Sugar Act of 1764
  • Revenue tax
  • Quartering Act of 1765
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • First direct tax
  • Declaratory Act of 1766
  • Parliaments right to tax whatsoever
  • Townshend Acts of 1767
  • Pay royal colonial officials
  • Writs of assistance
  • Tea Act of 1773
  • Support British East India Company
  • Intolerable Acts
  • Coercive Acts of 1774
  • Massachusetts Government Act (royal appointments)
  • Port Act (Boston closed)
  • Administration of Justice Act (trial of royal
    officials moved)
  • Quebec Act of 1774
  • Appointed government Catholicism recognized
  • Prohibitory Act of 1775
  • Colonies in open rebellion

Parliamentary ActsThe Sugar Act (1764)
  • Purpose
  • Increased regulation of colonial trade
  • Raise revenue for war debt
  • Lowered tax rate
  • Sugar, spices, lumber
  • Vice-admiralty courts
  • Colonial Reaction
  • Colonial merchants and shippers
  • Boycotts
  • Repealed in 1766

Parliamentary ActsStamp Act (1765)
  • Purpose
  • First direct tax
  • Generate revenue for troops in America
  • Colonial Reaction
  • No taxation without representation. - James
  • Stamp Act Congress
  • Sons and Daughters of Liberty
  • Committees of Correspondence

Parliamentary ActsTownshend Acts (1767)
  • Purpose
  • Raise revenue for administration of colonies
  • Glass, tea, paper, lead, paint
  • Colonial Reaction
  • Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania - John
  • If they may be legally deprived of the
    privilege of legislation, why may they not, with
    equal reason, be deprived of every other
    privilege? Or why may not every colony be treated
    in the same manner, when any of them shall dare
    to deny their assent to any impositions that
    shall be directed?

Engraving by Paul Revere, 1768
Boston Massacre (1770)
Parliamentary ActsTea Act (1773)
  • Purpose
  • Support British East India Company
  • Reaction
  • Boston Tea Party

Parliamentary ActsIntolerable Acts (1774)
  • Purpose
  • Boston Port Act
  • Quartering Act
  • Administration of Justice Act
  • Massachusetts Government Act
  • Quebec Act
  • Colonial Reaction
  • Suffolk Resolves
  • First Continental Congress

Which Side Are You On?
British Empire/Parliament
  • Fought and died in wars with Natives and European
  • Risk life and health in a new environment
  • Proud and loyal English subjects entitled to
  • Developed economies which benefit the Empire
  • Familiar with life in colonies more so than in
  • God-given liberty
  • Provide protection from Natives and Europeans
  • Benefit exceptionally well from success of
    British Empire with little contribution
  • Abide by the rule of law
  • Colonists as second-class citizens
  • virtual representation
  • Britons pay 2-3 times taxes than colonists

Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775)
  • Organization of militia (Minutemen) compels
    Governor Gage to send 700 British soldiers to
    arrest rebel leaders and confiscate arms
  • William Dawes and Paul Revere
  • 8 Minutemen die and 1 Redcoat wounded at
  • Shot heard round the world at Concord

(about from FIU to South Beach)
Second Continental Congress
  • Battles of Breeds Hill and Bunker Hill (June
  • British victory costing 1,154 of 2,200
  • Americans lost 311
  • Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)
  • Continental Army and Washington
  • Prohibitory Act
  • Declaration of Independence (July 1776)

Thomas Paines Common Sense
  • Pamphlet published in January 1776
  • Society grows to the point of requiring
    government with laws and representation
  • Denounces monarchism and aristocracy
  • an island cannot rule a continent
  • America is not English but a mix of peoples
  • distance a problem
  • threat of European wars
  • colonies exploited

Declaration of Independence (1776)
  • Applies laws of Nature
  • Peoples right to revolution
  • self-evident
  • all men are created equal
  • Endowedwith certain unalienable rightslife,
    liberty, pursuit of happiness
  • List of grievances against the British Empire,
    specifically toward George III

America vs. Great Britain
  • American Advantages/Tactics
  • Militias guerilla tactics
  • Familiar with the territory and environment
  • Prolong the war
  • Hope for support from Britains enemies (France,
  • American Disadvantages
  • No well-trained regular army or officers
  • Insufficient funds and supplies
  • Small support among population (1/3 loyalists,
    1/3 neutral, slaves)
  • British Advantages/Tactics
  • 11 million Britons to Americas 2.5 million (1/3
    slaves or loyalists)
  • Worlds largest navy
  • Disciplined and experienced army
  • Support from Loyalists, Natives, and slaves
  • Entrenched forts and garrisons in America
  • British Disadvantages
  • War debt and war fatigue
  • American privateers (pirates) hounded British
  • Unpopular home support
  • Spread thin around the world

Patriots, Loyalists, Neutrals
  • Patriots (aka Whigs) supported independence, but
    may disagree on course of action (war, petition,
    boycott, etc.)
  • Advocated independence based on rhetoric and
    education on rights and liberties
  • Loyalists (aka Tories) supported Britain
  • Loyalty to the Crown
  • Agreed about excess taxes, but against separation
  • Fear of a possible American victory
  • Recent British immigrants
  • Some neutral due to ignorance, apathy, or
    economic reasons

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The War
  • In the North
  • Boston under siege and New York captured in 1776
  • Battles of Trenton (1776) and Princeton (1777)
    boosted morale
  • Gates defeats Burgoyne at Saratoga (Oct 1777)
  • Valley Forge
  • In the West
  • An escalation of Natives vs. Expansionists
  • Natives lost large amounts of lands in defeats
  • Resentment toward pro-British Natives will linger
  • In the South
  • British plan to capture Southern ports and lands
    to launch re-invasion of the North
  • Lord Cornwallis claimed victories, but stalled in
    the South as Americans refortified
  • Battle of Yorktown (Aug-Oct 1781)
  • Washingtons army, Lafayettes force, and French
    fleet laid siege to Cornwallis
  • British surrender led to American victory

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Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay
  • British recognition of USA
  • USA granted all lands east of the Mississippi
  • Natives left out of the treaty
  • States applying own interests led to British
    remaining in Northwest forts
  • Brand new and bigger nation What now?

Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West
A New American Society/Republicanism
  • Before the war, the distinction between elites
    and commoners was visibly evident given the
    economical success of the colonies
  • Patriotic rhetoric of equality and liberty
    regained a sense of egalitarianism within the
  • Rights and liberties a central core value
  • Promote the common good
  • Merit, not inheritance, defined a man
  • Against corruption
  • More and more self-made men participate in
    political leadership
  • Despite a new perception, the small upper class
    retained its status as owners of most of
    Americas wealth

Women of the Revolution
  • Upper-class women promoted cause through
  • Participated against Stamp Act and Townshend Acts
  • Spinning bees
  • Ran households and estates during husbands
  • Formed campaigns to promote war and funds
  • Abigail Adams
  • Remember the Ladies.

Blacks and Slaves of the Revolution
  • Increased tensions between colonies and Britain
    inspired slaves to resist
  • Most slaves sided with British
  • Lord Dunmores Proclamation (1775)
  • Join to reassert royal authority
  • 500,000 blacks in America
  • Only 25,000 were free men
  • Some slaves escaped to freedom in confusion of
  • Pose as free men
  • Escape on British ships or to British territories
  • Participation as Patriots
  • Early ban
  • Armies needed support
  • Northern states lead to abolish or phase out
  • Quakers led the charge
  • Slave imports almost eliminated
  • New opportunities, same discrimination
  • Free blacks as second-class citizens
  • Prince Hall and return to Africa
  • Granted civil rights
  • Slavery as necessary evil

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Natives of the Revolution
  • Half of the population from 1754 to 1783 wiped
  • New land acquisitions led to increased
  • Adapted lifestyle by incorporating European goods
  • Appealed to Congress on recognizing territories
    little to no support
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