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American Revolution

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American Revolution Unit IIA AP United States History – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Revolution


1
American Revolution
  • Unit IIA
  • AP United States History

2
Salutary Neglect/Benign Neglect
  • British absenteeism
  • Distance between England and America
  • Political turmoil and relative peace
  • Colonies virtually on their own
  • Developed unique economies based on region
  • Self-government
  • Still considered themselves as British subjects
    entitled to same rights and privileges

3
Britain Exerts More Control
  • Navigation Acts strengthened
  • Increased concept of mercantilism
  • Vice-admiralty courts
  • Boards of Trade
  • Europe at war
  • King Williams War (1689-1697)
  • Queen Annes War (1702-1713)
  • King Georges War (1744-1748)

4
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
  • Serious conflict between England and France with
    a primary focus in the Americas
  • Most Natives allied with French
  • Increased British troop activity in America
  • Colonists contributed to effort
  • Albany Plan of Union (1754)
  • Benjamin Franklins idea for colonial union for
    common defense - FAILED
  • British Victory and End of Salutary Neglect
  • British believed more control necessary
  • Colonial pride

5
Proclamation of 1763
  • Pontiacs Rebellion (1763)
  • Britain restricts further colonial westward
    expansion
  • Prevent hostilities between colonists and Natives
  • Colonists upset to restriction of available land

6
The Enlightenment
  • The Age of REASON
  • Rationalism
  • Laws of Nature applied to society
  • Deism
  • the clockmaker
  • Absent of human affairs
  • Inspired by John Locke
  • Second Treatise on Government
  • Philosophes
  • Voltaire
  • Individual liberties
  • Freedom of expression
  • Montesquieu
  • Separation of powers
  • Rousseau
  • Social Contract
  • General welfare
  • Wollstonecraft

7
British Prime Ministers
Believed colonies should foot the bill for wars
and defense
Encouraged unrestricted development of colonies
Robert Walpole 1721-1742
George Grenville 1763-1765
Charles Townshend Chancellor of
Exchequer 1766-1767
Enforced Parliaments power but defended
colonies and desire for representation
Supported taxation of the colonies and ran
Parliament during Revolution
William Pitt 1766-1768
Frederick North 1770-1782
8
Do we need to know all the Acts?YESML!
  • Sugar Act of 1764
  • Revenue tax
  • Quartering Act of 1765
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • First direct tax
  • Declaratory Act of 1766
  • Parliaments right to tax whatsoever
  • Townshend Acts of 1767
  • Pay royal colonial officials
  • Writs of assistance
  • Tea Act of 1773
  • Support British East India Company
  • Intolerable Acts
  • Coercive Acts of 1774
  • Massachusetts Government Act
  • Port Act
  • Administration of Justice Act
  • Quebec Act of 1774
  • Prohibitory Act of 1775
  • Colonies in open rebellion

9
Colonial Reaction to Acts
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • James Otis no taxation without representation
  • Stamp Act Congress
  • Sons and Daughters of Liberty
  • Townshend Acts of 1767
  • Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania John
    Dickinson
  • Boston Massacre (1770)
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Tea Act of 1773
  • Boston Tea Party
  • Intolerable Acts of 1774
  • First Continental Congress
  • Suffolk Resolves
  • Declaration of Rights and Grievances

10
Which Side Are You On?
Colonies
British Empire/Parliament
  • Fought and died in wars with Natives and European
    enemies
  • Risk life and health in a new environment
  • Proud and loyal English subjects entitled to
    rights
  • Developed economies which benefit the Empire
  • Familiar with life in colonies more so than in
    England
  • God-given liberty
  • Provide protection from Natives and Europeans
  • Benefit exceptionally well from success of
    British Empire with little contribution
  • Abide by the rule of law
  • Colonists as second-class citizens
  • virtual representation

11
British Supporters of Colonists
  • William Pitt
  • John Wilkes

12
Britons Against Colonies
  • Thomas Hutchinson
  • Governor of Massachusetts
  • Enforced British authority
  • King George III

13
Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775)
  • Organization of militia (Minutemen) compels
    Governor Gage to send 700 British soldiers to
    arrest rebel leaders and confiscate arms
  • William Dawes and Paul Revere, The British are
    coming!
  • 8 Minutemen die and 1 Redcoat wounded at
    Lexington
  • Shot heard round the world at Concord

(about from FIU to South Beach)
14
Second Continental Congress
  • Battles of Breeds Hill and Bunker Hill (June
    1775)
  • British victory costing 1,154 of 2,200
  • Americans lost 311
  • Olive Branch Petition
  • Directly sent to George III
  • American Continental Army and Washington
  • George III pronounced colonies in open rebellion
  • Prohibitory Act blockade of American ports
    declaration of war
  • Declaration of Independence in July 1776
  • Virtually creating the United States of America

15
Thomas Paines Common Sense
  • Pamphlet published in January 1776
  • Society grows to the point of requiring
    government with laws and representation
  • Denounces monarchism and aristocracy
  • an island cannot rule a continent
  • America is not English but a mix of peoples
  • distance a problem
  • threat of European wars
  • colonies exploited

16
Declaration of Independence
  • Applies laws of Nature
  • Peoples right to revolution
  • self-evident
  • all men are created equal
  • Endowedwith certain unalienable rightslife,
    liberty, pursuit of happiness
  • List of grievances against the British Empire,
    specifically toward George III
  • WHATS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE IN REGARDS TO
    AMERICAN SOCIETY?

17
America vs. Britain
  • American Advantages/Tactics
  • Militias guerilla tactics
  • Familiar with the territory and environment
  • Prolong the war
  • Hope for support from Britains enemies (France,
    Spain)
  • American Disadvantages
  • No well-trained regular army or officers
  • Insufficient funds and supplies
  • Small support among population (1/3 loyalists,
    1/3 neutral, slaves)
  • British Advantages/Tactics
  • 11 million Britons to Americas 2.5 million (1/3
    slaves or loyalists)
  • Worlds largest navy
  • Disciplined and experienced army
  • Support from Loyalists, Natives, and slaves
  • Entrenched forts and garrisons in America
  • British Disadvantages
  • War debt and war fatigue
  • American privateers (pirates) hounded British
    ships
  • Unpopular home support
  • Spread thin around the world

18
Patriots, Loyalists, Neutrals
  • Patriots (aka Whigs) supported independence, but
    may disagree on course of action (war, petition,
    boycott, etc.)
  • Advocated independence based on rhetoric and
    education on rights and liberties
  • Loyalists (aka Tories) supported Britain
  • Loyalty to the Crown
  • Agreed about excess taxes, but against separation
  • Fear of a possible American victory
  • Recent British immigrants
  • Some could care less due to ignorance, apathy, or
    economical reasons

19
The War
  • In the North
  • Boston under siege and New York captured in 1776
  • Battles of Trenton (1776) and Princeton (1777)
    boosted morale
  • Gates defeats Burgoyne at Saratoga (Oct 1777)
  • Valley Forge
  • In the West
  • An escalation of Natives vs. Expansionists
  • Natives lost large amounts of lands in defeats
  • Resentment toward pro-British Natives will linger
  • In the South
  • British plan to capture Southern ports and lands
    to launch re-invasion of the North
  • Lord Cornwallis claimed victories, but stalled in
    the South as Americans refortified
  • Battle of Yorktown (Aug-Oct 1781)
  • Washingtons army, Lafayettes force, and French
    fleet laid siege to Cornwallis
  • British surrender led to American victory

20
Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay
  • British recognition of USA
  • USA granted all lands east of the Mississippi
  • Natives left out of the treaty
  • States applying own interests led to British
    remaining in Northwest forts
  • Brand new and bigger nation What now?

Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West
21
A New American Society/Republicanism
  • Before the war, the distinction between elites
    and commoners was visibly evident given the
    economical success of the colonies
  • Patriotic rhetoric of equality and liberty
    regained a sense of egalitarianism within the
    population
  • Rights and liberties a central core value
  • Promote the common good
  • Merit, not inheritance, defined a man
  • Against corruption
  • More and more self-made men participate in
    political leadership
  • Despite a new perception, the small upper class
    retained its status as owners of most of
    Americas wealth

22
Women of the Revolution
  • Upper-class women promoted cause through
    correspondence
  • Participated against Stamp Act and Townshend Acts
  • Spinning bees
  • Ran households and estates during husbands
    absence
  • Formed campaigns to promote war and funds
  • Abigail Adams and Remember the Ladies.

23
Blacks and Slaves of the Revolution
  • 500,000 blacks in America
  • Only 25,000 were free men
  • Some slaves escaped to freedom in confusion of
    war
  • Pose as free men
  • Escape on British ships or to British territories
  • Participation as Patriots
  • Early ban
  • Armies needed support
  • Northern states lead to abolish or phase out
    slavery
  • Quakers led the charge
  • Slave imports almost eliminated
  • New opportunities, same discrimination
  • Free blacks as second-class citizens
  • Prince Hall and return to Africa
  • Granted civil rights
  • Slavery as necessary evil
  • Increased tensions between colonies and Britain
    inspired slaves to resist
  • Most slaves sided with British
  • Lord Dunmores Proclamation (1775)
  • Join to reassert royal authority

24
Natives of the Revolution
  • Half of the population from 1754 to 1783 wiped
    out
  • New land acquisitions led to increased
    hostilities
  • Adapted lifestyle by incorporating European goods
  • Appealed to Congress on recognizing territories
    little to no support
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