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Chapter 8 A New Nation


Chapter 8 A New Nation Did You Know? The dome that visitors see today on the United States Capitol is actually the second dome that topped it. The first dome ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 8 A New Nation

Chapter 8 A New Nation
  • Did You Know?
  • The dome that visitors see today on the United
    States Capitol is actually the second dome that
    topped it. The first dome, designed by Boston
    architect Charles Bulfinch, started in 1793
    image was finished in 1824. It was wood covered
    by copper. But by the 1850s, it was thought to be
    too low and unimpressive. It was removed in 1856
    to make way for the new dome that still graces
    the building today.
  • It is a symbol of the United States. During the
    Civil War Lincoln order the work on the dome to
    continue as a symbol that the Union would survive.

Academic Content Standards
  • Government (Role of Government) 8th Grade
  • 1. Analyze the principles of self-government and
    natural rights expressed in the Declaration of
    Independence and their relationship to
    Enlightenment ideas. 2. Explain how political
    parties developed as a result of attempts to
    resolve issues in the early years of the United
    States including a. Payment of debt b.
    Establishment of a national bank c. Strict or
    loose interpretation of the Constitution d.
    Support for England or France.

  • Government (Rules and Laws) 8th Grade
  • 3. Explain how events and issues demonstrated the
    need for a stronger form of governance in the
    early years of the United States a. Shay's
    Rebellion b. Economic instability c.
    Government under the Articles of Confederation.
    4. Explain the political concepts expressed in
    the U.S. Constitution a. Representative
    democracy b. Federalism c. Bicameralism
    d. Separation of powers e. Checks and
    balances. 5. Explain how the U.S. Constitution
    protects the rights of citizens, regulates the
    use of territory, manages conflict, and
    establishes order and security. 6. Explain how
    specific provisions of the U.S. Constitution,
    including the Bill of Rights, limit the powers of
    government in order to protect the rights of
    individuals with emphasis on a. Freedom of
    religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
    b. Right to trial by jury and the right to
    counsel c. Due process and equal protection
    of the laws. 7. Explain how the Northwest
    Ordinance established principles and procedures
    for the orderly expansion of the United States.
    8. Describe the process by which a bill becomes
    a law.

Why I have the Superman Symbol in my room.
SS Division Totenkopf
Ben Franklin wanted the Turkey as a national
symbol. He said it's a much more respectable
bird and was a true original native of America
and a bird of courage.
Symbols mean things and tell people an awful lot
about us as individuals and as a people. The
same can be said for nations.
Omnia relinquit servare Republicam (He gave up
everything to preserve the Republic.)
Washington, The American Cincinnatus
(No Transcript)
The Character of Leadership
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote this probing, candid
    assessment of Washington at Monticello in a
    letter to a Dr. Walter Jones dated January 2,
    1814 (recounted in The Moral Compass p. 685
  • I think I knew General Washington intimately
    and thoroughly, and were I called on to delineate
    his character, it should be in terms like these.
    His mind was great and powerful,

First in war, first in peace, and first in the
hearts of his countrymen
  • Words from a eulogy for George Washington adopted
    by Congress immediately after Washington's death.
    The eulogy was written by Henry Lee, a soldier
    and political leader from Washington's home state
    of Virginia.
  • First in war, first in peace and first in the
    hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none
    in the humble and endearing scenes of private
    life. Pious, just, humane, temperate and sincere
    uniform, dignified and commandinghis example was
    as edifying to all around him as were the effects
    of that example lasting. . . . Correct
    throughout, vice shuddered in his presence and
    virtue always felt his fostering hand. The purity
    of his private character gave effulgence to his
    public virtues. . . . Such was the man for whom
    our nation mourns.

In 1832, Congress had commissioned Horatio
Greenough (1805-1852) to design a statue of
Washington for permanent display in the recently
completed Capitol Rotunda. Congress thought it
would be getting a statue of the nation's first
president as a standing figure. Greenough,
however, chose to model his statue on Zeus.  The
statue, made of 12 tons of white marble, was so
heavy that it began to crack the floor of the
Rotunda. Few lawmakers welcomed a half-naked
father of the country with well-developed
shoulder muscles. His upraised right arm, draped
with what appeared to be a towel across his
biceps, made Washington look as if he were
preparing to bathe. Incensed lawmakers demanded
the work be removed.
The Apotheosis of Washington in the eye of the
Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol was painted in the
true fresco technique by Constantino Brumidi in
A Nations Symbols
While campaigning as a senator, Barak Obama, used
the Obama seal shown. It does include the
American bald eagle clutching arrows and an olive
branch, the resemblance ends there. The Latin
phrase "E Pluribus Unum," which translates to
"Out of many, one," now says "Vero Possumus."
Press reports translate the Latin words as
"Truly, we are able" a rough translation of the
Obama campaign slogan, "Yes we can." The
deletion of "E Pluribus Unum," long considered
the de-facto motto of the United States, is not
accidental for multiculturalists, who have long
denigrated the concept that immigrants must strip
away their old culture in favor of the "oneness"
of American civilization. In the 1990s, such
activists promoted the alternative concept of the
nation's ethnic "mosaic," rather than a single,
overarching metaphor to describe American
society. For example, Nation of Islam leader
Louis Farrakhan has pointedly criticized the "E
Pluribus Unum" motto as not reflecting the
nation's diversity. Other Obama changes to the
seal include the removal of the shield over the
eagle's breast, representing the president's oath
to defend the Constitution. The shield has been
replaced with the letter "O" presumably for
Obama and the image of a rising sun.
  • The seal of the President of the United States of
    America is based upon the Great Seal of the USA.
    The Presidential seal pictures an American bald
    eagle holding a ribbon in its beak the ribbon
    has the motto of the USA, "E PLURIBUS UNUM,"
    meaning "Out of many, one." The eagle is
    clutching an olive branch (with 13 olives and 13
    leaves) in one foot (symbolizing peace) and 13
    arrows in the other (the 13 stands for the
    original 13 colonies and the arrows symbolize the
    acceptance of the need to go to war to protect
    the country).
  • A shield is in front of the eagle representing
    the presidents oath to protect the Constitution
    the shield has 13 red and white stripes
    (representing the original 13 colonies) with a
    blue bar above it (it symbolizes the uniting of
    the 13 colonies and represents congress). Above
    the eagle are 13 white clouds, 13 white stars,
    and many tiny stars. 50 white stars surround the
    eagle in a circle (on a deep blue field). The
    words, "Seal of the President of the United
    States" surround the seal (on a tan field).
  • The first President who used a presidential seal
    was Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880, Hayes used the
    seal for White House invitations.

I. President Washington Father of the Nation
(Pages 258-260)
  • Although Washington thought he was going to
    retire after the war, he was elected the first
    president of the United States under the federal
  • I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely
    any part of my conduct that may not be drawn into
  • Washington was aware of the difficulties and
    decisions he had to face. He would establish
    precedents that would shape the future of the
    United States.
  • The Federalist Era 1789-1800

Congress set up a cabinet with three departments
  • the State Department to handle relations with
    other nations, headed by Thomas Jefferson
  • Treasury Department to deal with financial
    matters, headed by Alexander Hamilton
  • War Department to provide for the national
    defense, headed by Henry Knox Henry Knox

Washington and his cabinet left to right,
President Washington, Secretary of War Henry
Knox, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander
Hamilton, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson,
and Attorney General Edmund Randolph
The Obama Cabinet OfficeNameTerm Vice
PresidentJoe Biden2009present Secretary of
StateHillary Clinton2009present Secretary of
TreasuryTimothy Geithner2009present Secretary of
DefenseRobert Gates2006present Attorney
GeneralEric Holder2009present Secretary of the
InteriorKen Salazar2009present Secretary of
AgricultureTom Vilsack2009present Secretary of
CommerceGary Locke2009present Secretary of
LaborHilda Solis2009present Secretary of Health
andHuman ServicesKathleen Sebelius2009present Sec
retary of EducationArne Duncan2009present Secreta
ry of Housing andUrban DevelopmentShaun
Donovan2009presen tSecretary of
TransportationRay LaHood2009presen Secretary of
EnergySteven Chu2009present Secretary of
Veterans AffairsEric Shinseki2009present Secretar
y of Homeland SecurityJanet Napolitano2009present
Chief of StaffRahm Emanuel2009present Administra
tor of theEnvironmental Protection AgencyLisa
Jackson2009present Director of the Office
ofManagement and BudgetPeter Orszag2009presentAmb
assador to the United NationsSusan
Rice2009present United States Trade
RepresentativeRon Kirk2009presentRetained from
previous administration
The Presidential Succession Act of
1947establishes the line of succession to the
office of President of the United States in the
event that neither a President or Vice President
is able to "discharge the powers and duties of
the office. Congressional authority to enact
such a law is twofold Article II, Section 1,
Clause 6 of the United States Constitution and
Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment to the
  • Following World War II and the death of President
    Roosevelt, President Truman lobbied for a
    revision of the law, and ultimately the current
    act was passed.
  • The new law restored the Congressional officers
    to places directly after the Vice President, but
    switched their order from the 1792 Act, placing
    the Speaker of the House first and the President
    pro tempore second. The Cabinet officers then
    followed, again in the order in which their
    respective departments were created with one
    exception the Secretary of Defense (a department
    created in 1947 following a merger of the
    Departments of War and Navy) was placed fifth in
    the line of succession, directly after the
    Secretary of the Treasury. This placed the
    Defense Department in the place that had been
    held by the Department of War.

Run Time 2839 The state of the nation in
1789 begged for signs of stability. We examine
how the political leadership of George Washington
and the economic plan of Alexander Hamilton
shaped the United States in the 1790s-and for
generations afterwards. See the contrasting views
of Jefferson and Hamilton on how the government
should interpret the Constitution and run the
government and the effects westward expansion had
on the Native Americans and slavery
  • Congress created the office of attorney general
    to handle the government's legal affairs. Edmund
    Randolph was the first attorney general.
  • Washington met regularly with the three
    department heads, or secretaries, and the
    attorney general, which together became known as
  • Congress was divided as to how much power the
    president should hold over the executive
  • The Judiciary Act of 1789 was actually a
    compromise act. One group in Congress favored a
    national legal system, and a second favored state
    courts. The act established a federal court
    system with 13 district courts and 3 circuit
    courts. State laws would remain, but federal
    courts would have the power to reverse state
  • The Supreme Court buildingsof various locations
    was to be the highest court with final authority.
    John Jay was appointed chief justice.
  • Many people felt the Constitution needed a
    guarantee of personal liberties. In fact, some
    states supported the Constitution because a bill
    of rights was to be added to it.

It is clear that Madison truly thought that a
bill of rights was not necessary except to
mollify those who thought it was required, to
preclude another constitutional convention and to
encourage the final two states to ratify the
Constitution.  In later years, his letters
revealed no great pride of authorship.  In a
letter of 1821 he referred to "those safe, if not
necessary, and those politic, if not obligatory,
amendments."  In his speech to Congress the best
he could say of a bill of rights was that it was
"neither improper nor absolutely useless." Faint
  • James Madison image presented a list of
    amendments to Congress.
  • Congress passed 12 amendments.
  • The states ratified 10 of them.
  • These 10 amendments became known as the Bill of
    Rights and were added to the Constitution in
    December 1791.

  • Here is a list rights included in the Bill of
  • First Amendment Congress shall make no law
    respecting an establishment of religion, or
    prohibiting the free exercise thereof or
    abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press
    or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,
    and to petition the Government for a redress of
  • Second Amendment A well regulated Militia, being
    necessary to the security of a free State, the
    right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall
    not be infringed.
  • Third Amendment No Soldier shall, in time of
    peace be quartered in any house, without the
    consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in
    a manner to be prescribed by law.
  • Fourth Amendment The right of the people to be
    secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
    effects, against unreasonable searches and
    seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants
    shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported
    by Oath or affirmation, and particularly
    describing the place to be searched, and the
    persons or things to be seized.
  • Fifth Amendment No person shall be held to
    answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous
    crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a
    Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land
    or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in
    actual service in time of War or public danger
    nor shall any person be subject for the same
    offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or
    limb nor shall be compelled in any criminal case
    to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived
    of life, liberty, or property, without due
    process of law nor shall private property be
    taken for public use, without just compensation.

Sixth Amendment In all criminal prosecutions,
the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State
and district wherein the crime shall have been
committed, which district shall have been
previously ascertained by law, and to be informed
of the nature and cause of the accusation to be
confronted with the witnesses against him to
have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses
in his favor, and to have the Assistance of
Counsel for his defence. Seventh Amendment In
suits at common law, where the value in
controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the
right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no
fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise
reexamined in any Court of the United States,
than according to the rules of the common law.
Eighth Amendment Excessive bail shall not be
required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punishments inflicted. Ninth
Amendment The enumeration in the Constitution,
of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny
or disparage others retained by the people.
Tenth Amendment The powers not delegated to the
United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited
by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people.
  • Speech, Religion, Press
  • Petition, Assembly

  • keep and bear Arms

Troops quartered, without the consent of the
"He who controls the present, controls the past.
He who controls the past, controls the future."
  --  George Orwell 1984
Searches and seizures limited
due process of law including protection against
Self incrimination.
Right of a person accused of a crime, Including
right to a lawyer
Right of a trial by jury
Unfair bail, fines and punishment forbidden
Celebrating the New GOP Majority
Citizens entitles to rights not listed in
Powers not listed reserved to the states or the
  • Amending the Constitution Article V of the
    Constitution provides two processes by which
    amendments can be proposed and approved
  • Congress proposes amendments.As is the case
    with the flag burning amendment, both houses of
    Congress approve by two-thirds votes a resolution
    calling for the amendment. The resolution does
    not require the president's signature. To become
    effective, the proposed amendment must then be
    "ratified" or approved by the legislatures of
    three-fourths of the states. Congress typically
    places a time limit of seven years for
    ratification by the states.
  • The states propose amendments.The legislatures
    of two-thirds of the states vote to call for a
    convention at which constitutional amendments can
    be proposed. Amendments proposed by the
    convention would again require ratification by
    the legislatures of three-fourths of the states.
  • All twenty-seven amendments, including the Bill
    of Rights have been added through the first
    method. The Constitution has never been amended
    using the second process.
  • While over 10,000 have been proposed, only
    seventeen amendments to the Constitution have
    been adopted since final ratification of the Bill
    of Rights in 1791.

1. What do you think was the most important
decision of the early government creating a
cabinet, passing the Judiciary Act, or adding the
Bill of Rights to the Constitution? Explain your
Answer needs to include reasons. Most will
probably say the Bill of Rights because it
guarantees personal liberties, and that is what
the country represents however, the Judiciary
Act created the court system, and the cabinet
helps the executive office function
II. Financial Problems (Pages 260-261)
  • Hamilton, as secretary of the treasury, tried to
    find a way to strengthen the country's financial
    problems. He proposed the Hamilton Plan.
  • The nation should pay for the cost of their help.
  • Further, by the federal government assuming the
    states' debts, this would give the states a
    strong interest in the success of the new
    government. Hamilton was an advocate of many of
    Adam Smiths ideas as expressed in his work The
    Wealth of Nations

Hamiltons Plan Cont.
  • There was opposition to Hamilton's plan. Congress
    agreed to pay money to other nations, but they
    could not agree to payoff the debt to American
  • When the government borrowed money during the
    war, it issued bonds, or paper notes, promising
    to repay the money in a given period of time.
    Opponents said this would make the speculators
  • The original bond Hamilton blackmailed (Maria
    Reynolds) explanation owners were also opposed
    because they had lost money on their bonds and
    the new bond owners had made money, only to make
    more if Hamilton's plan was enacted.
  • The Southern states also presented opposition
    because their state debt was less than the
    Northern states, and they would have to pay more
    than their share under Hamilton's plan.
  • Hamilton proposed a compromise plan. He agreed to
    a proposal by Southern leaders to move the
    nation's capital from New York City to a special
    district in the South between Virginia and
    Maryland. This became Washington, D.C. The
    Southerners then agreed to support his plan to
    payoff the state debts.

It proposed to pay off the growing debt from the
war by paying foreign countries money that was
borrowed, by paying off the state debts, and by
paying American citizens money borrowed from
them. By paying the debt, Hamilton believed that
he could rebuild the countrys financial
reputation and strengthen the nation. Without
such a large debt, the nation would be able to
use its money to grow instead of towards interest
payments on the debt.
  • How did Hamilton's plan propose
  • to strengthen the economy?

III. Building the Economy (Page 262)
  • Hamilton also proposed the creation of a
    national bank , the Bank of the United States a
    tariff, or tax, on imports and national taxes
    (excise taxes) to help the nation's economy.
    (See slides Hamilton, Jefferson and the Bank)
  • Before the bill to create a national bank was
    proposed, only state banks existed.
  • Hamilton proposed a protective tariff on imports.
    He hoped this would protect American industry
    from foreign competition and encourage people to
    buy American goods.
  • The South opposed this tax because they had
    little industry to protect.
  • Hamilton did win support in Congress for some low
    tariffs to raise money.
  • Hamilton's economic program also called for
    creating national taxes.
  • Hamilton's economic program gave the country new
    financial powers, but it split Congress and the
  • (So too did the French Rev)

Chapter 8, Section 2
Maximilien Robespierre   "Terror is nothing other
than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible"
  • Another issue splitting the country in was
  • The French Revolution of 1789 was partly
    inspired by ideas from the earlier American
    Revolution. These ideas included the (1) people's
    right to take up arms against tyranny, the
    concept that there should (2) be no taxation
    without representation, that all men should have
    (3) liberal freedoms, and that a republic is
    superior to a monarchy.

  • Powers of the Constitution
  • Delegated powers--those powers specifically
    granted to the national government. These powers
    are primarily in Article I, Section 8, clauses 1
    through 17 of the Constitution.
  • Inherent powers are those powers that the
    national government gets because of being
    sovereign. Inherent powers allow the national
    government to conduct foreign relations with
    other nations.
  • Reservedkept by the states or the people
  • Concurrentshared by federal and state
  • Impliedindirect, oblique, roundabout The
    Necessary-and-Proper Clause (also known as the
    Elastic Clause, ) is the provision in Article
    One of the United States Constitution, section 8,
    clause 18

Hamilton, Jefferson and the Bank
  • The Necessary-and-Proper Clause (also known as
    the Elastic Clause, ) is the provision in
    Article One of the United States Constitution,
    section 8, clause 18
  • To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus
    specially drawn around the powers of Congress is
    to take possession of a boundless field of power
    no longer capable of being defined.the
    Constitution allows only the means which are
    necessary, not those which are merely

Hamilton, Jefferson and the Bank
  • It is essential to the being of the national
    government that so mistaken an idea of the
    meaning of the word necessary should be

  • It is an on going issue! From whence comes the
    power to do what the government does?
  • Or when is a tax not a tax?

When Asked where the Constitution Authorizes
Congress to Order Americans To Buy Health
Insurance, Speaker Pelosi answered 'Are You
Serious?, Are you Serious?
  • Speaker Pelosi's press secretary later responded
    to written follow-up questions saying, concerning
    the Constitutionality of Health Insurance
    Reform, that Congress derives the authority to
    mandate that people purchase health
    insurance from its constitutional power to
    regulate interstate commerce. (Article I, Section
    8, Clause 3).

Obama Goes Toe-To-Toe With Stephanopoulos On "Tax
Obama administration argues in court Individual
health care mandate is a tax
  • In a brief defending the law, the Justice
    Department says the requirement for people to
    carry insurance or pay the penalty is a valid
    exercise of Congresss power to impose taxes.
  • What can Congress do(?)depends upon where they
    claim they derive the power to do something, and
    exactly what it is theyre doing!

He probably did want to protect the wealthy
citizens because they had the money to invest in
helping the country grow. Over time there has
been a struggle over whether or not, and how
much, the government should protect the
investments and interests of the wealthy
3. Do you think Hamilton planned to protect the
interests of the wealthy, or was this just a
by-product of his economic program?
Run Time 0205 Alexander Hamilton introduced
the first excise taxes to be placed on the
manufacture, sale or consumption of certain
IV. The Whiskey Rebellion (Pages 263-264)
George Washington and his troops near Fort
Cumberland, Maryland, before their march to
suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in western
BY AUTHORITYBy the president of the United
States of America A Proclamation Whereas,
combinations to defeat the execution of the laws
laying duties upon spirits distilled within the
United States and upon stills have from the time
of the commencement of those laws existed in some
of the western parts of Pennsylvania. And
whereas, the said combinations, G.
  • Farmers resisted paying a tax on the whiskey they
    made. They usually exchanged whiskey and other
    items for goods they needed rather than buy goods
    with cash. They did not have money to pay a tax.
  • In July 1794, federal officers came into western
    Pennsylvania to collect a tax. The resistance
    turned into an armed protest that was called the
    Whiskey Rebellion. first shots fired A large mob
    of people, believing they could resist the
    federal government, attacked tax collectors and
    burned buildings.
  • President Washington sent an army A PROCLAMATION
    to quiet the rebellion. His actions showed
    people that the government would use force to
    maintain social order. (using the Militia Act of

4. Give two reasons why the western Pennsylvania
farmers were so resistant to a tax on whiskey?
These farmers (1)were not rich. Their lives were
different from Easterners living in cities or
towns. They were proud of their ability to
(2)exist by bartering their whiskey for goods
they needed. They did not have money to pay a
tax and (3)thought they could rebel against the
new government instead of paying a tax. They saw
that they could not and that they would not be
excluded from paying the whiskey tax that was
levied on all citizens
Josiah Harmer Arthur St. Clair
  • The Native Americans who lived between the
    Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River
    had troubles with the new government over this
  • American settlers ignored the treaties and moved
    onto the lands that were promised to the Native
    Americans. Conflict ensues!

VI. Struggle over the West (Page 264)
  • The Native Americans demanded that all settlers
    north of the Ohio River leave. Washington sent in
    another army led by Anthony Wayne. At the Battle
    of Fallen Timbers in August 1794, Wayne's army
    defeated over 1,000 Native American including
    Little Turtle Little Turtle
  • The Treaty of Greenville was signed in 1795 to
    settle the issue. Native Americans agreed to
    surrender most of the land in present-day Ohio
    for 20,000 dollars worth of goods.

Area Open to White Settlement Also certain other
areas used by whites as portage and fort
location including Ft. Detroit and site of future
Chicago U.S. agreed to pay 20, 000 dollars in
goods to the tribes 9,500 dollars annual payments
to be divided among specified tribes Tribes
retained right to hunt throughout the area
Must include a comparison. Because the treaty
required native Americans to give up most of
present-day Ohio in return for 20,000 worth of
goods, they lost land but gained money that they
did not have. Because the American settlers
gained more land on which to settle, they
probably fared better.
5. Which group fared better from the Treaty of
Greenville, the Native Americans or the American
VIII. Problems with Europe (Pages 264-266)
  • The French Revolution began in 1789, just after
    Washington took office, and in 1793, Britain and
    France went to war.
  • The French tried to involve the United States. In
    April 1793, the French diplomat Edmond Genet came
    to the United States to recruit American
    volunteers to attack British shipping.
  • Washington announced a Proclamation of Neutrality
    on April 22 that prohibited Americans from
    fighting in the war and prohibited British
    warships from American ports.
  • The British began capturing American ships that
    traded with the French. They also stopped
    American merchant ships, took their crews, and
    forced them into the British navy, or impressed
  • Washington, so as to avoid war with Britain, sent
    John Jay to negotiate a peaceful solution.

  • Jay's Treaty said that Britain shall withdraw
    from American soil, pay damages for ships they
    seize allow some American ships to trade with
    British colonies in the Caribbean Jay's treaty
    also provided for settlements of debts from
    before 1776.
  • Jay's Treaty was controversial. Many Americans
    disapproved of it because it did not deal with
    British impressment or the British interference
    with American trade.
  • To settle their differences with the United
    States, Spain also signed a treaty. Thomas
    Pinckney went to Spain in 1795. The Pinckney
    Treaty gave Americans the right to freely
    navigate the Mississippi River and also the right
    to trade at the port of New Orleans.

(1)Britain sold its goods mainly to the United
States and needed to maintain a good
relationship. Britain also saw that the
(2)Americans would fight if pressured. So
Britain accepted the fact that they had to give
up their positions in the United States and agree
to the terms of Jays Treaty. (1)The United
States victories in the West made Spain realize
that it also needed to make peace. (2) Spain did
not want the United States and Britain to work
against their empire in North America, so Spain
signed the Pinckney Treaty.
6. Why did Britain and Spain sign treaties with
the United States?
VI. Washington's Farewell (Page 266)
  • In his address Washington
  • Extolls the benefits of the federal government.
    "The unity of a main pillar in
    the edifice of your real independence...of your
    tranquility at home, your peace abroad of your
    safety of your prosperity of that very liberty
    which you so highly prize."
  • Warns against the party system. "It serves to
    distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the
    Public Administration....agitates the Community
    with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms
    kindles the animosity of one....against opens the door to foreign influence
    and corruption...thus the policy and the will of
    one country are subjected to the policy and will
    of another."
  • Stresses the importance of religion and morality.
    "Where is the security for property, for
    reputation, for life, if the sense of religious
    obligation desert the oaths, which are the
    instruments of investigation in Courts of
  • On stable public credit. "...cherish public
    credit. One method of preserving it is to use it
    as sparingly as possible...avoiding likewise the
    accumulation of is essential that
    you...bear in mind, that towards the payments of
    debts there must be Revenue, that to have Revenue
    there must be taxes that no taxes can be
    devised, which are not...inconvenient and
  • Warns against permanent foreign alliances. "It is
    our true policy to steer clear of permanent
    alliances with any portion of the foreign
  • On an over-powerful military establishment.
    "...avoid the necessity of those overgrown
    military establishments, which, under any form of
    government, are inauspicious to liberty, and
    which are to be regarded as particularly hostile
    to Republican Liberty."
  • In saying farewell to the new nation he helped
    create Washington pointed out that ".......the
    name of American, which belongs to you, in your
    national capacity, must always exalt the just
    pride of Patriotism..."
  • To the great soldier, statesman and leader of his tribute could be more fitting.
    (Largely written by Hamiltion)
  • Washington had served two terms as president and
    chose not to seek a third term.
  • In his farewell address, he spoke about the evils
    of political parties and the problems of foreign
    affairs. His parting words influenced the
    nation's foreign policy for more than 100 years.
  • Washington's speech is read aloud in the Senate
    each year on his birthday. Born February 22, 1732

Should include a discussion of the problems she
encountered as president that influenced him to
say the Unites States should avoid permanent
alliances and remain neutral. He wanted the
country to focus on running itself and growing.
By avoiding entanglements the nation could focus
on growing and establishing a strong government
7. Why do you think Washington was so concerned
about avoiding "permanent alliances" with foreign
Washingtons grave Mt. Vernon(
1799, Washington unexpectedly diedBetween two
and three oclock on Saturday morning he awork
Mrs. Washington, and told here he was very
unwellOctober 11, 1816, Tobias Lear committed
suicide by shooting himself
Did You Know?
  • According to present-day writer George F. Will,
    Alexander Hamilton's ideas are still affecting
    Americans today. "There is an elegant memorial
    photo in Washington to Jefferson, but none to
    Hamilton. However, if you seek Hamilton's
    monument, look around. You are living in it. We
    honor Jefferson, but we live in Hamilton's
    country, a mighty industrial nation with a strong
    central government." -George F. Will,
    Restoration, 1992.

Statue of Hamilton in front of the Treasury
Department Building
IX. Opposing Views (Pages 267-270)
The Federalist No. 10 James Madison AMONG the
numerous advantages promised by a well
constructed Union, none deserves to be more
accurately developed than its tendency to break
and control the violence of faction. The friend
of popular governments never finds himself so
much alarmed for their character and fate, as
when he contemplates their propensity to this
dangerous vice. By a faction, I understand a
number of citizens, whether amounting to a
majority or a minority of the whole, who are
united and actuated by some common impulse of
passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights
of other citizens, or to the permanent and
aggregate interests of the community. we
behold a republican remedy for the diseases most
incident to republican government. And according
to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in
being republicans, ought to be our zeal in
cherishing the spirit and supporting the
character of Federalists.
" serves to distract the Public Councils, and
enfeeble the Public Administration....agitates
the Community with ill-founded jealousies and
false alarms kindles the animosity of
one....against opens the door to
foreign influence and corruption...thus the
policy and the will of one country are subjected
to the policy and will of another." Washington
on political parties
  • Most Americans in the late 1700s considered
    political parties harmful and to be avoided.
    Political parties were not mentioned in the
    Constitution. Washington denounced them. Madison
    warned against them.
  • By 1796 Americans were beginning to divide into
    opposing groups and form political parties
  • Two distinct political parties emerged-the
    Federalists and the Republicans, also called the

Run Time 0631 A growing conflict over
creating a national bank arose between Alexander
Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Trace the location
of the nation's capital. Learn how conflicts led
to a split of political parties after George
Washington's two terms.
(No Transcript)
Continued IX.
  • The Federalists generally supported policies of
    Alexander Hamilton. Its policies favored
    representative government in which elected
    officials ruled in the people's name
  • 1. a strong federal government
  • 2. banking and shipping interests
  • 3. rule by the wealthy
  • 4. a national bank
  • a loose interpretation of the Constitution or
    implied powers
  • a British alliance
  • protective tariffs

The Washington Cabinet Office Name Term Pr
esident George Washington 17891797 Vice
President John Adams 17891797 Secretary of
State Thomas Jefferson 17901793 Edmund
Randolph17941795 Timothy Pickering17951797
Secretary of Treasury Alexander
Hamilton17891795 Oliver Wolcott, Jr.
17951797 Secretary of War Henry
Knox 17891794 Timothy Pickering17951795 Ja
mes McHenry 17961797 Attorney General Edmund
Randolph17891794 William Bradford 17941795
Charles Lee 17951797
IX. Continued
  • In the 1796 presidential election, candidates
    were members of a political party. At caucuses,
    or political-party meetings, members of Congress
    and other leaders chose their party's candidates.
  • The Federalists nominated John Adams for
    president and Charles Pinckney for vice
  • The Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson for
    president and Aaron Burr for vice-president.
  • Adams won the election with 71 electoral votes.
    Jefferson received 68 votes. Jefferson became the
    vice president, because at the time, the person
    with the second-highest number of electoral votes
    became vice president. Jefferson and Adams were
    of different political parties.

IX. Continued
  • The Republicans, or Democratic-Republicans, led
    by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
  • Madison favored
  • strong state governments and limited federal
    government powers
  • emphasis on agricultural products
  • rule by the people
  • government in which people participate
  • state banks vs. a national bank
  • a strict interpretation of the Constitution
  • a French alliance
  • free trade
  • By 1793 Jefferson resigned as secretary of state
    and in 1795 Hamilton resigned as secretary of the
    treasury because of their differences.

Run Time 0737 Examine the emergence of
political parties in the United States. See how
the parties evolved in our early national
history--from Federalists and Jeffersonian
Republicans to modern-day Republicans and
The Adams Cabinet Office Name Term Presiden
t John Adams 17971801 Vice President Thomas
Jefferson 17971801 Secretary of State Timothy
Pickering 17971800 John Marshall 18001801
Secretary of Treasury Oliver Wolcott,
Jr. 17971801 Samuel Dexter 1801 Secretary
of War James McHenry 17961800 Samuel
Dexter 18001801 Attorney General Charles
Lee 17971801 Secretary of the Navy Benjamin
Stoddert 17981801
Answers should include the idea that it is hard
enough to get consensus, or agreement, within a
party and even more difficult to get people from
different parties to agree when they hold the
offices of president and vice president
concurrently. The electoral process was later
changed so that people elected a slate, not
8. Why do you think the electoral process was
changed so that results like the 1796 election
with people from different parties holding office
together would not occur again?
VIII. President John Adams (Pages 270-272)
  • John Adams served as vice president under
    Washington for two terms before becoming the
    Second president of the United States. He spent
    most of his life in public service.
  • A dispute with France over the terms of Jay's
    Treaty ended in an incident known as the XYZ
  • The French saw the treaty as the United States
    helping the British in the war with France, so
    they seized American ships carrying cargo to
  • To avoid war with France, Adams sent a
    delegation to Paris to resolve the issue.
  • Charles de Talleyrand, the French foreign
    minister, refused to meet with the Americans and
    sent three agents who demanded a bribe and a
    United States loan for France.
  • The Americans refused the terms, and when Adams
    heard about the incident, he referred to the
    three agents as X, Y, and Z.
  • Adams urged Congress to prepare for war.
    Congress strengthened the armed forces,
    established the Navy Department in April 1798,
    and allotted money to build warships. George
    Washington was appointed commanding general.
  • This undeclared sea war between American and
    French naval forces between 1798 and 1800 saw
    more than 90 French armed ships seized. France
    now became the enemy for many Americans.

Media War!
The National Gazette a Democratic-Republlican
Gazette of the United States friendlyto
Washington, and to the policies Federalist
Run Time 0304 Problems with the French
prompted the Federalists to authorize the Alien
and Sedition Acts. Discover the effect these acts
had on the free press as well as John Adams's
hopes for re-election. Examine his success in
avoiding war with France.
IX. Continued
  • by Thomas Jefferson, 1798
  • Resolves That, therefore, the act of Congress of
    the United States, passed on the 14th day of
    July, 1798, intituled An Act in addition to the
    act intituled An Act for the punishment of
    certain crimes against the United States, which
    does abridge the freedom of the press, is not
    law, but is altogether void, and of no force.
  • 4. ResolvedAn Act concerning aliens, which
    assumes powers over alien friends, not delegated
    by the Constitution, is not law, but is
    altogether void, and of no force.
  • In 1798 Congress passed a group of measures
    called the Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and
    Sedition Acts. These laws were passed to protect
    the nation's security.
  • 1. Americans became more suspicious of aliens, or
    people living in the United States who were not
    citizens, especially Europeans who came in the
    1790s and who supported the ideals of the French
  • Sedition refers to activities aimed at weakening
    established government. One of the people
    arrested under the Sedition Act was congressman
    Matthew Lyon.
  • The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798
    and 1799 were resolutions written by Madison and
    Jefferson on states' rights. The resolution said
    that the Alien and Sedition Acts could not become
    effective because they violated the Constitution.
  • They also said that the people of each state had
    the right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law
    within that state.
  • They showed that many Americans feared a strong
    central government that could interfere with
    their rights. The issue of states' rights would
    continue, and in time lead to civil war.

Run Time 0424 The election for the second
president of the United States began a bitter
rivalry between John Adams and his vice
president, Thomas Jefferson. Learn about Adams's
disloyal cabinet, his problems with diplomacy,
and his relationship with his wife, Abigail.
  • The undeclared war with France needed
    resolution. Federalists urged Adams to step up
    the war with France. They hoped to benefit
    politically from a war. Adams refused to rush a
    war and appointed a commission to seek peace with
    France. In 1800 the French agreed to a treaty and
    stopped attacks on American ships.
  • This agreement hurt Adams's chance for
    reelection. Hamilton and his supporters now
    opposed their own president. Because of this rift
    in the Federalist Party, the Republicans now had
    a good chance to win the 1800 presidential

Pick one essay to answer.
  • Who was involved in the Whiskey Rebellion and why
    were they protesting? What action did the
    government take and why was this important?
  • How did the administration that took office in
    1797 come to have a Federalist president and a
    Republican vice president?

Answers should include an analysis of the
foreign-affairs issues, the issue of states
rights versus a strong federal government , and
the political party issues so students can make
an informed decision.
9. Under the Adams presidency, what do you think
was the most important event or decision that
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