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CS 376 Fieldwork and Prototyping


CS 376 Fieldwork and Prototyping Shailendra Rao Abhay Sukumaran – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CS 376 Fieldwork and Prototyping

CS 376Fieldwork and Prototyping
  • Shailendra RaoAbhay Sukumaran

Fieldwork / Prototyping
  • Fieldwork Contextual Design
  • Prototyping Prototyping for Tiny Fingers
  • Case Study Informing the Design of an
    Information Management Systems with Iterative

Fieldwork Contextual Design
  • Ch2 Gathering Customer Data
  • Ch3 Principles of Contextual Inquiry

Gathering Customer Data
  • Marketing vs. design
  • Market money, barriers to entry, niches
  • Design work structure, attitudes, affordances
  • Quantitative vs. Qualitative
  • Eliciting customer needs is difficult
  • IT people tend to focus on technology dont
    share the users perspective

Good Designers Can
  • Delve into intuitive processes and make the
    knowledge shareable
  • Using Contextual Inquiry
  • In the field
  • Co-discovery of needs with user
  • Shared interpretation
  • Directed by design purpose
  • Marketing tells you what will sell design tells
    you how best to build it.

Principles of Contextual Inquiry 1 of 5
  • The Master/ Apprentice Relationship Model
  • Design team learns about users work like an
    apprentice learning from a master
  • Observation Discussion
  • Go to workplace to see work as it unfolds
  • No generalizations, but actual instances of work
  • Current events trigger past events
  • Environments and artifacts matter

Principles of Contextual Inquiry 2 of 5
  • Four Principles of Contextual Inquiry
  • Context
  • Partnership
  • Interpretation
  • Focus

Principles of Contextual Inquiry 3 of 5
  • 1. Context
  • Go to the customers workplace and see the work
    as it unfolds (Whiteside and Wixon 1988)
  • Summary vs Ongoing Experience
  • Details are hard to talk about, but easy to see
  • Abstract vs. Concrete Data
  • Real artifacts and specific events make essential
    details salient

Principles of Contextual Inquiry 4 of 5
  • 2. Partnership
  • Make you and the customer collaborators in
    understanding his work
  • Withdrawal and return watching work
    discussing how work in structured
  • Design is truly user centered when you start by
    investigating work structure, not by bringing a
  • Other Relationship Models to avoid
  • Interviewer/ interviewee
  • Expert/ novice

Principles of Contextual Inquiry 5 of 5
  • 3. Interpretation What do these observations
    reveal about underlying structure?
  • Correct interpretations lead to effective design
  • Check the interpretation by walking the user
    through it
  • Be open-ended and pay close attention to
    nonverbal cues
  • 4. Focus steer, but dont blindfold
  • Follow up to probe for detail on relevant things
  • Use intrapersonal triggers to expand focus

CSI Contextual Inquiry
  • Crime Scene Investigation the Contextual Inquiry
  • How does Kumar manage his music collection? The
    Crime Scene Investigator commits a crime!
  • Roles
  • Shailo Kumar the customer
  • Abhay Harold the interviewer

Crime 1
  • S Hey Im Kumar and Im here for the study. Aw
    man, it was really tough finding the place! I
    took 101 and then the Dumbarton bridge and then
    880 North and then got stuck in traff-
  • Not in users context

Crime 2
  • S feeling awkward So, Harold how about them
    Warriors this upcoming season? They look good
  • A Um, Im not really interested in basketball.
    Im more of a baseball fan.
  • No sensitivity to culture and not making the user
    feel comfortable.

Crime 3
  • A Okay moving on. Have you ever converted a CD
    to mp3 format with your computer?
  • S Yup.
  • A What program do you use to do this?
  • S Well I use iTunes.
  • Leading question

Crime 4
  • A So today Id like you to tell me about how you
    manage your music collection. Do you listen to
    mp3s on your computer?
  • S Yes.
  • A What program do you use to manage your music?
  • S Hmmm, I think its called iTunes. That Apple
  • A Have you ever created an Audio CD from your
  • S You mean to listen in my car?
  • A Yes, whatever.
  • S Oh yeah Ive done that plenty of times.
  • A How many songs do you have?
  • S You mean mp3s or cds?
  • A In iTunes.
  • S Probably 20GB
  • A So how many songs is that?
  • S Hmmm, a lot?
  • A Okay moving on. Have you ever converted a CD
    to mp3 format with your computer?
  • S Yup.
  • A What program do you use to do this?
  • S Well I use iTunes.
  • Interviewer/ interviewee relationship model

Crime 5
  • A Well actually you know Nero does a better job
    of converting CDs to mp3 format. Its much
    faster. You should use it.
  • S Oh yeah? You know Im probably not as
    well-versed as you in this computer music thing.
  • A Well lets just say Ive been doing this for
    years. Ive been converting CDs to mp3s since
  • S Wow, Harold! I didnt even know mp3s existed
    back then!
  • A You have so much to learn, Kumar.
  • Expert/ Novice relationship instead of Master/

Crime 6
  • A OK. So now its exactly as if you were setting
    at your desktop computer with your normal program
    and settings right?
  • S I guess so. This is actually my friends
    laptop that I borrowed just for this study.
  • A Well okay, but its exactly the same right?
  • S Sure. Its a computer with music right?
  • No Context- studying an artificial situation and

Crime 7
  • S Pretty good.
  • A What do you mean? Tell me three of the biggest
    problems you have had.
  • Leading, assuming that there have been problems

Crime 8
  • Uh, I guess sometimes a few of my files dont
    transfer over.
  • A Because the Bluetooth broke down?
  • Leading the interviewee

Crimes 9 10
  • S Um, no, I dont think so. Is Bluetooth the
    wire that connects the Ipod to the computer?
  • A lthahagt, are you kidding? No, its a
    short-range radio frequency standard for mobile
    device communication.
  • Expert / novice relationship model
  • Probe for concrete data vs. abstract

Crime 11
  • S ok. Here goes. ltcreates two playlistsgt
  • A ltwatches gt Ok. Did you have any problems doing
  • S No, I dont think so.
  • Interviewer did not alternate between watching
    and probing.

Crime 12
  • A I think you were trying to replicate a saved
    query there.
  • S uh.. yeah, the thing is, I dont know how to
    browse my music through iTunes. I just know how
    to search.
  • Interviewer should share interpretation with
    user, and let them finetune it.

Crime 13
  • S come to think of it, I have a tough time
    browsing the stuff Ive TIvoed. I think the
    problem is that I collect so many shows in such
    small periods of time. Ill TiVo 5 shows a day.
    Actually I.. Do you ever have that problem,
  • A um, no
  • S Well, thats pretty cool
  • Focus was not handled properly

Crime 14
  • A Yeah, next time Ill show you how to manage
    your music much more effectively.
  • Reinforcing the wrong relationship model

Prototyping for Tiny Fingers
  • Fudds first law of creativity To get a good
    idea, get lots of ideas.
  • Lo-fi (Paper) vs Hi-fi Prototyping
  • Know your user, you arent your user

Not so Tiny Tradeoffs
  • What are the Tradeoffs to Lo-Fi Prototyping?

Advantages to Lo-Fi Prototyping
  • Quick to build (especially multiple)
  • Get user feedback fast
  • Keeps focus on conceptual elements rather Fit
    and Finish

Advantages to Lo-Fi Prototyping
  • No false impressions of how much backend work has
    been completed
  • Avoid debugging
  • Great for choosing between different several
    different mockups

Disadvantages to Paper Prototyping
  • Cant sell it
  • Bad for testing look and feel
  • Cant show a detailed proof of concept
  • Cant test changes to an existing system
  • Could encourage excessive focus on micro-elements

Lo-Fi Quickies
  • Think back to preschool-- Get your hands dirty
  • Expect the unexpected from users-- Practice for
    various actions
  • Stick to your roles (Observer, Wizard of Oz,
    Facilitator, and User)
  • Only Facilitator should be audible and visible
  • Use realistic scenarios
  • Use domain relevant sample data

Case Study
  • Informing the Design of an Information Management
    Systems with Iterative Fieldwork

PIM design
  • Key question Why does paper-based PIM persist
    even in the face of advantages of online formats
  • Searchable
  • Shareable
  • Easily archivable
  • Auto-generated reminders
  • How to integrate paper into the new PIM
  • Or how to simulate affordances of paper

Paper affordances
  • Permanent
  • Lightweight
  • Form factor can fold, tear, etc.
  • Universally available
  • Supports grouping (piles on desk), association
    (paper clips), copying.
  • Anything else?

Pilot Interviews (Phase 1)
  • Reality check
  • proposing a radical idea (paper PIM)
  • fish around and get a sense of the domain
  • Ask
  • How do you do it now?
  • Whats wrong with it?
  • Could our design make things better?
  • Outcomes
  • Tangible, context-embedded reminders
  • Temporary clumps of documents (e.g., all
    emailsdocs for a meeting)

In-depth interviews (Phase 2)
  • Explore evolving ideas
  • Ask
  • How and why do people organize on paper and
  • Physical artifacts their organization
  • Could we print and scan?
  • Outcome
  • Filing is difficult
  • Scanning isnt going to work
  • Sticky note reminders are great
  • Documents of different types need to be grouped
  • All sorts of different tool combinations used

In-breadth interviews (Phase 3)
  • Back up and distil findings
  • Ask
  • Email usage
  • Organizing meetings
  • Taking notes
  • Outcome
  • Design to embed in everyday apps
  • Simple, flexible
  • Something like sticky notes to label / group

What they did right
  • Didnt just look for confirming evidence of their
    initial hypothesis
  • Paper prototype no software to get attached to
  • In context, iterative user research
  • Understood importance of email for coordination
    and collaboration

What they did wrong
  • No observation of users
  • Diary study might have been effective
  • Scanner oriented gadget bubble
  • Ask them to project whether it would work
  • Slicky does not equal sticky
  • Making a customizable UI does not mean that
    people will actually take the trouble to
    customize it
  • Problems with groups people dont file because
    they have to think hard about categorization.
  • They do needs finding in the user domain, but the
    solution is still from an engineering perspective
  • Raton Laveur

Advice for the field
  • Go forth and prototype!
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