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## Basic Geography Skills

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### World Time Zones Basic Geography Skills Before we begin to study the regions of the world, we need to have a basic understanding of the geography of the world. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Geography Skills

1
Basic Geography Skills
• Before we begin to study the regions of the
world, we need to have a basic understanding of
the geography of the world.

2
• As you look at a globe, how much of the world do
you see at one time?

3
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4
• Hemi is the Greek word for half
• Hemisphere means half of a sphere
• The imaginary line that divides the world into
the northern and southern hemisphere is called
the Equator.
• The imaginary line that divides the world into
eastern and western hemisphere is called the
Prime Meridian.

5
• To locate places north or south of the Equator,
geographers use lines of latitude.

6
• The Equator is at 0 degrees latitude

7
What is the lowest latitude and the highest
latitude?
• 0 degrees equator
• 90 degrees poles (but what poles)

8
It is necessary to add N or S, so that its clear
whether you are north or south of the equator
9
• Some latitude lines have special names. They
divide the earth into regions according to the
amount of direct sunlight they receive.

Arctic Circle
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
Antarctic Circle
10
Each degree north or south of the equator
represents approximately 69 miles
11
Lets try a few locations
• If Im at 10 degrees North, how many miles am I
from the equator and in which direction?
• If Im at 45 degrees North, where am I?
• The problem with LATITUDE alone is that I can
tell how far from the equator I am, but I cant
tell where I am on that latitude. I could be at
45 degrees north and be in the Atlantic, Pacific,
Europe, Asia or the United States.
• In order to pinpoint a location you need..

12
• To locate places east or west of the Prime
Meridian, lines of longitude are used.
• The Prime Meridian is at 0 degrees longitude.
• Lines of longitude begin and end at the North and
South Poles

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14
DEGREES OF LONGITUDE
• The Earth was divided up by 360 evenly spaced
lines running from pole to pole. These are
called DEGREES OF LONGITUDE.
• If I start at ZERO and go one degree EAST, I am
at ONE DEGREE EAST LONGITUDE. If I go 90 degrees
to the west, or one fourth of the way around the
world, I am at NINETY DEGREES WEST LONGITUDE
• So, now, to identify my location, I simply have
to give a longitude and a latitude. If I am 20
degrees north of the equator and 20 degrees east
of the Prime Meridian, I describe myself at 20N,
20E.

15
Latitude and Longitude together will give you the
absolute location of a place
16
Some interesting things
• If I go halfway around the world from the prime
meridian, I get to a line identified as 180
degrees of longitude. It is BOTH 180 EAST AND
180 WEST. The highest line of longitude,
therefore, is 180.
• The highest line of latitude is 90.
• This line of 180 degrees is also known as the
International Date Line it marks a time zone
change, but it also marks a date change

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18
World Time Zones
• Prior to the late 19th century, time keeping was
done locally. Each town would set their clocks to
noon when the sun reached its zenith each day. A
clockmaker or town clock would be the "official"
time and the citizens would set their pocket
watches and clocks to the time of the town.
Travel between cities meant having to change
one's watch upon arrival.
• Once railroads began to operate and move people
rapidly across great distances, time became much
more critical. In the early years of railroads,
the schedules were very confusing because each
stop was based on a different local time.

19
• In 1878, Canadian Sir Sanford Fleming proposed
the system of worldwide time zones that we use
today. He recommended that the world be divided
into twenty-four time zones, each spaced 15
degrees of longitude apart. Since the earth
rotates once every 24 hours and there are 360
degrees of longitude, each hour the earth rotates
one-twenty-fourth of a circle or 15 of
longitude.
• United States railroad companies began utilizing
Fleming's standard time zones in 1883. In 1884 an
International Prime Meridian Conference was held
in Washington D.C. to standardize time and select
the Prime Meridian. The conference selected the
longitude of Greenwich, England as zero degrees
longitude and established the 24 time zones based
on the Prime Meridian.

20
World Time Zones