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The Nature of Energy


The Nature of Energy Benchmarks Standard III: Physical Sciences E. Demonstrate that energy can be considered to be either kinetic (motion) or potential (stored). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nature of Energy

The Nature of Energy
  • Standard III Physical Sciences
  • E. Demonstrate that energy can be considered to
    be either kinetic (motion) or potential (stored).
  • F. Explain how energy may change form of be
    redistributed but the total quantity of energy is
  • G. Demonstrate that waves have energy and waves
    can transfer energy when they interact with
  • H. Trace the historical development of
    scientific theories and ideas, and describe
    emerging issues in the study of physical

What is Energy?
  • Energy - ability to do work
  • Work - force moves an object a distance
  • W Fd
  • units are Joules ( J ) for energy
  • units for force are Newtons ( N )
  • units for distance are meters ( m )
  • A Joule can also be considered a Nm

States of Energy
  • Potential Energy - stored energy, based on
    position of chemical composition
  • Gravitational Potential Energy
  • GPE mass x gravity x height
  • GPE mgh --gt units Joules
  • mmass (g) ggravity (9.8 m/s2) hheight (m)
  • A 50kg rock is on the edge of a 20m cliff, what
    is its GPE?
  • GPE m x g x h
  • 50kg x 9.8m/s2 x 20m 9800J

States of Energy the Sequel
  • Kinetic Energy - energy of motion, based on mass
    and velocity of object
  • Kinetic Energy
  • KE 1/2 mv2 --gt units Joules
  • mmass (g) vvelocity (m/s)
  • A 1000kg car is traveling 40m/s, what is its KE?
  • KE 1/2mv2
  • 1/2 x 100kg x (40m/s)2
  • 1/2 x 100kg x 1600m2/s2 80,000J

Forms of Energy
  • Six Forms of Energy
  • Mechanical - moving objects perform work
  • Ex wheels turning, hammer hitting a nail, sound
  • Chemical - energy stored in the molecules of
  • Ex coal, oil, nature gas, food
  • Nuclear Energy - stored in nucleus of atom
  • Ex Uranium used for fission

Forms of Energy
  • Six Forms of Energy
  • 4. Heat - energy caused by molecular motion
  • Ex Rubbing hands together, lighting a match
  • 5. Electrical - flow of electrons through a
  • Ex computers, televisions, generators
  • 6. Light - radiant energy that moves in waves
  • Ex sun, light bulbs, electromagnetic energy

Conservation of Energy and Matter
  • The Law of Conservation of Energy
  • energy can be neither created nor destroyed,
    only transformed
  • The Law of Conservation of Matter
  • matter can be neither created nor destroyed,
    only rearranged
  • The total amount of matter and energy in the
    always remains constant in the universe

Types of Energy
  • Solar energy harnessed from the sun
  • Hydroelectric energy harnessed from the
    Potential energy of water
  • Biomass energy harnessed agricultural and animal
    waste products
  • Wind energy harnessed from the wind
  • Geothermal energy harnessed from heat under
    earths crust
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  • Fossil fuels energy from natural gas, petroleum
    and coal
  • Nuclear energy from fission and fusion
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of
  • Energy brochure what type of energy do you think
    Ohio should consider to help our energy demands
    and decrease our dependence on coal.

Energy Transformations
  • Energy can transform from one form to another
  • Ex A black car absorbs light energy from the sun
    and transforms it to heat energy to warm up the
  • During many energy transformations heat is
    produced as an unwanted product
  • Ex Motors loose a great deal of energy to
    unwanted heat energy

Nuclear Energy
  • The three categories of forces are
  • Gravitational Forces
  • Electromagnetic Forces
  • Nuclear Forces
  • 1. Strong Force
  • 2. Weak Force
  • Nuclear forces are the strongest types

  • Fission is the process of splitting the nucleus
    of an atom into two lighter weight nuclei
    producing large amounts of energy
  • Bombarding Ur-235 or Pu with a neutron causes it
    to split into Kr and Ba, and continues as a chain
  • Used in nuclear power plants and weapons
  • Produces nuclear waste

  • Fusion is the process of combining two or more
    lighter weight nuclei to form a heavier nucleus
    releasing large amounts of energy
  • Hydrogen isotopes are converted to Helium under
    extreme temperatures
  • Does not produce waste products, has abundant
    resources (Hydrogen), and is safer than fission

Nuclear Reactor
  • Nuclear reactors control the fission process by
    using the heat produced to produce steam that
    turns a turbine to produce electricity
  • The moderator and control rods slow the speed of
    the fission reaction by absorbing neutrons
  • There is lead shielding around the core to
    protect against radiation

Nuclear Incidents
  • Meltdowns
  • Chernobyl in Russia
  • Recent Tsunami in Japan
  • Partial Meltdowns
  • -3 mile Island (1979, Harrisburg, Pa)
  • -experimental partial meltdowns
  • Fermi 1 (1966), Borax-1 (1954)
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