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Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation Summary From the late Middle Ages feudalism continued to decline as kings, nobles and the Church struggled for power. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle%20Ages%20Renaissance%20Reformation


1
Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation
2
Medieval Europe
  • BackgroundThe Middle Ages were a dark age for
    Europe.  Constant invasions and very little food
    required that Europeans develop a new system for
    living. 
  • This system included all aspects of life,
    social, political, and economic.  It was called
    Feudalism

3
Feudalism
  • Feudalism was a system of life that helped people
    survive the middle ages. 
  •   A lord's manor, estate, or land would include
    peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill,
    and the lord's castle or manor house

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5
Manorialism
  • Manors were self sufficient (could survive on
    their own) all economic activity occurred on the
    manor. This meant that little to no trade
    occurred during this time period. 
  • Most of the peasants during the Middle Ages were
    serfs. Serfs were given land to farm in exchange
    for service to their lord.  Service included
    working in the fields, maintaining roads and the
    manor, or military service in during wars. . 

6
The Feudal System
KingsGive large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefsGive ProtectionReceives money, military service, and advice
Upper LordsGive land grants to Lesser LordsGive ProtectionReceives money, military service
Lesser LordsGive land grants to knightsReceives money, military service
KnightsGive land to peasants/serfsReceives crops, labor
Peasants/ SerfsReceives land to farm Pays with labor, crops
The Feudal System
KingsGive large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefsGive ProtectionReceives money, military service, and advice
Upper LordsGive land grants to Lesser LordsGive ProtectionReceives money, military service
Lesser LordsGive land grants to knightsReceives money, military service
KnightsGive land to peasants/serfsReceives crops, labor
Peasants/ SerfsReceives land to farm Pays with labor, crops
7
Role of the Church
  • Spiritual Religion was a central part of life
    for medieval people from baptism to marriage.
  • The Church was the largest landholder, gained
    wealth through tithing and had its own laws.
  • The Church was very powerful during the Dark
    Ages, more powerful than any government or
    country.

8
During the middle ages two distinct Christian
churches emerged
  • Roman Catholic
  • Eastern Orthodox

9
The Crusades
  • In the 1050s the Turks invade the Byzantine
    empire and conquered Palestine or the Holy land.
  • The Muslims and Jews also considered this their
    Holy Land.
  • The Pope called for a crusade to free the Holy
    Land

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Reasons for the Crusades
  • The Pope wanted to increase his power
  • Christians believed it was their duty to recover
    the Holy Land
  • Nobles wanted to gain wealth.
  • Adventurers sought travel and excitement
  • Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression

12
Impact of the Crusades
  • A major results of the Crusades, include Cultural
    Diffusion and an increase in trade.  European
    interest in goods from the east was stimulated by
    returning Crusaders who brought back many things.
    As the Crusades ended, ships that were once used
    to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried
    trade goods.  Merchants from rich Italian city
    states, such as Venice and Florence, dominated
    this trade. 

13
Trade Fairs and Growth of Cities
  • Along the trade routes, trade fairs were
    established in towns with larger populations, or
    at major crossroads.  Merchants and craftsman
    settled in these towns, and some grew to be
    cities of several thousand people.  This
    fundamentally altered the way people lived in
    Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of
    feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal
    obligations with cash instead of service. An
    economy based on money, not barter emerged.

14
The Black Death
  • The bubonic plague was a highly infectious
    disease spread by the fleas on rats. Rats were
    common in the cities of this time.
  • This particular outbreak first appeared in China
    In the early 1300s with deaths of about 35
    million Chinese.
  • It was a global epidemic that that spread through
    the increased trade between counties.
  • Between 1347 and 1353, the plague killed on
    person out of every three in Europe over 25
    million.

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16
Transforming from the Middle Ages
  • HOW IT CHANGED
  • Nobles, middle class, peasants
  • Trade/money/lending/ banking/insurance
  • Questioned church/secular view
  • Celebrate life/Enjoy the Present/ Humanism
  • Focus on Individual
  • WHAT IT WAS
  • Feudal System
  • Manors
  • Church is all knowing
  • Black Death
  • Focus on the Afterlife
  • Focus on Group

17
The Renaissance
  • Renaissance means rebirth. It was a golden age
    in the arts, literature and sciences.
  • During the Middle ages, philosophers and writers
    were concerned with life after death.
  • In stead of the medieval preoccupation of life
    after death, a new way of thinking, Humanism,
    focused on life in the present and emphasized
    individual achievements.
  • Ancient knowledge was rediscovered and the
    Classical period of the Greeks and Romans were
    glorified.

18
Why Italy?
  • Urban Centers
  • Large city-states in northern Italy
  • Cities breeding ground for intellectual
    revolution
  • Cities Florence, Milan
  • Thriving centers of trade and manufacturing
  • Wealthy Merchant Class
  • Merchants wealthiest, most powerful class
    dominated politics
  • Had to pursue other interests Arts/education
  • Medici Family
  • Cosimo de Medici Influenced the ruling
    council (loans))
  • Lorenzo de Medici behind the scene dictator

19
Why Italy?
  • Classical Heritage
  • Return to Greek and Roman ideals
  • Arts and scholars inspired by ruins of Rome
  • 1300s Latin and Greek manuscripts studied

20
New Outlook/AttitudeClassical - Worldly
  • Patrons of Arts
  • Church spent beautifying Rome
  • Wealthy families supported artists
  • Renaissance Man
  • Ideal individual strove to master all areas of
    study
  • universal man
  • Renaissance Woman
  • Inspire but not create art
  • Less influential than middle age women

21
New Outlook/Attitude
  • Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures
  • Middle Ages piety
  • Humanists- can enjoy life without insulting God
  • People were still devout Catholics but
  • concerns were secular (worldly and here/now)

22
Renaissance Art
  • Some of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and
    architecture in the history of the world.
  • Greek and Romans styles were used for columns,
    arches, and domes.
  • Artists were supported by merchants, popes and
    princes.
  • Art was detailed, realistic, and reflected study
    of human anatomy

23
Michelangelo
24
Leonardo da Vinci
25
Raphael and Rubens
26
Literary Achievements
  • Dante Wrote the Divine Comedy
  • Cervantes wrote Don Quixote
  • Shakespeare wrote many plays
  • Machiavelli wrote the Prince

27
Impact of Printing Press
  • By 1300 papermaking and print technology had
    reached Europe from China.
  • The invention of moveable type led Gutenberg to
    print the Bible in 1456.
  • Books became more available
  • Literacy increased
  • Ideas spread rapidly

28
Causes of Reformation
  • The Renaissance. Humanism led people to question
    Church authority as increasing faith was put in
    human reason.
  • Strong Monarchs. A weakened church meant strong
    national monarchs could increase their power.
  • Problems within the church. Corruption among
    church leaders. Increased fees for marriage,
    baptism and indulgences for the pardon of sins.

29
Protestantism
  • In 1517 a German monk, named Martin Luther posted
    his famous 95 Theses against indulgences.
  • Promoted radical idea that faith in God alone,
    not the Pope granted pardon for sins.
  • Sparked Protestant Reformation.
  • Followers of Luthers beliefs were called
    Lutherans and---eventually----Protestants,
    because they protested Papal authority.
  • A French priest, John Calvin, an influential
    reformer who also preached predestination
    started another protestant movement.

30
Martin Luther and John Calvin
  • Ideas spread to Northern Germany and Scandinavia
  • Ideas spread to France, Germany, Holland,
    England and Scotland

31
Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain
reason, I do not accept the authority of the
popes and councils, for they have contradicted
each other, my conscience is captive to the
Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant
anything for to go against conscience is neither
right nor safe.  God help me. Amen. Martin
Luthers defense at his Catholic inquisition,
April 1521
32
Counter Reformation
  • A reform movement also took place in the Catholic
    Church.
  • The purpose was to strengthen the Catholic Church
    and keep Catholics from converting to
    Protestantism
  • 1545 Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic beliefs
    and worked to end abuses
  • Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuits. Jesuit
    missionaries helped spread Catholism around the
    world

33
Effects of Reformation
  • Formation of Protestant Churches
  • Loss of religious and political unity in Western
    Europe
  • Religious conflicts sparked wars among the
    European states for over 100 years
  • Anti-Semitism. Religious persecution increased,
    especially against Jews.
  • Witch Hunts

34
Summary
  • From the late Middle Ages feudalism continued to
    decline as kings, nobles and the Church struggled
    for power. A growing population and increase in
    trade led to a commercial revolution in Europe
    and a growing middle class. The Renaissance
    sparked a new way of looking at the world and the
    printing press helped new ideas such as the
    Reformation continue to challenge the old order.
    Nations began to unite under strong monarchs and
    nation states emerged.
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