Environmental History - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 25
About This Presentation

Environmental History


Environmental History Learning from the Past – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:101
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 26
Provided by: Jenn4178


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Environmental History

Environmental History
  • Learning from the Past

Cultural Changes and the Environment
  • 3 major changes have occurred since we were
  • 1) The agricultural revolution
  • (10000-12000ya)
  • 2) The industrial-medical revolution (275ya)
  • 3) The globalization revolution (50ya)

  • Problems resulting from changes
  • More energy and technology available to alter the
  • Human population increased dramatically
  • Pollution, increased resource use, and
    environmental degradation occur

  • Hunter-gatherers had a small impact on the earth
  • They lived in small groups and moved ith seasons
  • They had expert knowledge of their natural
  • Population growth was slow due to high infant
    mortality and a shorter life expectancy

  • Agricultural revolution provided food for longer,
    healthier living, but increased environment
  • -people settled and began cultivation of plants
    and animals
  • -some used slash and burn, especially tropical
  • -others used sustainable cultivation, such as
    crop rotation

  • Agriculture led to
  • -more food available for longer and healthier
  • -formation of towns and villages
  • -habitat destruction began to occur
  • -beginning of soil erosion and overgrazing of
  • -pollution of natural resources began

  • Industrial-medical revolution meant higher
    standard of living coupled with environmental
  • Began in England in 1700s and came to US in 1800s
  • Shift from reliance on renewable resources to
    nonrenewable fossil fuels
  • Fossil fuel use in factories led to pollution
  • Working conditions often dangerous
  • Exodus from rural areas to towns

  • Early Conservation Era (1832-1960)
  • - Few people warned of resource degradation
  • Henry David Thoreau wrote Life in the Woods, an
    environmental classic that told of his
    observations of nature over 2 years in the
    Massachusetts wilderness
  • George Perkins Marsh, a scientist and Vermont
    legislator, published Man and Nature, presented
    studies showing the need for resource conservation

  • 1870-1930, role of federal government and private
    citizens increased to protect natural resources
  • 1891 Forest Reserve Act established that the
    federal government was responsible for protecting
    public lands from exploitation
  • John Muir, geologist and founder of the Sierra
    Club, lobbied for conservation laws
  • 1) led movement to limit use of public
    wilderness to hiking and camping
  • 2) lobbied for national park system
  • 3) responsible for establishing Yosemite
    National Park in 1890

  • President Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
    established wildlife reserves and tripled size of
    national forest reserves
  • Persuaded congress to give the power to designate
    public land as federal wildlife reserves
  • US Forest Service created with Gifford Pinchot as
    first chief in1905
  • Antiquities Act of 1906 allows president to
    protect areas of scientific or historical
    interest as national monuments

  • National Park Service Act passed in 1916
  • Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover promoted
    resource removal from public lands at low prices
    to stimulate economic growth
  • Hoover proposed selling all public lands to
    private interests for economic development
  • The Great Depression was devastating for the
    Nation, but forestalled the purchase of public
    lands by private interests

  • - 1930s the government bought land and hired
    workers to restore the countrys degraded
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the
    Civilian Conservation Corp in 1933
  • - 2 million people obtained work restoring
    degrade environments, building dams, etc.
  • - CCC provided jobs, flood control, irrigation
    water, and cheap electricity
  • - Few changes were made during 1940s and 1950s
    due to WWII and economic recovery after the war

  • Environmental Era 1960-2004
  • 1960s were beginning of modern environmental
  • Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring documenting the
    harmful effects of pesticides on air, water, and
  • 1964 Congress passed Wilderness Act
  • Public awareness grew concerning the harmful
    effects of pollution and habitat loss for
    wildlife species

  • 1970s
  • First annual Earth Day April 20, 1970 celebrated
    by 20 million people
  • President Nixon established the EPA in 1970
  • Endangered species Act passed in 1973
  • Federal Land Policy and Management Act passed in
    1978 gave the Bureau of Land Management its first
    real authority to manage public lands

  • 85 of public lands are in 12 western states
  • sagebrush rebellion was a campaign by miner,
    ranchers, loggers, developers, farmers, and
    others that wanted to greatly reduce government
    regulation and persuade legislators to sell or
    lease lands to private interests at low prices
  • This was return of thinking to President Hoovers

  • President Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)
  • Persuaded congress to create the Department of
    Energy with the task of reducing the countrys
    dependence on imported oil
  • Appointed environmentalists to key positions and
    consulted on resource policy
  • Helped create the Superfund as part of the
    Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation, and Liability Act (used to clean up
    abandon hazardous waste sites)
  • Tripled land in National Wilderness system and
    doubled land in National Park system

  • 1980s- Environmental Backlash
  • President Regan greatly increased private energy
    and mineral development and timber cutting on
    public lands
  • Federal funding for research on energy
    conservation and renewable energy resources were
    drastically cut
  • Many of Regans policies were challenged,
    strongly opposed in Congress, and caused public
  • wise-use movement formed by coal, oil, mining,
    automobile, timber, and ranchers

  • George H. W. Bush elected in 1989 promised to be
    the environmental president
  • Continued to support exploitation of valuable
    resources on public lands and allowed some
    environmental laws to be undercut

  • Bill Clinton elected in 1993
  • Appointed environmentalists to key positions in
    environmental and resource agencies
  • Protected more public land in the lower 48 states
    than any other president
  • George W. Bush became president in 2001
  • Proceeded to weaken many environmental and public
    land use laws and policies
  • Policies rested on increasing use of fossil fuels
    and relaxation of air and water quality standards

  • President Obama
  • Immediately reversed Bush policy that refused to
    allow California to enact stricter car emission

  • The species Homo sapiens sapiens has lived on
    Earth about _____ years
  • 4,000
  • 12,000
  • 30,000
  • 60,000
  • 90,000

  • Agricultural societies resulted in all of the
    following changes to humans except
  • Growth of villages
  • Specialized occupations and long distance trade
  • Increased competition for resources
  • Equal work distribution among people
  • Urbanization

  • A major stimulus for the Industrial Revolution
  • The bubonic plague
  • The European Wars
  • A shortage of wood
  • poverty
  • Famine

  • The OPEC oil embargo and energy crisis occurred
  • 1963
  • 1973
  • 1983
  • 1993
  • 2003

  • Benefits bestowed on most citizens of
    industrialized countries are least likely to
  • More affordable material goods
  • An increase in average agricultural production
    per person
  • A higher average life expectancy
  • Continued exponential growth of the human
  • Lower infant mortality rates
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com