Cognitive Processes PSY 334 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Cognitive Processes PSY 334


Cognitive Processes PSY 334 Chapter 5 Abstraction of Information into Memory Freelisting Task (Demo) On a sheet of scratch paper, please write as many names of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:209
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 52
Provided by: NAlvarado
Learn more at:


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cognitive Processes PSY 334

Cognitive ProcessesPSY 334
  • Chapter 5 Abstraction of Information into Memory

Midterm Results
Score Grade N
42-53 A 11
37-41 B 6
32-36 C 5
27-31 D 13
0-26 F 7
Top score 50 Top score for curve 47 (2
Features of a Penny
  • 1. Does the Lincoln on the penny face right or
  • 2. Is anything above his head? What?
  • 3. Is anything below his head? What?
  • 4. Is anything to his left? What?
  • 5. Is anything to his right? What?

  • Features of a penny
  • http//
  • Eidetic imagery
  • http//

Wanners Experiment
  • 1. When you score your results, do nothing to
    correct your answers but mark carefully those
    answers which are wrong.
  • 2. When you score your results, do nothing to
    correct your answers but carefully mark those
    answers which are wrong.
  • 3. When you score your results, do nothing to
    your correct answers but mark carefully those
    answers which are wrong.
  • 4. When you score your results, do nothing to
    your correct answers but carefully mark those
    answers which are wrong.

Wanners Experiment
  • People do not remember exact wording.
  • Wanners experiment
  • Two sentences differ in style
  • Two sentences differ in meaning
  • Subjects warned or not warned to pay attention to
  • Memory is better for changes in wording that
    affect meaning.
  • Warning only helps memory for style.

Wanners Results
Memory for Visual Information
  • Memory for pictures is very strong and better
    than for words.
  • Mandlers study token vs type changes.
  • Type meaning
  • Token detail
  • Type changes were easier to identify than token.
  • Picture memory depends on meaning.

Mandler Ritcheys Stimuli
Ship arriving too late to save a drowning witch
Man playing trombone in phone booth
  • Bower, Karlin Dueck presented droodles with or
    without their captions.
  • Subjects given labels were able to redraw them
    with 70 accuracy.
  • Subjects without labels were 51 accurate.
  • Memory depended on meaningful interpretation.

Retention of Detail
  • Perceptual detail is encoded but quickly
  • Gernsbachers picture reversals
  • 10 sec delay 79 accuracy
  • 10 min delay 57 accuracy.
  • Andersons story sentences
  • Immediate test 99 correct
  • 2 min delay 56 correct
  • Delay does not affect meaning accuracy.

Gernsbachers Stimuli
Andersons Story Sentences
  • The missionary shot the painter.
  • The missionary shot the painter.
  • The painter was shot by the missionary.
  • The painter shot the missionary.
  • The missionary was shot by the painter.
  • The first two sentences are True, the second two
    are False.
  • Subjects recalled who was shot but not which
    sentence they heard originally.

Implications for Memory
  • Memory is enhanced if people can attach meaning
    to material.
  • Loud and fast rehearsal doesnt work.
  • Meaningless words can be better remembered by
    adding meaning
  • DAX is like DAD
  • GIB is first part of gibberish
  • KA6PCG my ham radio call letters.

Propositional Representations
  • Notation a method for describing the meaning
    that remains once details have been abstracted
  • Propositional representation uses concepts from
    logic and linguistics to describe meaning.
  • Proposition the smallest unit of knowledge that
    can be judged as true or false.

Propositional Analysis
  • A complex sentence consists of smaller units of
    meaning (propositions).
  • If any of the propositions are untrue, the entire
    sentence cannot be true.
  • The meaning of primitive assertions is preserved,
    but not the exact wording.

Kintschs Notation
  • Each proposition is a list containing a relation
    plus arguments
  • (relation, arguments)
  • Relation organizes the arguments.
  • Verbs, adjectives, other relational terms.
  • Arguments particular times, places, people,
  • Nouns
  • Relations connect arguments.

  • Lincoln, who was president of the United States
    during a bitter war, freed the slaves.
  • A. Lincoln was president of the United States
    during a war.
  • B. The war was bitter.
  • C. Lincoln freed the slaves.

Kintschs Notation
  • a. (president-of Lincoln, United States, war)
  • b. (bitter war)
  • c. (free Lincoln, slaves)
  • The slaves were freed by Lincoln.
  • Lincoln freed the slaves.

Psychological Reality
  • Psychological reality -- do propositions really
    exist mentally?
  • Bransford Franks
  • Presented 12 sentences with the same 2 sets of 4
  • Tested on 3 kinds of sentences. Old (previously
    viewed), new (containing same propositions),
    noncase (new and containing different
  • Able to identify noncase, but not old/new

Bransford Franks Stimuli
  • 1. (eat ants, jelly, past)
  • 2. (sweet jelly)
  • 3. (on jelly, table, past)
  • 4. (in ants, kitchen, past)
  • 1. (roll down rock, mountain, past)
  • 2. (crush rock, hut, past)
  • 3. (beside hut, woods, past)
  • 4. (tiny hut)

Propositional Networks
  • Propositional network another way of
    representing propositions (the structure of
  • Nodes the propositions, including relations and
  • Links labeled arrows connecting the nodes.
  • Spatial location of nodes is arbitrary.
  • Can show hierarchies of meaning.

Sample Propositional Network
How to Draw a Network
  • Use Kintschs notation to write the propositions
    contained in your sentence.
  • Draw a node for each proposition.
  • It doesnt matter where you draw them.
  • Nothing goes inside the nodes.
  • Arguments relations are the link labels.
  • Shared arguments connect nodes to each other.

Associations Between Ideas
  • Weisberg demonstrated that ideas are associated
    in the ways shown in a propositional network.
  • Subjects memorized sentences.
  • Given a word from the sentence, subjects were
    asked to say the first word that came to mind.
  • Subjects cued with slow said children and
    almost never bread.

Weisbergs Stimuli
Subjects cued with slow said children and
never bread.
Amodal vs Perceptual Symbol Systems
  • Amodal symbol systems the meaning is abstracted
    away from the visual or verbal modality.
  • Example propositional networks
  • Perceptual symbol systems Barsalou proposes
    that all information is represented perceptually
    and is modality-specific.
  • Context is included as part of the memory.

Evidence (Barsalou)
  • Stanfield Zwaan read a sentence about a nail
    pounded into either the wall or the floor.
  • Viewed a picture of a horizontal or vertical
  • Asked was this object mentioned in the sentence
    you just read?
  • Faster at saying horizontal nail with wall and
    vertical nail with floor.

Paivios Dual-Code Compromise
  • Paivio suggests that when we hear a sentence it
    evokes visual images that are stored in place of
    the words.
  • Findings that people can and do pay attending to
    wording when warned to do so, support dual-code
  • Anderson considers Barsalous theory too
    all-encompassing to be testable.

Evidence (Anderson)
  • 1. The lieutenant wrote his signature on the
  • 2. The lieutenant forged a signature on the
  • 1. The lieutenant enraged his superior in the
  • 2. The lieutenant infuriated a superior in the

Faster to confirm
writing forging are the same act with different
Slower to confirm
Conceptual Knowledge
  • Concept -- an abstraction formed from multiple
  • Propositions eliminate perceptual details but
    keep relationships among elements.
  • Categories eliminate perceptual details but
    keep general properties of a class of
  • Used to make predictions.
  • Two kinds semantic networks, schemas

Embodied Cognition
  • Our understanding of language depends on covertly
    acting out physically what is described.
  • Different modalities may connect via mirror
  • Multimodal Hypothesis we can convert from one
    modality to another.
  • Amodal Hypothesis there is an intermediate
    meaning representation.

Freelisting Task (Demo)
  • On a sheet of scratch paper, please write as many
    names of animals as you can think of.

Semantic Networks
  • Quillian information about categories stored in
    a network hierarchy.
  • Nodes are categories.
  • Isa links related categories to each other.
  • Nodes have properties associated with them.
  • Properties of higher level nodes are also true of
    lower level nodes linked to them.
  • Categories are used to make inferences.

Sample Category Hierarchy
Psychological Reality of Networks
  • Collins Quillian asked subjects to judge the
    truth value of sentences
  • Canaries can sing 1310 ms
  • Canaries have feathers 1380 ms
  • Canaries have skin 1470 ms
  • Frequently used facts also verified faster, so
    stored with node
  • Apples are eaten
  • Apples have dark seeds

  • Schema stores specific knowledge about a
    category, not just properties
  • Uses a slot structure mixing propositional and
    perceptual information.
  • Slots specify default values for what is
    generally or typically true.
  • Isa statement makes a schema part of a
    generalization hierarchy.
  • Part hierarchy.

Sample Schema for House
  • Houses are a type of building.
  • Houses have rooms.
  • Houses can be built of wood, brick or stone.
  • Houses serve as human dwellings.
  • Houses tend to have rectilinear and triangular
  • Houses are usually larger than 100 sq ft and
    smaller than 10,000 sq ft.

Isa Statements for House
  • Isa building
  • Parts rooms
  • Materials woord, brick, stone
  • Function human dwelling
  • Shape rectilinear, triangular
  • Size 100-10,000 square feet

Psychological Reality of Schemas
  • Brewer Treyens subjects left in a room for 35
    sec, then asked to list what they saw there
  • Good recall for items in schema
  • False recall for items typically in schema but
    missing from this room.
  • 29/30 recalled chair, desk 8 recalled skull
  • 9 recalled books when there were none

Brewer Treyans Room
Degrees of Category Membership
  • Members of categories can vary depending on
    whether their features satisfy schema
  • Gradation from least typical to most typical.
  • Rosch rated typicality of birds from 1-7
  • Robin 1.1
  • Chicken 3.8.
  • Faster judgments of pictures of typical items,
    higher sentence-frame ratings.

Disagreements at Category Boundaries
  • McCloskey Glucksberg subjects disagree about
    whether atypical items belong in a category
  • 30/30 apple is a fruit, chicken is not a fruit
  • 16/30 pumpkin is a fruit
  • Subjects change their minds when tested later.
  • Labov boundaries for cups and bowls change with

Context Changes Boundaries
Event Concepts (Scripts)
  • Schank Abelson stereotypic sequences of
    actions called scripts.
  • Bower, Black Turner script for going to a
  • Scripts affect memory for stories
  • Story elements included in script well
    remembered, atypical elements not recalled, false
    recognition of script items.
  • Items out of order put back in typical order.

Schema for Restaurant Visit
  • Scene 1 Entering
  • Look for table, decide where to sit, go to table,
    sit down.
  • Scene 2 Ordering
  • Look at menu, decide on food, order food, cook
    prepares food, etc.
  • Scene 3 Eating
  • Scene 4 Exiting
  • Server gives bill to cust., pay bill, leave

Two Theories
  • What happens mentally when we categorize?
  • Two theories are being debated we likely use
    multiple ways.
  • Abstraction theory -- we abstract and store the
    general properties of instances.
  • Prototype theory.
  • Exemplar theory -- we store the multiple
    instances themselves and then compare average
    distances among them.

Drawings of Artificial Animals
Evidence From Neuroscience
  • People with temporal lobe deficits selectively
    impaired in recognizing natural categories but
    not artifacts (tools)
  • People with frontoparietal lesions unaffected for
    biological categories but cannot recognize
    artifacts (tools).
  • Artifacts may be organized by what we do with
    them whereas biological categories are identified
    by shape.

Two Patients with Impaired Knowledge of Living
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)