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ADHD and Behaviour


ADHD and Behaviour – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ADHD and Behaviour

ADHD and Behaviour
  • Description and Definition of Behaviour
  • ADHD characteristics
  • Best Practice Strategies
  • Other behaviour exceptionalities (ODD, Conduct
    Disorder) characteristics

How Do We Define Behaviour Exceptionality?
  • A learning disorder characterized by specific
    behaviour problems over such a period of time,
    and to such a marked degree, and of such a
    nature, as to adversely affect educational
    performance, and that may be accompanied by one
    or more of the following

  • a) an inability to build or to maintain
    interpersonal relationships
  • b) excessive fears or anxieties
  • c) a tendency to compulsive reaction
  • d) an inability to learn that cannot be traced to
    intellectual, sensory, or other health factors,
    or any combination thereof.

Types of Behaviour Disorders
  • ADHD
  • ODD
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Generalized Anxiety
  • Others - undefined or associated with Mental
    Health issues (e.g. PTSD)

Think and Connect
  • Personal Story
  • Visualize the Students strengths and needs
  • The students strengths can be used to address
    his or her weaknesses.
  • Understanding and noting them is critical to
    appropriate program development

Strengths and Needs
  • Creative Thinker
  • Kinesthetic Learner
  • Expressive Vocabulary
  • Impulsive
  • Reduce physical contact
  • Redirect excessive energy
  • Allow for physical movement breaks
  • Implement a behaviour modification reward system
  • use direct instruction social stories to teach
    impulse control
  • role-play appropriate behaviour (e.g. waiting
    ones turn)

Some Characteristics
  • Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders
    may demonstrate behaviours that show
  • disregard for social or cultural norms and that
    deviate in a significant manner from those that
    are normally expected.

What This May Look Like In Your Classroom
  • Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders
    may demonstrate behaviours that show disregard
    for social or cultural norms and that deviate in
    a significant manner from those that are normally
    expected. They may
  • destroy their own, another persons or the
    schools property
  • be disobedient, defy authority, test limits,
    refuse to follow directions, or be domineering
  • be uncooperative, resistive, inconsiderate, or
  • interrupt, disturb, or cause disturbances for
    which others are blamed
  • be apathetic, exhibiting a dont care attitude
  • fight, hit, or assault others
  • intimidate, bully, or threaten others
  • be restless, boisterous, or noisy
  • be untrustworthy or dishonest, lie, or steal
  • use profane or abusive language and gestures
  • demonstrate delinquent behaviour or vandalism
  • be truant from school.

What This May Look Like In Your Classroom
  • Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders
    may demonstrate behaviours that tend to be
    impulsive or compulsive and that negatively
    affect learning. These students may
  • speak out
  • disrupt classroom activities
  • display temper tantrums
  • repetitively demonstrate the same behaviour
  • have difficulty thinking before acting, or be
  • become distracted or inattentive, or lack focus
  • daydream or appear preoccupied
  • demonstrate a short attention span or poor
  • demonstrate an extreme resistance to change
    (secondary consideration).

What This May Look Like In Your Classroom
  • Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders
    may demonstrate behaviours that show poor
    interpersonal relationships and low self-esteem.
    They may
  • be uncooperative in groups, argumentative, or
    passively noncompliant
  • seek attention
  • depend on others for direction and require
    constant reassurance
  • be hypersensitive, easily hurt or embarrassed, or
    easily flustered
  • lack self-confidence
  • demonstrate inappropriate sexual activity.

What This May Look Like In Your Classroom
  • Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders
    may demonstrate behaviours that are injurious to
    themselves, such as
  • withdrawal
  • nervousness
  • hypersensitivity
  • anorexia or bulimia
  • self-abuse
  • substance abuse.

(No Transcript)
ADHDers are great at multitasking. To a certain
What is ADHD?
  • Three possible types
  • Inattentive
  • Hyperactive
  • Impulsive

Strict Guidelines
  • DSM-V has strict guidelines to determine a
  • Behaviours must appear early in life
  • Must be more frequent or severe than normal age
  • Create an obstacle or interferes with daily
    living in at least two areas of a persons life
    (e.g. school, home, work or social settings)

Strict Guidelines Contd
  • A child with some attention problems but whose
    school work or friendships are not impaired by
    these behaviors would not be diagnosed with ADHD.
  • Nor would a child who seems overly active at
    school but functions well elsewhere.

Typical Characteristics
  • Signs of inattention include
  • becoming easily distracted by irrelevant sights
    and sounds
  • failing to pay attention to details and making
    careless mistakes
  • rarely following instructions carefully and
  • losing or forgetting things like toys, or
    pencils, books, and tools needed for a task

Typical Characteristics
  • Signs of hyperactivity and impulsivity are
  • feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or
    feet, or squirming
  • running, climbing, or leaving a seat in
    situations where sitting or quiet behavior is
  • blurting out answers before hearing the whole
  • having difficulty waiting in line or for a turn

Lets Take a Different Perspective
All Dogs Have ADHD
Research Continues
  • Research suggests the disorder is biologically
  • This means that there are likely chemical and/or
    structural problems in the brains of people with
    ADHD that inhibit their ability to focus, plan
    ahead, finish tasks, and so on.

Whether or not Diagnosed
  • Observe students in the following areas
  • Mental Energy
  • Processing
  • Production

Mental Energy
  • The first attention control system, mental
    energy, regulates and distributes the energy
    supply needed for the brain to take in and
    interpret information and regulate behavior.
    Children whose mental energy is not working
    effectively may become mentally fatigued when
    they try to concentrate, or have other problems
    related to maintaining the brain energy needed
    for optimal learning and behavior.

Four Mental Energy Controls
  • The first is alertness, a state of mind in which
    a child can effectively listen to and watch
    information being presented. Children who
    experience difficulty with alertness can appear
    to be daydreaming.

Four Mental Energy Controls
  • The second mental energy control is sleep and
    arousal balance. This control affects the ability
    to sleep well enough at night to be sufficiently
    alert during the day. Children who are
    experiencing trouble with sleep and arousal may
    find it difficult to get to sleep at night, or
    they may sleep poorly. They then have trouble
    getting up in the morning and may appear tired in

Four Mental Energy Controls
  • The third mental energy control is mental effort.
    This control initiates and maintains the flow of
    energy required for a child to start, work on,
    and complete a task. Mental effort is
    particularly important when children are faced
    with tasks that may not be especially interesting
    or personally motivating. Children who have
    difficulty with mental effort can benefit from
    having tasks broken down into smaller, more
    manageable parts.

Four Mental Energy Controls
  • The fourth mental energy control is performance
    consistency. It works to ensure a reliable,
    predictable flow of energy from moment to moment
    and day to day. Children who have trouble with
    performance consistency don't have problems all
    of the time. Sometimes they can concentrate and
    perform well, while other times they cannot.
    Their work output and behavior may be impossible
    to predict.

What Does it Mean?
  • A student
  • has difficulty concentrating may complain of
    feeling tired or bored
  • does not seem to be well rested and fully awake
    during the day
  • has inconsistent work patterns that negatively
    impact quality and quantity of work
  • shows overactivity and fidgets -- especially
    pronounced when sitting and listening

Whether or not Diagnosed
  • Observe students in the following areas
  • Mental Energy
  • Processing
  • Production

  • The second attention control system is called
    processing. This system helps a child select,
    prepare, and begin to interpret incoming
    information. Children who have difficulty with
    processing may have a range of problems related
    to regulating the use of incoming information.
    There are five processing controls.

Five Processing Controls
  • The first is saliency determination. It involves
    selecting which incoming information is the most
    important. Children who have difficulty with this
    control may be distracted by things that aren't
    relevant and miss important information being

Five Processing Controls
  • The second processing control is depth and detail
    of processing. It controls how intensely children
    can concentrate on highly specific data. It
    enables them to focus deeply enough to recognize
    and remember necessary details.

Five Processing Controls
  • The third processing control is cognitive
    activation. This active processing connects new
    information to what has already been learned
    through prior knowledge and experience. Children
    who are inactive processors are unable to connect
    to prior knowledge to assist their understanding
    of new information. In contrast, overactive
    processors are reminded of too much prior
    knowledge, making it difficult for them to
    maintain focus.

Five Processing Controls
  • The fourth processing control is focal
    maintenance. This allows a child to focus on
    important information for the appropriate period
    of time. As Dr. Levine explains, "It isn't so
    much how long your attention span is, as it is
    how well-matched the duration of your attention
    is to the target at hand." Some children who
    don't concentrate long enough on certain things
    may concentrate too long on others.

Five Processing Controls
  • The fifth and final processing control is
    satisfaction control. This control involves a
    child's ability to allocate enough attention to
    activities or topics of moderate or low levels of
    interest. "Insatiable" is a term used for
    children with poor satisfaction control who may
    be unable to concentrate on activities that are
    not exciting enough.

What Does it Mean?
  • A student
  • processes too little or too much information
    can't distinguish between what is important and
    what isn't
  • focuses too superficially or too deeply on
    information presented
  • has difficulty connecting new information with
    information already known
  • only pays attention to exciting information or
    highly stimulating activities
  • focuses for too brief a period
  • has problems shifting focus from one subject or
    activity to another

Whether or not Diagnosed
  • Observe students in the following areas
  • Mental Energy
  • Processing
  • Production

Production Output
  • The third attention control system is production.
    This area governs output -- including what
    children generate academically, behaviorally, and
    socially. Children with production control
    problems have a range of difficulties related to
    regulating academic and behavioral output. They
    may do things too quickly without thinking,
    planning, or previewing outcomes.
  • There are five production controls.

Five Production Controls
  • The first is previewing. It involves considering
    more than one action or response and anticipating
    the likely outcome of a particular choice.
    Children who have difficulty with previewing may
    plunge into activities instantly and react too

Five Production Controls
  • The second production control is facilitation and
    inhibition. This is the ability to exercise
    restraint and not act immediately, to consider
    multiple options, and to choose the best one
    before acting or starting on a task. Children who
    have trouble with facilitation and inhibition
    frequently act impulsively and may appear to be
    doing only the first thing that comes to mind.
    These children may blurt out answers before being
    called upon in class.

Five Production Controls
  • The third production control is pacing, which
    means doing tasks or activities at the most
    appropriate speed. Pacing difficulties often show
    up in children's reading. Their reading pace may
    be so fast that they skip over words, have
    difficulty with multisyllable words, and show
    little reading comprehension.

Five Production Controls
  • The fourth production control is self-monitoring.
    It allows children to evaluate how they are doing
    while performing and after completing a task.
    This control allows children to regulate their
    attention and take corrective action.

Five Production Controls
  • The fifth production control is
    reinforceability. It allows children to use
    previous experience to guide current behavior and
    approaches to current tasks. Often called
    hindsight, this ability enables children to make
    use of precedent, experience, and prior knowledge
    to guide their decision making and actions.

What Does it Mean?
  • A student
  • fails to preview the effects of statements or
    actions or to predict the outcomes of tasks or
  • has difficulty coming up with the right strategy
    or technique to accomplish a task
  • does not monitor quality of work or the
    effectiveness of strategies
  • does not use past successes and failures to guide
    current behavior, actions, or strategies
  • is apt to do too many things too quickly and some
    other things too slowly
  • has a poor sense of how time and how to manage it

  • It is important to note that students who have
    attention difficulties (e.g., attention deficit
    disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity
    disorder) are not willfully inattentive. It takes
    inordinate effort for some of these students to
    keep themselves on task.

What You Can Do In Your Classroom
  • seat the student in an area of the classroom that
    will minimize distractions
  • locate the student to maximize the positive
    effect of role models in the class
  • establish a private cueing system to remind the
    student to attend
  • provide immediate, specific feedback on learning
    and behavioural progress whenever possible
  • break instructional learning periods into smaller
    units of time with the intention of increasing
    on-task behaviour
  • allow the restless student opportunities to
    change focus or tasks
  • judiciously assign a job that requires the
    student to move away from the problem situation
    (e.g., ask the student to run an errand).

Strategies and Suggestions Related to Lesson
  • teach the student the skills necessary to manage
    instructional materials
  • pre-teach important vocabulary
  • provide a structured overview of the lesson
    before beginning instruction
  • use visual aids, demonstrations, simulations, and
    manipulative materials to ensure that the student
    understands the concepts presented
  • include a variety of activities for the student
    in each lesson
  • help the student enhance his or her memory by
    teaching specific learning strategies such as
    mnemonics (e.g., cues, rhymes, codes)
  • review with the student the process required to
    complete the task.

Strategies and Suggestions Related to Assessment
  • make expectations explicit
  • break down large tasks, which can quickly
    overwhelm the student, into small tasks, and
    provide reinforcement as each part is completed
  • simplify instructions, choices, and schedules
  • provide models of completed tasks, so that the
    student can visualize a completed project
  • provide instructions visually and verbally
  • pair students to check each others work
  • provide checklists, outlines, and advance
    organizers, to help the student complete
  • permit student to demonstrate his or her
    understanding in various ways (e.g. oral
    presentations, displays, dramatizations, and
  • Reduce workload

Conduct Disorder (CD)
  • a persistent pattern of conduct in which the
    basic rights of others and major age-appropriate
    societal norms or rules are violated.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  • ...a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and
    defiant behaviour without the more serious
    violations of the basic rights of others that are
    seen in conduct disorder.

General Features of ODD
  • Persists over time (at least 6 months)
  • Characterized by at least four of the following
  • Losing temper
  • Arguing with adults
  • Actively defying or refusing to comply with the
    requests or rules of adults
  • Deliberately doing things that will annoy other
  • Blaming others for his or her own mistakes or
  • Being touchy or easily annoyed by others
  • Being angry and resentful
  • Being spiteful or vindictive
  • Significantly impairs normal functioning socially
    or academically

Classroom Strategies
1) Recognizing the stages of anger irritation
agitation loss of control
  • Does and Don'ts
  • DO use the student's name
  • DO remove the audience (if possible)
  • DO use humour to de-escalate the situation
  • DO double your distance
  • DO minimize the discussion (this is not a
    teachable moment)
  • with an Angry
  • DON'T place your hands on the child (unless there
    is a safety concern)
  • DON'T raise your voice
  • DON'T threaten consequences (talk about it when
    the student is more relaxed
  • DON'T point your finger
  • DON'T crowd the student

  • 2) Careful Communication
  • Body
  • Personal Space
  • Posture
  • Eye contact
  • Facial expression
  • Gestures
  • Mind
  • Listen for the student's point of view
  • Limit your verbiage and avoid over reacting
  • Mouth
  • Calm voice
  • Slow cadence

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