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Unit 3 Biology Notes Organic Molecules

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Title: Unit 3 Biology Notes Organic Molecules


1
Unit 3 Biology NotesOrganic Molecules
  • Objective 1 Describe the important functions of
    organic molecules.

2
Organic Molecules
  • Organic Molecules
  • Carbon atoms bonded to at least 1 hydrogen atom.
  • Frequently bonded to oxygen or other carbon atoms.

3
Type of Organic Molecule Function Examples
Carbohydrate quick energy supply store energy structure glucose (most common) starch (plants) cellulose (cell wall)
4
Type of Organic Molecule Function Examples
Lipid (Fat) long term energy storage make cell membrane cushion/ insulation triglycerides phospholipids
5
Type of Organic Molecule Function Examples
Nucleic Acid store genetic info transport genetic info to cell DNA RNA
6
Type of Organic Molecule Function Examples
Protein structure regulation muscle contractions immune system transport catalyze reactions collagen hormones actin/myosin antibodies hemoglobin enzymes
7
Unit 3 NotesWater
  • Objective 2 Explain how water is important to
    cells.

8
Water
  • H2O
  • Inorganic molecule
  • Makes up 65-70 of the human body

9
Functions of Water (why water is important)
  • Provides a soluble environment for chemical
    reactions
  • Participates in chemical reactions

10
Functions of Water (why water is important)
  • Is a buffer for body temperature
  • Absorbs and releases heat slowly
  • Helps maintain homeostasis
  • Requires large amounts of heat to evaporate
    (change from liquid to gas)
  • Cooling mechanisms

11
Functions of Water
  • Provides hydration that maintains cell turgidity
  • Turgor pressure (turgidity) The pressure that
    water exerts on the outside of the cell
  • The pressure of the central vacuole in plant
    cells makes it possible for plants to support
    heavy structures such as leaves and flowers.
  • Serves as a great lubricant
  • i.e. mucus

12
Unit 3 Biology Notes
  • Objective 3 Describe the structure of the cell
    membrane and explain its importance in the
    transport of materials into and out of the cell.
    (Phospolipid bilayer, Carrier molecules, Cell
    Membrane)

13
Cell Boundaries
  • All cells are surrounded by a thin, flexible
    barrier known as the cell membrane.
  • The cell membrane is a flexible, semi-permeable
    barrier that encloses the contents of the cell
    and
  • regulates what enters and leaves the cell.

14
Cell Membrane
Outside of cell
Carbohydrate chains
Proteins
Cell membrane
Inside of cell (cytoplasm)
Protein channel
Lipid bilayer
15
Cell Membrane
  • Structure of the Cell Membrane
  • Primarily composed of a _________________
  • ________ are embedded in the bilayer.

16
Cell Membrane
  • Structure of the Cell Membrane
  • Primarily composed of a phospholipid bilayer
  • ________ are embedded in the bilayer.

17
Cell Membrane
  • Structure of the Cell Membrane
  • Primarily composed of a phospholipid bilayer
  • Proteins are embedded in the bilayer.

18
Cell Membrane
  • The lipid bilayer gives cell membranes a flexible
    structure that forms a barrier between the cell
    and its surroundings.

Lipid bilayer
19
Cell Membrane
  • Most cell membranes contain protein molecules
    embedded in the lipid bilayer, some of which have
    carbohydrate molecules attached to them.

20
Cell Membrane
  • The _________ of the cell membrane determines or
    _________ what enters or leaves the cell.

21
Cell Membrane
  • The structure of the cell membrane determines or
    _________ what enters or leaves the cell.

22
Cell Membrane
  • The structure of the cell membrane determines or
    regulates what enters or leaves the cell.

23
Unit 3 Biology NotesCell Transport
  • Objective 4 Explain the purpose of cellular
    transport.
  • Objective 5 Define passive transport.
    (Diffusion Osmosis)
  • Objective 6 Describe how diffusion occurs and
    its importance in cell activity.

24
Cell Transport
  • Purpose of Cell Transport
  • Moves needed material into and throughout a cell
  • Moves unneeded wastes out of a cell
  • Moves cell products out of a cell

25
Cell Transport Notes
  • Passive Transport
  • the movement of material ___ or ___ __ a cell
    without the use of the cells ______. Molecules
    move from a _____ to _____ concentration to reach
    __________.

26
Cell Transport Notes
  • Passive Transport
  • the movement of material into or out of a cell
    without the use of the cells ______. Molecules
    move from a _____ to _____ concentration to reach
    __________.

27
Cell Transport Notes
  • Passive Transport
  • the movement of material into or out of a cell
    without the use of the cells energy. Molecules
    move from a ____ to ___ concentration to reach
    __________.

28
Cell Transport Notes
  • Passive Transport
  • the movement of material into or out of a cell
    without the use of the cells energy. Molecules
    move from a high to low concentration to reach
    _________.

29
Cell Transport Notes
  • Passive Transport
  • the movement of material into or out of a cell
    without the use of the cells energy. Molecules
    move from a high to low concentration to reach
    equilibrium.

30
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Every living cell exists in a liquid environment.
  • The cell membrane regulates movement of dissolved
    molecules from the liquid on one side of the
    membrane to the liquid on the other side.

31
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Diffusion
  • the movement of molecules from an area of ____
    concentration to an area of ___ concentration to
    reach __________.

32
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Diffusion
  • the movement of molecules from an area of high
    concentration to an area of ___ concentration to
    reach __________.

33
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Diffusion
  • the movement of molecules from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration to
    reach __________.

34
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Diffusion
  • the movement of molecules from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration to
    reach equilibrium.

35
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Vocab Words
  • Measuring Concentration 
  • Solute the substance being ___________ in a
    solution.
  • Solvent the substance _______________ in a
    solution.

36
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Vocab Words
  • Measuring Concentration 
  • Solute the substance being dissolved in a
    solution.
  • Solvent the substance _______________ in a
    solution.

37
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Vocab Words
  • Measuring Concentration 
  • Solute the substance being dissolved in a
    solution.
  • Solvent the substance doing the dissolving in a
    solution.

38
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Vocab Words
  • Measuring Concentration 
  • Solute the substance being dissolved in a
    solution.
  • Solvent the substance doing the dissolving in a
    solution.
  • The concentration of a solution is the mass of
    solute in a given volume of solution, or
    mass/volume.

39
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • Diffusion  
  • Particles in a solution tend to move from an area
    where they are more concentrated to an area where
    they are less concentrated.
  • This process is called diffusion.
  • When the concentration of the solute is the same
    throughout a system, the system has reached
    equilibrium.

40
Vocab Words
  • Concentration Gradient
  • the difference between the ___________ of a
    particular molecule in ________ and its
    _____________ in ____________.

41
Vocab Words
  • Concentration Gradient
  • the difference between the concentration of a
    particular molecule in ________ and its
    concentration in ____________.

42
Vocab Words
  • Concentration Gradient
  • the difference between the concentration of a
    particular molecule in one area and its
    concentration in another area.

43
Vocab Words
  • Equilibrium
  • when adjacent areas have an _____ concentration.
    There is _______________ of molecules between the
    two areas. Each area is _________ with respect
    to the other.

44
Vocab Words
  • Equilibrium
  • when adjacent areas have an equal concentration.
    There is _______________ of molecules between the
    two areas. Each area is _________ with respect
    to the other.

45
Vocab Words
  • Equilibrium
  • when adjacent areas have an equal concentration.
    There is no net movement of molecules between the
    two areas. Each area is _________ with respect
    to the other.

46
Vocab Words
  • Equilibrium
  • when adjacent areas have an equal concentration.
    There is no net movement of molecules between the
    two areas. Each area is isotonic with respect to
    the other.

47
Diffusion
  • How Does Diffusion Work?
  • http//www.chm.davidson.edu/ChemistryApplets/Kinet
    icMolecularTheory/Diffusion.html
  • http//serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/diffusion/ap
    plet

48
Diffusion
  • How does diffusion work?
  • Diffusion occurs as a result of ______
    _________________ All molecules are in
    _______________ and it is the _________ _______
    - kinetic energy - that drives diffusion.
    Molecules that are ______ ____________ collide
    more frequently and will spread to the _____
    concentration areas.

49
Diffusion
  • How does diffusion work?
  • Diffusion occurs as a result of random molecular
    collisions All molecules are in _______________
    and it is the _________ _______ - kinetic energy
    - that drives diffusion. Molecules that are
    ______ ____________ collide more frequently and
    will spread to the _____ concentration areas.

50
Diffusion
  • How does diffusion work?
  • Diffusion occurs as a result of random molecular
    collisions All molecules are in constant motion
    and it is the _________ _______ - kinetic energy
    - that drives diffusion. Molecules that are
    ______ ____________ collide more frequently and
    will spread to the _____ concentration areas.

51
Diffusion
  • How does diffusion work?
  • Diffusion occurs as a result of random molecular
    collisions All molecules are in constant motion
    and it is the energy of motion - kinetic energy -
    that drives diffusion. Molecules that are ______
    ____________ collide more frequently and will
    spread to the _____ concentration areas.

52
Diffusion
  • How does diffusion work?
  • Diffusion occurs as a result of random molecular
    collisions All molecules are in constant motion
    and it is the energy of motion - kinetic energy -
    that drives diffusion. Molecules that are highly
    concentrated collide more frequently and will
    spread to the _____ concentration areas.

53
Diffusion
  • How does diffusion work?
  • Diffusion occurs as a result of random molecular
    collisions All molecules are in constant motion
    and it is the energy of motion - kinetic energy -
    that drives diffusion. Molecules that are highly
    concentrated collide more frequently and will
    spread to the lower concentration areas.

54
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
  • http//www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fusea
    ctionhome.gotoWebCodewcprefixcbpwcsuffix3073

55
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
There is a higher concentration of solute on one
side of the membrane as compared to the other
side of the membrane.
56
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
Solute particles move from the side of the
membrane with a higher concentration of solute to
the side of the membrane with a lower
concentration of solute. The solute particles
will continue to diffuse across the membrane
until equilibrium is reached.
57
Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries
When equilibrium is reached, solute particles
continue to diffuse across the membrane in both
directions.
58
Diffusion
  • Why is diffusion important to our cells?
  • Diffusion is one way that materials _____ cells
    and how some waste products _____ the cell. It
    is important in transporting _______, _________
    inorganic molecules such as _______ and ____ in
    and out of the cell to maintain ___________.

59
Diffusion
  • Why is diffusion important to our cells?
  • Diffusion is one way that materials enter cells
    and how some waste products _____ the cell. It
    is important in transporting _______, _________
    inorganic molecules such as _______ and ____ in
    and out of the cell to maintain ___________.

60
Diffusion
  • Why is diffusion important to our cells?
  • Diffusion is one way that materials enter cells
    and how some waste products leave the cell. It
    is important in transporting _______, _________
    inorganic molecules such as _______ and ____ in
    and out of the cell to maintain ___________.

61
Diffusion
  • Why is diffusion important to our cells?
  • Diffusion is one way that materials enter cells
    and how some waste products leave the cell. It
    is important in transporting small, uncharged
    inorganic molecules such as _______ and ____ in
    and out of the cell to maintain ___________.

62
Diffusion
  • Why is diffusion important to our cells?
  • Diffusion is one way that materials enter cells
    and how some waste products leave the cell. It
    is important in transporting small, uncharged
    inorganic molecules such as water, oxygen, and
    carbon dioxide in and out of the cell to maintain
    ___________.

63
Diffusion
  • Why is diffusion important to our cells?
  • Diffusion is one way that materials enter cells
    and how some waste products leave the cell. It
    is important in transporting small, uncharged
    inorganic molecules such as water, oxygen, and
    carbon dioxide in and out of the cell to maintain
    homeostasis.

64
Unit 3 Biology Notes
  • Objective 7 Describe how osmosis occurs and its
    importance in cell activity.

65
Osmosis
  • Osmosis
  • the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable
    membrane.

66
Osmosis
  • How Osmosis Works
  • http//www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fusea
    ctionhome.gotoWebCodewcprefixcbpwcsuffix3075

Dilute sugar solution (Water more concentrated)
Concentrated sugar solution (Water less
concentrated)
Sugar molecules
Movement of water
Selectively permeable membrane
67
Osmosis
  • How does osmosis work?
  • Through _______, water molecules pass through the
    ________ in cell membranes towards the _____
    water concentration area.

68
Osmosis
  • How does osmosis work?
  • Through diffusion, water molecules pass through
    the ________ in cell membranes towards the _____
    water concentration area.

69
Osmosis
  • How does osmosis work?
  • Through diffusion, water molecules pass through
    the openings in cell membranes towards the _____
    water concentration area.

70
Osmosis
  • How does osmosis work?
  • Through diffusion, water molecules pass through
    the openings in cell membranes towards the lower
    water concentration area.

71
Osmosis
  • Why is osmosis important to our cells?
  • Osmosis is important in transporting water ______
    _____________ the cell membrane to maintain
    ___________.

72
Osmosis
  • Why is osmosis important to our cells?
  • Osmosis is important in transporting water
    through (in and out of) the cell membrane to
    maintain ___________.

73
Osmosis
  • Why is osmosis important to our cells?
  • Osmosis is important in transporting water
    through (in and out of) the cell membrane to
    maintain homeostasis.

74
Unit 3 Biology Notes
  • Objective 8 Given an example, be able to
    predict the direction of movement of materials
    through a membrane.

75
  • In A, water will go into the cell (90 is greater
    than 75)

76
  • In B, water will leave the cell (95 is greater
    than 90)

77
  • In C, the water concentrations are equal, so it
    is at equilibrium.

78
Unit 3 Biology Notes
  • Objective 9 Define and describe forms of active
    transport and their importance in cell activity.
    (Endocytosis Exocytosis)

79
Active Transport
  • Active Transport
  • a type of cell transport in which ______ is used
    to move large or charged molecules across the
    cell membrane.

80
Active Transport
  • Active Transport
  • a type of cell transport in which energy is used
    to move large or charged molecules across the
    cell membrane.

81
Active Transport
  • Reasons for Active Transport
  • Materials need to be moved against the
    concentration gradient. (low concentration to
    high concentration)
  • Materials are too large to pass through the
    membrane by diffusion, or they are unable to pass
    through the membrane because of their charge.

82
Active Transport
  • Passage of Material using Carrier Proteins
  • Carrier proteins and ______ are used to pump ions
    and other molecules across the cell membrane.
    These ions or molecules can be pumped _______ the
    concentration gradient.

83
Active Transport
  • Passage of Material using Carrier Proteins
  • Carrier proteins and energy are used to pump ions
    and other molecules across the cell membrane.
    These ions or molecules can be pumped ______ the
    concentration gradient.

84
Active Transport
  • Passage of Material using Carrier Proteins
  • Carrier proteins and energy are used to pump ions
    and other molecules across the cell membrane.
    These ions or molecules can be pumped against the
    concentration gradient.

85
Active Transport
Molecule to be carried
86
Active Transport
  •  
  • Bulk Movement
  • Large molecules are moved across the cell
    membrane by being packaged in large sacs.
  • 2 types endocytosis exocytosis.

87
Active Transport
  • Endocytosis active transport processes that
    move large nutrients and materials ____ a cell
  • Exocytosis active transport processes that move
    large wastes and cellular products ______ a cell.

88
Active Transport
  • Endocytosis active transport processes that
    move large nutrients and materials into a cell
  • Exocytosis active transport processes that move
    large wastes and cellular products ______ a cell.

89
Active Transport
  • Endocytosis active transport processes that
    move large nutrients and materials into a cell
  • Exocytosis active transport processes that move
    large wastes and cellular products out of a cell.

90
Active art http//www.phschool.com/webcodes10/in
dex.cfm?fuseactionhome.gotoWebCodewcprefixcbpw
csuffix3076Video http//www.sumanasinc.com/web
content/animations/content/endocytosis.html
  • Which is endocytosis?
  • Which is exocytosis?

91
Unit 3 Biology Notes
  • Objective 10 Compare and contrast active and
    passive transport. (Examples, Energy required,
    Concentration gradient)

92
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    alike?
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    different?

93
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    alike?
  • Both are needed for the transport of certain
    molecules __ and _____ the cell

94
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    alike?
  • Both are needed for the transport of certain
    molecules in and out of the cell
  • Both are needed to help maintain ____________.

95
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    alike?
  • Both are needed for the transport of certain
    molecules in and out of the cell
  • Both are needed to help maintain homeostasis.

96
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    different?
  • Direction of Particle Movement
  • Passive Transport High to low concentration
  • Active Transport Low to high or high to low

97
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    different?
  • Energy Usage
  • Passive Transport No Energy required
  • Active Transport Energy required

98
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    different?
  • Characteristics of Molecules Transported
  • Passive Transport Small, uncharged molecules
  • Active Transport Large or charged molecules

99
Comparing Passive Active Transport
  • How are passive transport and active transport
    different?
  • Examples of Molecules Transported
  • Passive Transport water, oxygen, carbon
    dioxide
  • Active Transport Ions, proteins, large carbs
    (starch)

100
Unit 3 Biology Notes
  • Objective 11 Describe how cellular activity
    enables an organism to maintain homeostasis.

101
Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis
  • maintaining a stable internal environment
  • An organism is able to maintain homeostasis
    because of cellular processes.
  • The external environment may change, but cells
    have mechanisms to keep the internal conditions
    the same.

102
Homeostasis
  • Examples of homeostasis at the cellular level
  • Get rid of wastes
  • Take in essential substances (food, O2 or CO2,
    etc.)

103
  • Examples of homeostasis at the organism level
  • kidneys-osmoregulation (balancing the amount of
    water and dissolved solutes)
  • pancreas/liver- blood sugar
  • body temperature regulation
  • muscle contraction and relaxation - contributes
    to homeostasis by moving materials from one place
    to another (blood, food, urine, etc.)
  • blood chemistry pH of the blood, contents of
    blood
  • respiration rate increases as cells require
    more O2
  • heart rate changes for various reasons, but
    primarily to pump more or less blood around the
    body as needed
  • more O2 required, heart rate increases
  • conserve energy, heart rate decreases
  • need to get chemical message somewhere fast,
    increase HR
  • hormones send messages to various cells
  • buffers regulate cell pH
  • Etc.!

104
Unit 3 Biology NotesEnzymes
  • Objective 12 Explain the structure and function
    or purpose of an enzyme.
  • Objective 13 Describe the effects of pH and
    temperature on enzyme activity.

105
Enzymes
  • Catalyst
  • substance that influences, promotes, and speeds
    up chemical reactions without being changed
    itself
  • Enzyme
  • Protein catalyst that speeds up a chemical
    reaction within an organism

106
Characteristics of Enzymes
  • How do they work?
  • Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering
    the activation energy (energy needed to get a
    chemical reaction started).
  • Some enzymes cause compounds to break apart
    others cause compounds to be formed.

107
Characteristics of Enzymes
  • How do they work?
  • Enzymes provide a way to speed up life's
    essential functions without raising the
    temperature of the organism's body and without
    requiring more energy.

108
Characteristics of Enzymes
  • Lock Key
  • Specific enzymes work on specific reactions,
    they fit together much like a lock and key.
  • Substrate
  • the substance that an enzyme catalyzes or works
    on.
  • Active Site
  • site on enzyme where its substrate binds

109
Characteristics of Enzymes
  • Specificity
  • Enzymes can work on only one type of reaction
  • Work Quickly
  • Enzymes take part in about 1,000 reactions per
    second
  • Not changed
  • Enzyme is not altered in any way after the
    reaction occurs
  • Enzyme Names
  • typically end in ase. Example catalase, protease

110
Characteristics of Enzymes
  • Denaturation
  • When an enzyme is exposed to extreme HEAT or pH
    values, it can change shape, called becoming
    denatured. It will no longer work the way its
    supposed to.
  • Note Cold temperatures only slow enzymes
    down. Freezing may denature them if ice crystals
    are formed that disrupt the enzyme shape.
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