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Chapter Menu Chapter 1 Intro Chapter Overview Geography is the study of the earth's physical features and the living things that inhabit the planet. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Menu

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Chapter Menu
Introduction Section 1 Geography Skills
Handbook Section 2The Geographers Craft Summary
Chapter 1 Intro
Essential Questions 1) What is
geography? 2) What skills does knowledge of
geography provide?
Geography is used to interpret the past,
understand the present, and plan for the future.
News coverage of local, national, and
international events is part of daily life in the
twenty-first century. An understanding of
geography will help you learn how such events
affect your life.
Chapter Overview
  1. Geography is the study of the earth's physical
    features and the living things that inhabit the
  2. Geographers use many tools and methods to study
    and understand the world's places.
  3. Investigating the relationships among human
    activities, the earth's physical systems, and the
    environment, the study of geography can
    contribute to a better future for the world's

Geography Skills Handbook
  • Globes, Maps and Projections Those who study
    geography use different ways of looking at the
    world or the essential elements of geographythe
    world in spatial terms, places and regions,
    physical systems, human systems, and environment
    and society.

Geography Skills Handbook
  • Map Projections

Determining Location
  • When geographers study the earth in spatial
    terms, they focus on where places are located.
    Location can be expressed as absolute location or
    relative location.
  • The basic tool for answering the question
    Where? is location.
  • A grid system on maps and globes helps you find
    exact places on the Earths surface.
  • A hemisphere is one of the halves into which the
    Earth is divided. Most places are located in two
    of the four hemispheres.

Determining Location (cont.)
  • Latitude
  • Lines of latitude, or parallels, circle the
    Earth parallel to the Equator and measure the
    distance north or south of the Equator in
  • The Equator is measured at 0 latitude, while
    the Poles lie at latitudes 90N (north) and
    90S (south).
  • Parallels north of the Equator are called north
    latitude. Parallels south of the Equator are
    called south latitude.

Determining Location (cont.)
  • Longitude
  • Lines of longitude, or meridians, circle the
    Earth from Pole to Pole.
  • These lines measure distance east or west of the
    Prime Meridian at 0 longitude.
  • Meridians east of the Prime Meridian are known
    as east longitude. Meridians west of the Prime
    Meridian are known as west longitude.
  • The 180 meridian on the opposite side of the
    Earth is called the International Date Line.

Determining Location (cont.)
  • The Global Grid
  • Every place has a global address, or
    absolute location.
  • Absolute location of a place can be identified
    by naming the latitude and longitude lines that
    cross exactly at that place.

Themes in Geography
  • Geographers also group places, or particular
    spaces with physical and human meaning, into
    regions with similar physical or human
  • They study of Earth's physical systems which
    involves the effects of natural phenomena and
    ecosystem on the earth's surface.

Themes in Geography
  • Geographers also look at human systems to see how
    people settle the earth, form societies, create
    permanent features, and move from place to place.
    Human-environment interaction focuses on the
    relationship between people and their physical

The Geographer's Craft
  • Physical geography and human geography are the
    two major branches of geography.
  • Geographers use research methods and tools to
    study places and human activity, including direct
    observation, mapping, interviewing, statistics,
    and technology.
  • Scientific instruments, such as satellites and
    computers, gather and organize data that is used
    by geographers, planners, and governments.
  • Computers have revolutionized the process of
    mapmaking, providing much greater precision and
    making rapid changes possible.
  • Geographers study the relationships among the
    physical and human features of the earth by using
    other disciplines such as history, government,
    culture, and economics.
  • Geography skills are useful in many different
    careers, which often require a combination of
    training in geography and other areas of study.

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