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Title: Rh Blood Group Author: Student Last modified by: jenndagley Created Date: 11/11/2004 3:17:31 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Blood!!

  • The fluid portion of cardiovascular system
  • Connective Tissue
  • Serves the bodys 75 Trillion Cells!! WOW!

  • Blood is a sticky opaque fluid with a
    characteristic metallic taste.
  • Blood has a pH of 7.3-7.4
  • Oxygen rich blood is more scarlet in color while
    oxygen poor blood is a dark red color.
  • Average adult male has 5-6 liters of blood, while
    the female is slightly less with 4-5 L.

Functions of Blood
  • Transports
  • Gases
  • Nutrients
  • Electrolytes
  • Hormones
  • Wastes ex urea and uric acid

Functions of Blood
  • Restricts blood loss
  • Clotting
  • Defends against pathogens and toxins.
  • White blood cells
  • Antibodies
  • Distributes heat produced by cells
  • Regulates interstitial fluid by exchange with

Blood and Blood Cells
  • Whole blood is slightly heavier 3 to 4 times more
    viscous than water.
  • Its cell form mostly in red bone marrow, include
    white and red blood cells. (Bone marrow
    transplants often take place in the ilium..your
  • Blood also contains cellular fragments called
    blood platelets.

Composition of Blood
  • Whole Blood
  • Plasma formed elements
  • a solution cells platelets

Composition of Blood
  • 45 Formed elements
  • Platelets
  • Red Blood Cells
  • White Blood Cells
  • Most of the formed elements is RBC..99
  • 55 Plasma
  • Electrolytes
  • Water
  • Proteins- Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen
  • Wastes
  • Gases
  • Nutrients, Vitamins, Hormones.

  • If a sample of blood is spun in a centrifuge, the
    heavier formed elements are packed down by the
    centrifugal force and the less dense plasma
    remains at the top.

  • You have three distinct layers
  • Plasma (55 of whole blood)
  • Buggy Coat- (leukocytes and platelets lt 1 of
    whole blood)
  • Erythrocytes (45 of whole blood)

Blood Plasma
  • (You may have to add this material to your
    notesNOT in guided reading)
  • Function
  • Maintaining osmotic balance,
  • Buffering against pH changes
  • Maintain blood viscosity
  • Transporting materials through blood
  • Blood clotting.

Erythrocytes aka Red Blood Cells
  • Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) are tiny flattened
    discs with depressed centers.
  • They have no nucleus and have basically no
  • Essentially they are little bags of hemoglobin
    (Hb) which is the protein that functions in gas

Erythrocytes aka Red Blood Cells
  • It is its special shape that is an adaptations
    that allows it to readily squeeze through the
    narrow passages of capillaries.

Structure of Hemoglobin
  • Hemoglobin, the protein that makes red blood
    cells red, binds easily and reversibly with
    oxygen, and most oxygen carried in blood is bound
    to hemoglobin.

Erythrocytes aka Red Blood Cells
  • The number or count varies from individual to
  • Increase in number during strenuous exercise,
    increase in altitude
  • They live approx. 120 days and travel through the
    body about 75,000 times.
  • They age with time, they become more fragile and
    can be damaged simply by passing through

Erythrocytes aka Red Blood Cells
  • The production of RBC are controlled through
    Negative Feedback and a hormone called
  • A deficiency of red blood cells or a reduction in
    the amount of the hemoglobin they contain results
    in a condition called anemia.

Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Sickle cell anemia (uh-NEE-me-uh) is a serious
    disease in which the body makes sickle-shaped red
    blood cells. Sickle-shaped means that the red
    blood cells are shaped like a "C."

Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin that
    causes the cells to have a sickle shape.
    Sickle-shaped cells dont move easily through
    your blood vessels. Theyre stiff and sticky and
    tend to form clumps and get stuck in the blood
    vessels. (Other cells also may play a role in
    this clumping process.)
  • The clumps of sickle cells block blood flow in
    the blood vessels that lead to the limbs and
    organs. Blocked blood vessels can cause pain,
    serious infections, and organ damage.

Sickle Cell Anemia

Leukocytesaka White Blood Cell
  • White Blood cells or leukocytes protect against
  • Work outside the circulatory system.
  • They are transported in the blood to sites of
  • Leukocytes can phagocytize bacterial cells in the
  • Other produce antibodies that destroy foreign

Leukocytesaka White Blood Cell
  • White Blood cell count should range between
    5-10,000 per cubic millimeter.
  • Too many is called leukocytosis- could indicate
    acute infections such as appendicitis
  • Too few is called leukopeniasuch a deficiency
    may accompany typhoid fever, influenza, measles,

Leukocytesaka White Blood Cell
  • There are five different types of white blood
  • Neutrophilis
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Eosiniphils
  • Bbasophils

Blood Platelets
  • Blood platelets are not complete cells, less than
    half the size of a RBC.
  • Help repair damaged blood vessels by sticking to
    broken surfaces.
  • They release serotonin, which contracts smooth
    muscles in the vessel walls, reducing blood flow.

Composition of Blood
Types of Blood Cells
(No Transcript)
  • Refers to the stoppage of bleeding.
  • Is vitally important when smaller blood vessels
    are damaged.
  • Larger vessels may result in a severe hemorrhage
    that requires treatment.
  • Following injury, these 3 actions may prevent
    blood loss
  • Blood Vessel Spasm
  • Platelet Plug Formation
  • Blood Coagulation

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Clotting Mechanisms.
  • Extrinsic Triggered when blood contacts damaged
    blood vessel walls or tissues outside blood
  • Intrinsic Stimulated when blood contacts with
    foreign surfaces in the absence of tissue damage.
  • All components necessary are in blood.

Blood Vessel Spasm
  • Cutting or breaking a smaller blood vessel
    stimulates the smooth muscles in its wall to
    contract, an event called vasospasm.
  • Blood loss lessens immediately and severed vessel
    may close.
  • This effect results from stimulation of vessel as
    well as reflexes elicited by receptors.
  • Blockage called platelet plug has formed and
    blood is coagulating.

Platelet Plug Formation
  • Platelets stick to exposed ends of injured blood
  • They adhere to any rough surfaces.
  • When in contact with collagen, shapes change
  • Platelets stick to each other forming a platelet
    plug in the vascular break.

Platelet Plug Cont.
  • A plug may control blood loss from a small break,
    but a larger one may require a blood clot to halt

Blood Coagulation
  • The most effective hemostatic mechanism.
  • Causes formation of a blood clot by a series of
    reactions, each one activating the next in a
    chain reaction.
  • May occur in extrinsic or intrinsic clotting
  • Utilizes many biochemicals called clotting
  • Vitamin K is necessary.

Blood Coagulation Cont.
  • The major event in blood clot formation is
    conversion of the soluble plasma protein
    fibrinogen into insoluble threads of the protein
  • Activation of certain plasma proteins triggers
    the conversion.

Blood Types
  • In 1910, Physician Karl Landsteiner identified
    the ABO blood antigen gene.
  • Today 20 different genes are know to contribute
    to the surface features of red blood cells, which
    determine compatibility between blood type.
  • Agglutination Clumping of red blood cells when
    testing blood compatibility or resulting from a
    transfusion reaction.

Antigens and Antibodies
  • Although there are many different antigenes in
    humans only a few of them trigger serious
    transfusion complications.
  • Antigens Red blood cell surface molecules.
  • Antibodies Proteins carried in plasma.
  • Avoiding the mixture of certain kinds of
    antigens and anitbodies prevents adverse
    transfusion reactions.

  • ABO blood group is based on the presence ( or
    absence) of 2 major antigens, A and B.
  • A persons antigen combination can be only A, only
    B, both A and B, or neither A nor B.
  • If persons antigen is
  • Only A A blood type.
  • Only B B blood type.
  • Both A and B AB blood type.
  • Neither A nor B Type O blood.

Permissible Transfusion!!
  • You must keep in mind that you cannot except a
    blood type that has anitbodies against your own.
  • O is often called the universal donor because it
    lacks antigen A and B, however it does contain
    BOTH anti A and anti B antibodies so it can only
    except blood from another type O.

Blood Types
Blood Type Antigen Antibody
A A Anti-B
B B Anti-A
AB A and B Neither anti-A nor anti-B
O Neither A nor B Both anti-A and anti-B
Preferred and Permissible Blood Types
Blood Type of Recipient Preferred Blood Type of Donor Permissible Blood Type of Donor
A A A, O
B B B, O
The Rh Blood Type System
  • When we are told our blood type, it is usually
    expressed as a letter followed by either a
    positive () or negative (-). 
  • This positive and negative indicates the Rh
    factor. The Rh factor determines the presence or
    absence of a protein on the surface of the RBC.
    If you carry this protein, you are Rh positive.
    If you don't carry the protein, you are Rh
  • 85 of the population is Rh .

The Rh Blood Type System
  • The Rh system is actually much more complicated
    than the ABO system because there are more than
    30 combinations possible when inherited, however
    for general usage, the Rh proteins are grouped
    into two families - either positive or negative.

The Rh Blood Type System
  • As with the ABO system, there is a dominant
    allele which happens to be the positive family. 
    This means that the genetic pairs that can exist
    in humans are as follows
  • Genetic makeup Blood type
  • Rh positive
  • - Rh positive
  • -- Rh negative

The Rh Blood Type System
  • Rh blood can never be given to someone with Rh -
    blood, but the other way around works. For
    example, 0 Rh blood can not be given to someone
    with the blood type AB Rh -.
  • People with blood group 0 Rh - are called
    "universal donors" and people with blood group AB
    Rh are called "universal receivers."

  • For a blood transfusion to be successful, AB0 and
    Rh blood groups must be compatible between the
    donor blood and the patient blood.
  • If they are not, the red blood cells from the
    donated blood will clump or agglutinate. The
    agglutinated red cells can clog blood vessels and
    stop the circulation of the blood to various
    parts of the body.
  • The agglutinated red blood cells also crack and
    its contents leak out in the body. The red blood
    cells contain hemoglobin which becomes toxic when
    outside the cell. This can have fatal
    consequences for the patient.

Can blood type effect pregnancy?
  • Rh Compatibility?
  • When you find out you are pregnant one of the
    first things you will have is your blood type
  • Any issue regarding this primarily focuses on the
    Rh protein(,-) more than the typinglike A, or

Rh Compatibility
  • If you and your baby are Rh-negative, there's no
    problem, since you both have the same Rh type.
  • If the father's genes are - Rh positive, and
    the mother's are - Rh positive, the baby can
    be Rh positive
  • - Rh positive
  • - - Rh negative

Rh Compatibility
  • If a father's Rh factor genes are , and the
    mother's are - -, the baby will have one from
    the father and one - gene from the mother. The
    baby will be - Rh positive.

Can blood type effect pregnancy?
  • If you're Rh-negative and your baby is
    Rh-positive (thanks to your husband's genes),
    that's fine. until your blood mixes with your
    baby's blood a bit during placental separation at
  • At that critical point, fetal blood cells can
    accidentally combine with your system, and you
    make antibodies to fight them.

Can blood type effect pregnancy?
  • Your immune system is successful in vanquishing
    these stray fetal blood cells in your
  • This is of no consequence, because once they've
    gotten rid of the baby's blood cells in your
    system, they have no other job. And they can't
    filter back through to your baby's blood, because
    delivery has already taken place.
  • The antibodies you made just remain in your
    circulation waiting. For what? For your next
    pregnancy. Herein lies the problem!!!

Can blood type effect pregnancy?
  • In the modern world of obstetrics they now
    monitor blood typing closelyshortly before or
    after delivery the Rh- mother is given a RhoGAM
  • This LIMITS moms body from producing those
    antibodies that would actually cross through the
    placenta in a second baby and attack the babies

Hemolytic Disease
  • This means you have become sensitized and your
    antibodies can cross the placenta and attack your
    babys blood.
  • They break down the fetuss red blood cells and
    produce anemia (the blood has a low number of red
    blood cells).
  • This condition is called hemolytic disease or
    hemolytic anemia.
  • It can become severe enough to cause serious
    illness, brain damage, or even death in the fetus
    or newborn.

Hemolytic Disease
  • Sensitization can occur any time the fetuss
    blood mixes with the mothers blood. It can occur
    if an Rh-negative woman has had
  • A miscarriage
  • An induced abortion or menstrual extraction
  • An ectopic pregnancy
  • Chorionic villus sampling
  • A blood transfusion

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