AP US Government - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 56
About This Presentation

AP US Government


Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: MNEWFARMER Last modified by: Steve Morell Created Date: 10/7/2003 3:46:09 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:175
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: MNE87


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: AP US Government

AP US Government Politics
  • Chapters 9 10
  • Nominations, Campaigns,
  • Elections and Voting Behavior

Political Campaigns and Candidates
  • Electronic media, especially TV, have
    dramatically changed American campaigns since
  • Televised debates have been used since 1960.
  • The Modern Campaign
  • Campaigns design a product to sell -the
  • - Campaigns spending most money end up
    selling their productthey win!
  • (Estimated 4 billion in 2000, 1.5 billion on TV
    alone 5 billion in 2004)

  • 2008 - http//projects.washingtonp
  • 2012 - http//elections.nytimes.com/2012
  • Internet websites
  • spent on advertising Majority of funds to TV
    ads the rest to print ads, staffing, travel,
    hiring polling and technology firms etc.
  • SuperPACs http//abcnews.go.com/WNT/video/stewart-

Campaign Organization
  • Organized chaos and major stress!
  • Candidate at center constant press public
  • Professional and volunteer help
  • - Campaign manager and political consultant
  • Also, fundraisers, media team for ads tv,
    press secretary, personal appearance planners,
    speech-writers, state and regional coordinators,
    and volunteer support groups at every level
    (local, state national)
  • Incumbent Advantage
  • Can use current position actions to
    orchestrate appearances, spend in key areas, get
    easier access to television etc.
  • Already have large, proven campaigns
  • Congressmen/women hold greater incumbency
    advantage than presidents due to local power
    unlimited terms

  • The Undecided are essential
  • Regarding party identification
  • 2/3 of voters identify with a major party
  • Independents on the rise
  • Candidates try to preserve their base while
    winning over the independents and the undecided.
  • Independent voters more likely to shift
    impressions during a campaign
  • Today's campaign strategists target voters by
    battleground states, or on specific categories
    like age and race.

(No Transcript)
  • Nomination
  • Official endorsement of a candidate for office
  • by a political party.
  • Success in the nomination game requires momentum,
    money, and media attention.
  • Campaign Strategy
  • Master game plan that guides a candidates
    electoral campaign.
  • Competing for Delegates winning your partys
  • National Party Convention
  • Super-delegates Party leaders automatically get
    delegate slot at national party convention.

Road to the White House
  • Primaries v. General Election Campaign
    strategies differ
  • Primary election at polling place w/i party
    to determine
  • candidate
  • OR Caucus simultaneous precinct level
  • throughout state to select/determine
    party candidate
  • General Election Electorate at precinct polling
    places casts votes for a partys
    candidate to win office
  • Primary season strategy draws in party activists,
    thus candidates tend to lean more to the left or
  • First, Iowa Caucuses in February, then New
    Hampshire Primary
  • http//www.2012presidentialelectionnews.com/2012-r
  • Frontloading choosing early date on primary
  • - This tradition poses problem not
    representative of US electorate, hence the
    creation of Super Tuesday where a number of
    states hold primaries.

Types of Primaries
  • Open Primary Registered voters voting in any
    primary regardless of party affiliation
  • - potential raiders could vote in opposite
    party primary
  • Closed Primary Only registered party affiliates
    may vote
  • Nonpartisan Primary A qualifying primary used to
    reduce the set of candidates that go on to the
    general election
  • (city, county, school boards)
  • Run-off Primary Top two candidates move on to
    general election regardless of party affiliation
  • Blanket primary vote for candidates from more
    than one party for different offices.

  • January 3 Iowa (caucuses)
  • January 5 Wyoming (GOP caucuses)
  • January 8 New Hampshire (primary)
  • January 15 Michigan
  • January 19 Nevada (precinct caucuses), South
    Carolina (R primary)
  • January 26 South Carolina (D primary)
  • January 29 Florida
  • February 1 Maine (R)
  • February 5 Alabama, Alaska (caucuses), Arizona,
    Arkansas, California, Colorado (caucuses),
    Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho (D
    caucuses), Illinois, Kansas (D caucuses),
    Massachusetts, Minnesota (caucuses), Missouri,
    Montana (R caucuses), New Jersey, New Mexico (D),
    New York, North Dakota (caucuses), Oklahoma,
    Tennessee, Utah, West Virginia, American Samoa
  • February 9 Louisiana, Kansas (R), Nebraska (D
    caucuses), Washington (DR caucuses)
  • February 10 Maine (D caucuses)
  • February 12 District of Columbia, Maryland,
  • February 19 Hawaii (D), Washington (R primary),
  • March 4 Ohio, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont
  • March 8 Wyoming (D)
  • March 11 Mississippi
  • April 22 Pennsylvania

Road to the White House
  • General Election
  • Strategy changes from primary elections no
    longer discussing
  • polarizing issues.
  • Candidates focus on position or divisive issues
  • valence issues, which do not divide the public.

How are the presidential candidates selected in
their party? PRIMARIES/CAUCUSES Each
political party in each state will
have Caucus- choose local delegates,
informal precinct meeting express preference
for a presidential candidate (Michigan -
Democrats) OR Presidential Primary Electorate
(qualified voters) votes at polling place Also,
elect state delegates who will vote for
presidential candidates at future
conventions (Michigan Republicans)
  • District and State Conventions
  • select delegates to attend larger conventions
  • these delegates vote on presidential candidates
  • Political Party National Conventions
  • (Democrats Republicans)
  • - State delegates select a presidential candidate
    for their party
  • - adopt platform
  • unify the party
  • Example of a national convention
  • Opening session organization speeches, keynote
  • 2nd and 3rd sessions speeches, propose platform
  • Final session nominating speeches, nominate
    partys presidential candidate

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Where and How to Campaign
  • After winning nomination, candidates spend more
    time campaigning in pivotal states w/ large s of
    electoral votes
  • - Nixon learned lesson when changing his vow to
    campaign in all 50 states in 1960 (lost) to
    campaigning in 10 populous battleground states
    in 1968 (won)
  • Modern campaigns waged through.
  • TV, Internet, direct mail debates.
  • Spots paid television time/ads
  • Visuals news broadcasts
  • Some say most debates do not affect campaigns.
  • (Exceptions JFK Reagan)
  • Why?
  • Candidates resort to stock speeches to avoid
    dreaded slip of the tongue which could be
    exploited by opposition.

Negative Campaigning
  • Does it work?
  • Unfortunately, it works!
  • Issues get lost when the attacks/mudslinging
    begins, which is
  • almost immediately.
  • In 2004, Bush attacked Kerry as a
  • "Swift Boat Veterans for Truth" attacked Kerry's
    Vietnam war record
  • - Dems claimed the 527 group bankrolled by Bush
    supporters in Texas
  • - Republicans claimed MoveOn.org was connected
    to Kerry campaign
  • In 2008, McCain attacks Obama as a socialist
    not being as patriotic. Obama attacks McCain as
    more of the same (like Bush) disregarding the
    middle class.
  • Now in 2012, Romney campaign criticizing Obama
    as not providing hope or change also saying we
    cannot afford 4 more years.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • Historically, the GOP has had better reputation
  • foreign policy issues
  • Democrats in office during wartime up to Bush
    Sr. in Gulf.
  • But, in 2004, George W. Bush argued invasion of
    Iraq made the world safer.
  • - Kerry launched attack calling invasion "a
    diversion from the battle against our greatest
    enemy-al Qaeda.
  • In 2008, McCains POW hero status overpowers
    Obamas lack of national experiencebut Obama
  • What about the packaging of a president? Who
    does the public view as better looking, more
    poised, eloquent?

  • Are our officeholders becoming more skilled at
    running for office than in governing?
  • - Candidates can appear to be something they are
    not Actors trying to win a competition, rather
    than politicians trying to change policy issues
    to better society.

Campaign Finance
  • Money comes from public private sources
  • -Congressional elections funded by donations from
  • - Individuals (maximum limit 2000 but most give
    less than 200),
  • - Political Action Committees (PACs limited to
    5000), and - Political Parties.
  • plays large role in Congressional elections.
  • Presidency
  • In primaries, candidates receive federal
    matching funds for all individual donations of
    250 or less.
  • General election funds come from government
    unless the candidate does not accept the federal
    - if they dont, then they are not subject to
    spending limits
  • These federal dollars come from 1973 check off
    law voters electing to donate (in 2004, 3) to

Campaign Finance
  • 1974 Federal Campaign Reform Law
  • - created Federal Election Commission (FEC)
  • http//www.fec.gov/
  • - limited individual donations to 1000 per
    candidate (now 2,000)
  • - reaffirmed ban on union corporate donations
  • - PACs must have at least 50 members, give to at
    least 5
  • federal candidates and limit donations to
  • - Primary General counted as separate
  • - Minor party candidates can receive partial
    federal funding if reach 5 of vote in previous
  • These laws to control spending did not work as

Campaign Finance Loopholes
  • Soft money Donations made to party organization
    rather than a particular candidate
  • - 2002 Bipartisan Reform Act, now subject to
  • 527 groups independent political organizations
    not regulated by FEC not subject to the same
    contribution limits as PACs claim they are
    issue-oriented rather than candidate-oriented
  • Bundling gathering individual checks to donate
  • campaign, the family bundle
  • Independent Expenditures Money spent by these
    independent organizations usually in the form
    of advertising candidates may not have link

(No Transcript)
Campaign Finance
  • 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform
  • - Banned contributions of soft money to national
  • - Prohibits the use of funds for "issue ads
  • candidate
  • Legal ads w/candidates name will be approved
    by candidate
  • - Doubled individual donation limits to 2000.
  • Regardless, parties create 527s to skirt the
  • McCain-Feingold was contested opponents said it
    violated 1st amendment free speech
  • Supreme Court upheld McCain-Feingold.

Campaign Finance
  • Original 1974 limits on independent expenditures
    were struck down in Buckley v. Valeo in 1976 on
    the grounds of freedom of speech
  • - Opened up spending by independent
  • OK to spend a Buck
  • Electioneering communication i.e. broadcasts
    about candidate must include disclaimer stating
    it was not endorsed by the candidate.
  • - prohibited 60 days before general election
    30 days prior to primary

Regulating Campaign Finance
The RULES http//www.fec.gov/pages/brochures/citi
zens.shtml See above link because FEC regulations
change! - Individuals may contribute up to
2,500 to a federal candidate in
each primary and general election. (up to
117,000 over 2 years) - Interest groups limited
to 5000 - Presidential candidates from major
parties qualify for public funds if they raise
100,000 in contributions then are limited to
spending what they receive (75 mil in 2004)
cannot accept private monies - Donor disclosure
when over 200 - FEC enforces laws -
Corporations, labor unions, foreign contributions
all illegal Political Action Committees
(PACs) independent arms of organizations like
corporations and unions influential!
  • The Proliferation of PACs
  • Political Action Committees are funding vehicles
    created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms.
  • A corporation, union, or some other interest
    group can create a political action committee
    (PAC) and register it with the Federal Election
  • There were 4,611 PACs during the 20072008
    election cycle, which contributed 412.8 million
    to House and Senate candidates.
  • PACs donate to candidates who support their
  • PACs do not buy candidates, but give to
    candidates who support them in the first place.

(No Transcript)
  • Direct elections of the voting eligible
    population (electorate) for legislators
  • Primary elections determine a partys nominee
  • General elections determine who wins the office
    between the nominees of parties
  • Initiative petitions enable voters in 23 states
    to place proposed legislation on ballot if gather
    required of signatures on a petition (usually a
    number equaling 10 of the voters in the previous
  • Referendums are a form of direct legislation in
    which voters may approve or disapprove some
    legislative act (such as school bonds) or
    constitutional amendments.

(No Transcript)
Congressional Elections Population
  • 1911-12, House of Representatives fixed at 435
  • Reapportionment Act of 1929 established permanent
    method for apportioning the seats according to
    each census
  • State Legislators responsible for drawing
    district lines (redistricting) after every
    decennial census every 10 years States may
    gain or lose districts, district populations may
  • Census Bureau conducts population count every 10

One Person, One Vote
  • Court ruled each person's vote is worth as much
    as another's (Equal Protection clause under 14th
  • 1946 Court refused to look at malapportionment
    unfair distribution of representatives to a
    legislative body
  • 1962 Baker v. Carr - Court ruled they have right
    to intervene in Tennessee's reapportionment
    efforts that ignored economic growth population
  • 1964 Reynolds v. Sims - Seats in both houses of
    state legislature should be based on population.
  • 1964 Wesberry v. Sanders - Court expanded Baker
    and Reynolds principle to include the drawing of
    Congressional district boundaries according to
    the one person, one vote principle.
  • Gerrymandering malapportionment illegal!

Voting Behavior and Elections
  • Democracy in theory v. Democracy in practice
  • Roughly 50 of VEP inactive in presidential years
  • Elitism
  • Media "images" rather than informing electorate.
  • Voting for "lesser of two evils instead of third
  • Are we truly a democracy?
  • If not, who to blame?
  • Is the system democratic?
  • - Opportunity to participate exists.

(No Transcript)
The Voter
  • Middle-aged people vote more than the young or
    very old.
  • In 2000, over ½ between 18 and 24 did not
  • Peaks in mid 40-50s declines after 60
  • By 2000, 3 more women voting than men
  • Participation ? if graduate from college
  • Income, education, social class, occupation
    closely related the higher these are, the more
    likely the person will vote.
  • Churchgoers vote more than nonchurchgoers
  • African Americans less likely due in part to
    legal games, intimidation violence that kept
    them out prior to the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Understanding your influence in politics
    political efficacy

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
The Nonvoter
  • 35 to 45 of population
  • Who are they? In general
  • Less educated, rural, nonwhite, very young or
    very old, and have less emotional investment in
  • Pattern emerging from data the more advantaged
    in the social system are more likely to vote than
    the disadvantaged.

The Socioecomonic Factors
  • Socioeconomics..
  • -Generalizations-
  • Social class, income, and occupation.
  • Upper and middle classes go for the GOP
  • lower classes go for Democrats.
  • Workers, unions vote Democrat
  • professionals business people support
  • Being a member of many groups causes one to be
  • "cross-pressured
  • An older, wealthy, Caucasian gay male
  • A young, African American military sergeant
  • A middle-aged, wealthy, Catholic teacher

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
The Psychological Factors
  • Party identification.
  • By 1999, 34 considered themselves Democrats, 28
    Republicans 38 independent.
  • Signs this is becoming less significant
  • 2009
  • http//www.gallup.com/poll/122693/Democratic-Advan
  • The candidates
  • (i.e) Eisenhower, a military hero, led short-term
    switches to the GOP.
  • The issues
  • - Controversial issues, wars, economy, etc.
  • --------------------------------------------------
  • Retrospective voting voters tend to make up
    their minds by looking back at what happened
    under current leaders.
  • - If the economy is failing.something must be
  • Rational choice individuals engage in political
    behavior to serve their own
  • best interests

(No Transcript)
  • Policy Voting
  • Electoral choices made on the basis of the
    voters policy preferences and where the
    candidates stand on policy issues.
  • Mandate Theory of Elections
  • The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate
    from the people to carry out his/her platforms
  • Politicians like the theory better than political
    scientists do.

(No Transcript)
  • In a presidential election year, the vote for
    president may affect the vote for Congress, and
    even state and local races.

  • Coattails
  • Common pattern - incumbent president's party
    loses ground.
  • Recent years seem to show that the coattail
    impact is diminishing.
  • A large number of states have scheduled
    gubernatorial elections in off-years to insulate
    them from presidential politics.

(No Transcript)
Types of Elections
  • Realignment election - Parties win support of a
    new coalition of voters...a shift in the bases of
    electoral support from one party to another
  • Maintaining election no change in party i.d. of
  • Deviating election voters maintain party
    identity but still cast their vote for the

  • Suffrage or Franchise The Right to Vote
  • The Constitution, written in 1787, grants states
    the right to establish voter
  • qualifications. States restricted suffrage to
    white male property owners
  • over 21 years of age.
  • Brief history of the expansion of the American
  • 1. Early 1800s, states drop religious, property
    ownership and property tax qualifications.
  • 2. 1870, 15th Amendment, intended to extend
    suffrage to any man regardless of race, color or
    previous condition of servitude.
  • 3. 1920, 19th Amendment, Womens suffrage
  • 4. 1960s, Civil Rights Acts federal government
    restricting tactics to get around the 15th
    Amendment, including the elimination of poll
    taxes and literacy testing
  • 5. 1971, 26th Amendment, no state can set voting
    minimum age limit higher than 18 years old.

  • How were minorities, especially African
  • disenfranchised after the 15th Amendment is
  • 1. VIOLENCE, lynching
  • Threats and social pressures loss of
  • eviction etc.
  • 3. literacy testing
  • 4. poll taxes
  • 5. gerrymandering drawing district lines to
    favor/limit the voting strength or political
    influence of a group or party
  • 6. White Primary party restricting preliminary
    elections to white voters

  • Governments solution to the problem of states
  • citizens disenfranchising minorities (mainly
  • Americans)
  • Civil Rights Acts
  • 1957
  • Set up Civil Rights Commission investigating
  • discrimination
  • Injunction federal court orders, allows federal
    court to order states/people to obey laws and
    provide equal opportunity to all qualified voters
  • 1960 federal government appoints federal
    voting referees
  • 1964 federal government bans registration

  • Poll Taxes unconstitutional dropped 24th
    Amendment (1964)
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Any new election law needs to be pre-cleared
    through Department of Justice
  • Voting Examiners are appointed to troubled
    States/Counties to oversee election process
  • Extended amendments in 1970, 75, 82 suspend the
    right to administer literacy testing until 2007.
  • All laws affect every level
  • local, state national elections

Voter Registration
  • Debate exists over whether voting should be made
  • Voter has to take initiative may not make the
  • 1993 "Motor voter" bill - People could register
    in motor vehicle offices, public assistance
    benefits offices, and military recruitment
  • Ballots differ in states/counties
  • Secret Australian ballot adopted by every state
    by 1950.
  • -Party-column (Indiana) ballots group candidates
    of each party in columns, making straight-ticket
    voting easier.
  • -Candidates on an office-column (Massachusetts)
    ballot grouped according to office they are
    running for.
  • In 2000, Oregon went to an all-mail ballot.
  • 2000 Florida elections controversial butterfly
    ballot chads

(No Transcript)
Recounting ballots manually donehave to
determine the intent of the voter
Court can decide if recount is done in a fair
manner Florida considered to be in violation
of equal protection clause of 14th amendment
which stopped the recount in 2000. Bush wins.
Framers of Constitution their plan for electing
U.S. President Vice President
  • 12th Amendment, 1804
  • Electors chosen by parties still cast two ballots
  • One for the President
  • One for the VP
  • 12th amendment
  • separated the elections
  • to prevent a tie
  • (which occurred in 1800)

Electing the President - Electoral College
  • 1. Each Party selects a slate of electors.
  • The of electors in a state depends on
  • Also, it is the same of Congresspersons
    representing the state.
  • Minnesota has 2 senators 8 representatives
  • 10 Congresspersons therefore, MN gets10 electors.
  • Congressmen/women CANNOT be electors!
  • Electors are delegates chosen from party.
  • http//www.commissions.leg.state.mn.us/gis/congmap

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Electing the President Electoral College
  • 2. General Election every 4 years Tuesday after
    first Monday in November
  • Qualified voters (electorate) cast ballots for
    all electors
  • representing a particular party in each state.
  • Ballots list candidates names instead of
    parties electors names.
  • You are voting for a slate of electors for a
    political party to vote for you, not directly for
    the candidates!

Electing the President Electoral College
  • 3. Electoral Vote
  • Monday after second Wednesday in December
  • -Electors of the party winning the popular vote
    in each state cast ballots for Pres. Vice Pres.
  • -Winner-take-all Candidate receiving popular
    vote in state gets ALL electoral votes in state.

Electing the President Electoral College
  • 4. Electoral Ballots counted January 6
  • - Electors cast two ballotsone for pres one
    for vice this prevents a tieseparation
    resulted from election of 1800 and 12th amendment
  • Candidate receiving majority of electoral votes
  • (at least 270 of 538) becomes President
    January 20
  • What if no majority (less than 270 electoral
    votes) is reached?
  • The election is thrown into Congress.
  • House of Representatives will select President
  • Senate will select Vice President

2004 Electoral ResultsRed Bush, Republican
Blue Kerry, Democrat
2008 Presidential Election
Online Election Predictor
  • http//www.electoral-vote.com/
  • predictions change daily according to state
    polling data the votemaster is an American
    citizen who works as a professor of economics at
    a university in Amserdam. He claims the site is
    as nonpartisan as possible provides a link to
    other sites who also makes predictions.
  • Blog covers issues affecting the election

Flaws of Electoral System
  • Winner of popular vote may not win the majority
    of the electoral votes (due to population
    differences in states)
  • 1824 Adams d. Jackson, 1876 Hayes d. Tilden ,
    1888 Harrison d. Cleveland,
  • 2000 Bush d. Gore http//www.infoplease.com/ipa/
  • No enforced law requiring electors to cast vote
    for popular candidate (it is expected though)
  • faithless electors http//www.thegreenpapers.c
  • Strong minor party bid may make it impossible for
    a candidate to achieve 270 votes, then election
    goes to Congress
  • - Most widely supported reform is direct popular

(No Transcript)
Small states are overrepresented in the electoral
college system obviously these states are
proponents of the system regardless of its flaws
Bush v. Gore, 2000
  • 5-4! Court reversed Florida high court - there
    were no uniform standards for inspecting
    ballotsin violation of equal protection clause
    within the 14th amendment
  • Ruling settled the election by stopping the
  • George W. Bush became president even though did
    not win popular vote.

(No Transcript)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com