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Chemistry of Life


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Title: Chemistry of Life

Chemistry of Life
Levels of Chemical Organization
  • Atoms
  • Nucleus- central core of atom
  • Proton- charged particle in nucleus
  • Neutron- non-charged particle in nucleus
  • Atomic number- number of protons in the nucleus
    determines the type of atom
  • Atomic mass- number of protons and neutrons

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Levels of Chemical Organization
  • Atoms
  • Energy levels- regions surrounding atomic nucleus
    that contain electrons
  • Electron- negatively charged particle
  • May contain up to eight electrons per level
  • Energy increases with distance from nucleus

  • An ELECTRONS ENERGY LEVEL is the amount of
    energy required by an electron to stay in orbit.
    Just by the electrons motion alone, it has
    kinetic energy. The electrons position in
    reference to the nucleus gives it potential

  • An energy balance keeps the electron in orbit and
    as it gains or loses energy, it assumes an orbit
    further from or closer to the center of the atom.
    SHELLS and SUBSHELLS are the orbits of the
    electrons in an atom.

  • Shells are lettered K through Q, starting with K,
    which is the closest to the nucleus. The shell
    can also be split into four subshells labeled s,
    p, d, and f, which can contain 2, 6, 10, and 14
    electrons, respectively.

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Elements, molecules, and compounds
  • Element- a pure substance, made up of only one
    kind of atom
  • Molecule- a group of atoms bound together in a
  • Compound- substances whose molecules have more
    than one kind of atom

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  • Co Cobalt
  • Cn Copernicium
  • Cr Chromium
  • Cs Cesium
  • Cu Copper
  • Db Dubnium
  • Ds Darmstadtium
  • Dy Dysprosium
  • Er Erbium
  • Es Einsteinium
  • Eu Europium
  • F Fluorine
  • Fe Iron
  • Fm Fermium
  • Fr Francium
  • Ga Gallium
  • Gd Gadolinium
  • Ge Germanium
  • H Hydrogen
  • He Helium
  • Hf Hafnium
  • Hg Mercury

  • Ac Actinium
  • Ag Silver
  • Al Aluminum
  • Am Americium
  • Ar Argon
  • As Arsenic
  • At Astatine
  • Au Gold
  • B Boron
  • Ba Barium
  • Be Beryllium
  • Bh Bohrium
  • Bi Bismuth
  • Bk Berkelium
  • Br Bromine
  • C Carbon
  • Ca Calcium
  • Cd Cadmium
  • Ce Cerium
  • Cf Californium
  • Cl Chlorine
  • Cm Curium

  • Ho Holmium
  • Hs Hassium
  • I Iodine
  • In Indium
  • Ir Iridium
  • K Potassium
  • Kr Krypton
  • La Lanthanum
  • Li Lithium
  • Lr Lawrencium
  • Lu Lutetium
  • Md Mendelevium
  • Mg Magnesium
  • Mn Manganese
  • Mo Molybdenum
  • Mt Meitnerium
  • N Nitrogen
  • Na Sodium
  • Nb Niobium
  • Nd Neodymium
  • Ne Neon
  • Ni Nickel

  • No Nobelium
  • Np Neptunium
  • O Oxygen
  • Os Osmium
  • P Phosphorus
  • Pa Protactinium
  • Pb Lead
  • Pd Palladium
  • Pm Promethium
  • Po Polonium
  • Pr Praseodymium
  • Pt Platinum
  • Pu Plutonium
  • Ra Radium
  • Rb Rubidium
  • Re Rhenium
  • Rf Rutherfordium
  • Rg Roentgenium
  • Rh Rhodium
  • Rn Radon
  • Ru Ruthenium
  • S Sulfur

  • Sb Antimony
  • Sc Scandium
  • Se Selenium
  • Sg Seaborgium
  • Si Silicon
  • Sm Samarium
  • Sn Tin
  • Sr Strontium
  • Ta Tantalum
  • Tb Terbium
  • Tc Technetium
  • Te Tellurium
  • Th Thorium
  • Ti Titanium
  • Tl Thallium
  • Tm Thulium
  • U Uranium
  • Uuh Ununhexium
  • Uun Ununnilium
  • Uuo Ununoctium
  • Uup Ununpentium
  • Uuq Ununquadium

  • Uus Ununseptium
  • Uut Ununtrium
  • Uuu Ununumium
  • V Vanadium
  • W Tungsten
  • Xe Xenon
  • Y Yttrium
  • Yb Ytterbium
  • Zn Zinc
  • Zr Zirconium

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Chemical Elements of the Human Body
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus

Elements Crucial to Human Health
  • Chemical elements are crucial to our health.
    Although there are more in the body, these are
    the elements that we can most quickly impact in a
    positive way.

The Elements (based on an average 160-pound
  • Element Weight
  • Oxygen 90 pounds
  • Carbon 36 pounds
  • Hydrogen 14 pounds
  • Calcium 3 pounds 12 ounces
  • Nitrogen 3 pounds 8 ounces
  • Phosphorus 1 pound 4 ounces
  • Chlorine 4 ounces
  • Sulphur 3 ½ ounces
  • Potassium 3 ounces
  • Sodium 2 ½ ounces
  • Fluorine 2 ounces
  • Magnesium 1 ½ ounces
  • Silicon ¼ ounce
  • Iron 1/6 ounce
  • Iodine Trace
  • Manganese Trace

Calcium- The Knitter
  • Calcium Ca(1.5) is the most common mineral in
    the human body nearly all of it found in bones
    and teeth. Ironically, calcium's most important
    role is in bodily functions, such as muscle
    contraction and protein regulation. In fact, the
    body will actually pull calcium from bones
    (causing problems like osteoporosis) if there's
    not enough of the element in a person's diet.
  • Calcium is an alkaline, positive mineral that
    attracts oxygen. It must undergo an evolution to
    travel from rock form to a form that can be
    assimilated by the human body. It is through
    vegetable and animal form and their mineral
    content that calcium is converted to blood and
  • In the body, it aids digestion, nutrition and
    neutralization. Calcium promotes good growth,
    vitality and vigor by helping to regulate
    metabolism. It also causes coagulation of the
    blood and thus aids in clotting for healthy

Calcium- The Knitter
  • Symptoms on the skin of calcium deficiency are
    itchy skin, wrinkles and burns that heal poorly
    or slowly. Calcium can aid in conditions of
    rosacea, acne, psoriasis, impetigo (a very
    contagious infection of the skin common in
    children localized redness develops into small
    blisters that gradually crust and erode), prurigo
    (eruption of pale, dome-shaped papules that itch
    severely) and ichthyosis (A congenital, often
    hereditary skin disease characterized by dry,
    thickened, scaly skin. Also called alligator
    skin, fish skin, fishskin disease, ichthyosis
  • Foods rich in calcium are almonds, agar,
    avocados, barley, brazil nuts, blackstrap
    molasses, carrots, buckwheat, cauliflower, figs,
    egg yolk, Irish moss, kelp, lentils, goat milk,
    parsnips, rice polishing, veal joint broth/jelly.

Other important and interesting calcium facts
  • .
  • Most abundant element found in water, ash of
    plants and all soils.
  • One of the most important biochemical elements
    needed in human nutrition.
  • Must undergo evolution from rock form to
    plant/animal form to be assimilated.
  • Contained in hard tissues of the body.
  • Lends strength to arteries and veins all

Other important and interesting calcium facts
  • Aids digestion, nutrition, neutralization.
  • Regulates metabolism.
  • Calcium imbalance is the beginning of chronic
  • Menstrual disorders increased calcium to
    overcome excessive flow menstrual blood
    contains 40X the calcium of regular blood.
  • Sugar intake depletes supply.
  • Pellagra calcium deficiency.

Other important and interesting calcium facts
  • Milk deficiency in mothers turnip greens, green
    kale for calcium.
  • Proven to make eggshells harder.
  • Excess calcium hardening, bony growths,
    rheumatoid arthritis, joint stiffness (to combat
    excess wild strawberries, goat milk, raw egg
    yolk tonics, okra, celery).
  • Deficient calcium lungs affected, growths,
    tumors, sores, abscesses, fevers, inflammations,

Carbon- The Builder
  • Carbon C (18) is synonymous with life. Its
    central role is due to the fact that it has four
    bonding sites that allow for the building of
    long, complex chains of molecules. Moreover,
    carbon bonds can be formed and broken with a
    modest amount of energy, allowing for the dynamic
    organic chemistry that goes on in our cells.
  • Carbon is the basic factor of cell birth and cell
    life, the cradle of creation and principal
    element in growth. Carbon supports our vital
    systems. Carbon is found in all carbohydrates.
  • Excess carbon in the body can manifest by anemia,
    obesity (adipose), diabetes, restlessness,
    laziness, boils, high blood pressure, low sex
    drive and acidity. Carbon deficiency may manifest
    as negativity, remoteness, and melancholy.
  • Foods high in carbon sugars, most proteins,
    starches, grains/breads, fats, sweet fruits.

Chlorine- The Laundryman
  • Chlorine Cl (0.15) is usually found in the body
    as a negative ion, called chloride. This
    electrolyte is important for maintaining a normal
    balance of fluids.
  • Chlorine is an organic salt that helps eliminate
    tissue congestion from the body, so new nutrients
    can be used to build and reinforce our systems.
    It is a germicide and, together with sodium,
    slows blood clotting and aids in keeping blood
    albumin, fibrin and casein, in solution. Our
    bones, nerves, sex glands, sweat glands and liver
    need chlorine, with a primary focus on building
    strong joints.
  • Protein in the urine and insufficient oxygen
    intake due to malformed re corpuscles will be
    evident if chorine (sodium chloride) is lacking
    in your system.
  • Foods that are high in chlorine are avocado,
    banana, bass, beef, beets, whole wheat bread,
    butter, buttermilk, casaba, celery, chicken,
    chicory, dry dates, egg yolk, lamb.

Cobalt- The Proteinizer
  • Cobalt (0.0000021) is contained in vitamin B12,
    which is important in protein formation and DNA

Copper- The Giver
  • Copper (0.0001) is important as an electron
    donor in various biological reactions. Without
    enough copper, iron won't work properly in the

Flourine- The Resister
  • Fluorine (0.0037) is found in teeth and bones.
    Fluorine reinforces calcium, preventing tooth
    decay. It keeps the sinus walls healthy and
    balances oxygen.
  • In cases of fluorine depletion, the hair, corneal
    structures, nails, beard and skin are adversely
    affected. Indications may be sweaty, clammy feet,
    sticky eyelids, as well as numerous and painful
    boils and corns.
  • Foods that are high in fluorine are black-eyed
    peas, goat buttermilk, goat butter, goat whey,
    spinach, tomatoes, cheese, cabbage, and parsley.

Chromium- The Matchmaker
  • Chromium (0.0000024) helps regulate sugar levels
    by interacting with insulin, but the exact
    mechanism is still not completely understood.

Hydrogen- The Moisturizer
  • Water is 11 hydrogen. The human body is 70
    water, the ocean that is human life. Hydrogen
    moisturizes tissue, transports nutrients,
    promotes elimination by irrigation of cells and
    organs, regulates temperature, prevents
    inflammation and soothes the nerves.
  • With an excess of hydrogen, it would make sense
    that there would be an issue with edema or
    fluid-type body. Symptoms and/or attributes may
    include sluggishness, even temperament,
    compassion, weakness and exhaustion. Lack of
    hydrogen may create dehydration, appetite for
    salty foods, dry skin, excess body heat,
    arthritis, leanness and irritability.
  • Foods high in hydrogen are fruit and vegetable
    juices, broths, kefir, water, citrus fruits,
    milk, whey, cherries, cabbage, carrots, celery,
    pineapple, watercress, watermelon.

Iodine- The Metabolizer
  • Iodine (0.000016) is required for making of
    thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate
    and other cellular functions. Iodine deficiency,
    which can lead to goiter and brain damage, is an
    important health problem throughout much of the
  • Iodine is vital in rebuilding new tissue in the
    body silicon and The thyroid, our emotion
    gland, as well as the liver, spleen, uterus,
    heart lining and lymphatic system are all greatly
    dependent on the intake of iodine. The metabolism
    of calcium, fluorine and many other elements are
    aided with iodine.
  • Foods that are high in iodine are agar,
    artichokes, asparagus, beans, Brussels sprouts,
    cardamom, carrots, chives, coconut, eggplant,
    kale kelp, dulse leaf, lettuce, loganberries,
    mustard greens, oats, okra, onions, oysters,
    pike, tofu, spinach, squash, strawberries, tuna,
    turnip greens, watercress.

Iron The Energizer
  • Iron (0.006) Fe is a key element in the
    metabolism of almost all living organisms. It is
    also found in hemoglobin, which is the oxygen
    carrier in red blood cells. Half of women don't
    get enough iron in their diet.
  • Iron works in conjunction with oxygen in the
    human body. It attracts oxygen, promoting
    vitality, tissue oxidation, circulatory
    stimulation, digestion, elimination and
  • High iron content in the body may result in
    excess blood pressure, heaviness of the senses
    and lethargy. Iron deficiency is more common and
    manifest in anemia, poor respiration, low vital
    force, and low blood pressure.
  • The highest iron foods are sea vegetation
    (dulse, kelp, Irish moss), unsulphured dried
    fruits, black cherries, greens and liquid

Magnesium The Relaxer
  • Magnesium Mg (0.05) plays an important role in
    the structure of the skeleton and muscles. It
    also is necessary in more than 300 essential
    metabolic reactions.
  • Magnesium works with calcium to calm nerves,
    promote sleep and is vital for teeth and bone
    strength, cell growth, tissue elasticity, and
    lowers fever.
  • Excessive content of magnesium in the body can
    create numbness, apathy, sluggishness, slowed
    perception and poor memory. A low amount of
    magnesium may result in insomnia, headache, stiff
    muscles, hot temper, forgetfulness and mood
  • Foods high in magnesium wheat germ, greens,
    yellow cornmeal, nuts and berries.

  • Manganese (0.000017) is essential for certain
    enzymes, in particular those that protect
    mitochondria the place where usable energy is
    generated inside cells from dangerous oxidants.
  • Manganese is strong, resilient and increases
    resistance. It assists in controlling nervous
    tension, enhances intellect and coordinates
    thought and action.
  • Those who may have manganese excess will exhibit
    exaggerated emotion, although excess is very
    rare. Manganese deficiency may cause impatience,
    anxiety, nightmares, anger, depression, swollen
    glands, aversion to being touched, gout symptoms,
    cracking joints and reduced appetite.
  • Foods high in manganese nuts and seeds

Molybdenum- The Transformer
  • Molybdenum (0.000013) is essential to virtually
    all life forms. In humans, it is important for
    transforming sulfur into a usable form. In
    nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is important for
    transforming nitrogen into a usable form.

Nitrogen The Restrainer
  • Nitrogen (3) is found in many organic molecules,
    including the amino acids that make up proteins,
    and the nucleic acids that make up DNA.
  • Nitrogen is found in elastic and connective
    tissue, hair, nails, skin and body fluids and is
    essential for metabolism. Bodies with high levels
    of nitrogen may be slow healing with lowered
    immune systems, suffer from drowsiness,
    forgetfulness and low heat generation.
  • Deficiency in the nitrogen element may cause
    fatigue, muscular and tendon cramping and
    weakness, danger of blood clots, and volatility
    in personality.
  • High protein foods are those that will assist the
    low nitrogen personality therefore, a decrease
    in high protein foods will assist a high nitrogen
  • Foods high in nitrogen are fish, spices, nuts,
    pasta, cheese, beans, poultry, lamb, lentils and

Oxygen The Giver Of Life
  • Oxygen O (65) and hydrogen (10) are
    predominantly found in water, which makes up
    about 60 percent of the body by weight. It's
    practically impossible to imagine life without
  • Heat production and physical and mental healthy
    are attributes of oxygen. Metabolism and
    regeneration are reinforced by an uptake of
    oxygen. Oxygen acts toward anabolism as well as
    catabolism. Think of recycling. All must return
    to nature, and disintegration is only complete
    with regeneration. The oxygen cycle has no
    beginning and no end.
  • High oxygen types produce and excess of heat
    causing heat flushes, red face and neck toward
    evening, the lumbar region of the back my feel
    cool or numb, pain under the scapula,
    glucose-producing foods may cause colic and the
    skin may show symptoms of dermatitis. Salty foods
    and milk products are good for excessive oxygen
    types. Low oxygen types show symptoms of nervous
    irritability, energy decrease, poor digestion and
    the skin may flake and/or become scaly with blue
  • The highest oxygen foods are beefs, blueberries,
    bone broth, fish, goat milk, nuts and seeds,
    onions, radishes, sea vegetation, spinach,
    tomatoes and turtle. As a general rule, foods
    that are high in iron are also high oxygen foods.

Phosphorus The Light Bearer
  • Phosphorus Ph (1) is found predominantly in bone
    but also in the molecule ATP, which provides
    energy in cells for driving chemical reactions.
  • Phosphorus improves nerve nutrition, is an agent
    for growth, necessary for reproduction, present
    in white blood cells, and stimulates intellect.
    Phosphorus from vegetable sources affects the
    bones and phosphorus from animal sources affects
    the brain and nervous system.
  • Phosphorus excess may cause volatile emotions,
    tissue degeneration, progressive emaciation, and
    exaggerated confidence. Those lacking in
    phosphorus will show signs of neuralgia, fear,
    lack of confidence, sensitivity to criticism and
    slow oxygen uptake.
  • Foods high in phosphorus are for the nervous
    system/brain fish, meat, egg yolk, and dairy
    products for the bones lentils, soybeans,
    almonds, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds.

Potassium The Alkalizer
  • Potassium K (0.25) is an important electrolyte
    (meaning it carries a charge in solution). It
    helps regulate the heartbeat and is vital for
    electrical signaling in nerves.
  • Potassium assists in recuperative powers.
    Potassium and sodium work together in all cells
    of the body, including the nerve synapse, to
    maintain membrane potentials and to assist in
    metabolic processes. Potassium has a draining
    effect on the body to favor good kidney action.
    Potassium is analgesic and neutralizes acidity in
    all parts of the body therefore, lack of
    potassium will cause acidity and skin eruptions.
    Acidity will show physical evidence in the form
    of goose pimple-type skin on the upper arms and
  • Potassium assists with ulcers, gangrene,
    cutaneous skin ailments, ingrown toenails, as
    well as improvement in the assimilation of
    albumin, casein and fibrin. When potassium and
    other alkaline salts are high in the blood,
    injuries heal quicker.
  • Foods high in potassium apples, anise, apricots,
    bananas, black cherries, blueberries, Jerusalem
    artichokes, fish, kale, kelp, lentils, lima
    beans, wheat germ, and watercress.

Selenium- The Catalyst
  • Selenium (0.000019) is essential for certain
    enzymes, including several anti-oxidants. Unlike
    animals, plants do not appear to require selenium
    for survival, but they do absorb it, so there are
    several cases of selenium poisoning from eating
    plants grown in selenium-rich soils.

Silicon The Magnetic Element
  • Silicon provides elasticity, as well as helping
    the body become more alkaline. It has great
    effect on our membranous tissues and is
    beneficial for the nerves, the bowel walls, the
    alimentary tract and the lungs.
  • Symptoms of silicon depletion can be a drying
    up of the skin, exc3ess mucous production
    literally avenues of elimination are closed.
  • Foods rich in silicon are oats, barley, apples,
    bananas, beets, dates, kelp, brown rice and rice

Other important and interesting silicon facts
  • Magnetic comes from a city Magnesia in Thessaly.
    Magnet, magnesia, magnetism have the same root.
    Traced further back to magus, mach and the
    Sanskrit word mahaji meaning great, learned,
    wise. Others magi, magic, magician from this
    Sanskrit word. Ancient priests, magis (Greats)
    used magnesian stones in curing people.
  • Silica affects the tissues, bones and nerves.
  • Alkaline so the brain and nervous system are
    influenced making pulse more rhythmic.
  • Antiseptic protection.

Other important and interesting silicon facts
  • Flesh is firmer.
  • Hair becomes shiny and abundant.
  • A person with good quantities of silicon is
    agile, lean, nimble, very active.
  • (Lack of) abscesses, brooding and hopelessness,
    broods over ethics and principles which are
    trivial to others, becomes agitated,
    argumentative and ungratified, sense of
    perception is chaotic, feelings are
    hypersensitive, drowsy from riding in
    automobiles, buzzing in the ears, eyesight
  • (Excess) inflexibility.

Other important and interesting silicon facts
  • Nations known for low cancer rates have a diet
    high in silicon and formic acid.
  • Good for bruises, catarrh, tuberculosis and
  • Autointoxication is prevented or reduced by
  • Nicotine and drug habits are easier to overcome
    with silicon.
  • Menstrual, ovarian and hysterical complications
    need silicon.
  • Varicosities are reduced.

Sodium The Youth Element
  • Sodium Na (0.15) is another electrolyte that is
    vital for electrical signaling in nerves. It also
    regulates the amount of water in the body.
  • Sodium is alkaline and is found in most waters
    and soils. Sodium acts on body fluids, organs,
    connective tissue, liver, pancreas and spleen.
    Provides alkalinity to the lymph and blood.
  • Sodium excess types are always in a rush and have
    a tendency toward the extreme. Sodium deficiency
    types may have dry skin, flaccid muscles,
    offensive breath, cracking joints, difficulty
    digesting sweets, starches and fats, and bloating
    and fatigue.
  • Foods high in sodium veal joint broth, goat
    milk, sea vegetation, black mission figs, dried
    apricots, celery, parsley and collard greens.

Other important and interesting sodium facts
  • One gallon of ocean water contains approximately
    4 oz. sea salt (rich in sodium).
  • Humidity in air attracts sodium.
  • Inorganic sodium (iodized salt) is not compatible
    with the body.
  • The sun a sodium star as viewed by Bernard
    Jensen, ensures a high sodium content in mature
  • Organic sodium keeps calcium in solution in the
    human body.
  • Said to neutralize ulcers.

Sulphur The Heater
  • Sulfur (0.25) is found in two amino acids that
    are important for giving proteins their shape.
  • Sulphur is the skins heating element and unites
    with all metals. Its primary function is building
    the skin, nail and hair. It also drives
    impurities to the surface, thus beautifying the
    complexion. Sulphur stimulates and regulates
    nerve activity, egg and sperm production,
    regulates brain heat and promotes flow of bile.
  • Symptoms of Sulphur deficiency are acne,
    imbalance in sebum flow and weakened hair and
  • Foods rich in Sulphur are winter vegetables such
    as kale, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower,
    horseradish, watercress, chervil and garlic.

Zinc- The Protector
  • Zinc (0.0032) is an essential trace element for
    all forms of life. Several proteins contain
    structures called "zinc fingers" help to regulate
    genes. Zinc deficiency has been known to lead to
    dwarfism in developing countries.

Chemical Bonding
  • Chemical bonds from to make atoms more stable
  • Outermost energy level of each atom is full
  • Atoms may share, or donate, or borrow them to
    become stable.

  • Ions form when an atom gains or loses electrons
    in its outer energy level to become stable.
  • Positive ion- has lost electrons indicated by
    superscript positive sign(s), as in Na, or Ca
  • Negative ion- has gained electrons indicated by
    superscript negative sign(s), as in Cl-

  • Ionic bonds form when positive and negative ions
    attract each other because of electrical
  • Electrolytes are molecules that dissociate (break
    apart) in water to form individual ions, also
    known as free ions

  • Covalent bonds form when atoms share their outer
    energy to fill up and thus become stable
  • Covalent bonds do not ordinarily easily
    dissociate in water.

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  1. Carbohydrates- energy source, energy reserve, and
  2. Lipids- fats- structure and energy source
  3. Proteins- functional and structural
  4. Nucleotides- structural genetic
  5. Water- solvent, heat maintenance

  • Inorganic molecules do not contain carbon-carbon
    covalent bonds or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds.
  • For example
  • Water
  • Some acids
  • Some bases
  • Some salts

  • Dehydration synthesis- chemical reaction in which
    water is removed from small molecules so they can
    be strung together to form a larger molecule

  • Hydrolysis- chemical reaction in which water is
    added to the subunits of a large molecule to
    break it apart into smaller molecules

  • Chemical reactions always involve energy
    transfers, as when energy is used to built ATP
  • Chemical equations show how reactants interact to
    form products arrows separated the reactants
    from the products

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  • Water molecules dissociate to form equal amounts
    of H (hydrogen ion) and OH- (hydroxide ion)
  • Acid- substance that shifts the H/OH- balance in
    favor of the H opposite of the base
  • Base-substance that shifts the H/OH- balance
    against H, also known as an alkaline opposite
    of acid

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  • pH- mathematical expression of the relative H
    concentration in an aqueous solution

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  • Neutralization occurs when acids and bases mix
    and form salts
  • Buffers are chemical systems that absorb excess
    acids or bases and thus maintain a relatively
    stable pH

Organic Chemistry
  • Organic molecules contain carbon-carbon covalent
    bonds or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds

  • Contain carbon(C), hydrogen(H), and oxygen(O).
  • Made up of six-carbon subunits called
    monosaccharides or single sugars (such as
  • Disaccharide- double sugar made of two
    monosaccharide units (sucrose, lactose)

  • Polysaccharide- complex charbohydrate made up of
    many monosaccharide units (glycogen)
  • The function of carbohydrates is to store energy
    for later use

  • Lipids are fats and oils
  • Triglycerides
  • Are made up of one glycerol unit and three fatty
  • Store energy for later use

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  • Phospholipids
  • Are similar to triglyceride structure, expect
    with only two fatty acids, and with a
    phosphorus-containing group attached to glycerol
  • The head attracts water and the double tail does
    not, forming a sable double layer in water.
  • Form membranes of cells

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  • Cholesterol
  • Molecules have a steroid structure made up of
    multiple rings
  • Cholesterol stabilizes the phospholipid tails in
    cellular membranes and is also converted into
    steroid hormones by the body

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  • Proteins are very large molecules made up of
    amino acids held together in long, folded chains
    by peptide bonds
  • Structural proteins
  • Form structures of the body
  • Collagen in a fibrous protein that holds many
    tissues together
  • Keratin forms touch, waterproof fibers in the
    outer layer of skin

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  • Functional proteins
  • Participate in chemical processes (examples
    hormones, cell membrane channels, receptors, and
  • Enzymes are
  • Catalyst which help chemical reactions occur
  • Lock-and-key model-each enzyme fits a particular
    molecule that it acts on as a key fitting into a

  • Proteins can combine with other organic molecules
    to form glycoprotein or lipoproteins

Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic acids are made of nucleotide units
  • Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
  • Phosphate- nitrogen base (adenine, thymine, or
    uracil, guanine, cytosine)

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid is used as the cells
    master code for assembling proteins
  • Uses deoxyribose as the sugar and A,T,(not U), C,
    and G as bases
  • Forms a double helix

  • Ribonucleic acid is used as the temporary
    working copy of a gene
  • Uses ribose as the sugar and A, U, (not T), C,
    and G as bases

Nucleic Acids
  • By directing the formation of structural and
    functional proteins, nucleic acids ultimately
    direct overall body structure and function
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